Midlife Crisis In Women Pp


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Midlife Crisis In Women Pp

  2. 2. Biological factors <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Some identified biological factors in this particular population are menopause, hormone deficiency, emotional instability, breast cancer and depression (McQuaide, 1998). Subsequently all of the above are intertwined. Menopause seems to be a direct link to the hormone deficiency, emotional instability, breast cancer and depression. Although this is not true of all women in this middle age status, it is very common with in a significant amount of women. Menopause is the most observed biological factor because of the divide between how the medical profession views it as a biological change for the woman versus how the some women view it as a natural transition that does not necessarily has to be treated medically (Kaufert, Bogg, Ettinger, Woods, & Utian, 1998). In addition, menopause contributes to depression in many women. Lower levels of estrogen linked to higher risk of osteoporosis and heart disease. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ethnic Variations in Health <ul><li>African-Americans in the U.S. have twice the death rate of Caucasians. </li></ul><ul><li>Related to SES (socioeconomic status): When death rates are compared for Whites and African-Americans of the same SES, African-Americans' death rate drops below Whites'. </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer people are more apt to experience a disabling illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer people tend to work in more dangerous occupations & are more likely to become disabled. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gender Differences in Health <ul><li>During middle age, women experience more non-life threatening illnesses than men but men experience more serious illnesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Women smoke less. </li></ul><ul><li>Women drink less alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Women have less dangerous jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Medical research has typically studied diseases of men with all male samples; the medical community is only now beginning to study women's health issues. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stress and Health <ul><li>Stress prompts physiological reactions which weaken the immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Increases vulnerability to illness </li></ul><ul><li>Stress causes blockage of the arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle factors affect stress levels </li></ul><ul><li>Regular exercise, good nutrition, adequate sleep, frequent socializing, no smoking, little alcohol associated with less stress </li></ul><ul><li>Personal mastery and control minimizes stress </li></ul><ul><li>Women are more prone to declining height due to OSTEOPOROSIS, a condition in which the bones become brittle, fragile, and thin. </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing undergoes a gradual decline beginning in middle adulthood. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese & Chinese women: fewer symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African American women: more hot flashes & night sweats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanic women: higher level of heart pounding & vaginal dryness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>~ Reasons unclear: systematic physical differences in hormone production levels suspected </li></ul>
  6. 6. Psychological factors <ul><li> It was thought that about 10 % of women had psychological problems associated with menopause. </li></ul><ul><li>depression </li></ul><ul><li>anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>crying spells </li></ul><ul><li>lack of concentration </li></ul><ul><li>irritability </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood Intelligence <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Postformal Thought </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive development is multidirectional </li></ul><ul><li>Gains in some areas, losses in others </li></ul><ul><li>Cross sectional measures of intelligence show decreases with age </li></ul><ul><li>May be cohort effect of better/more schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal measures show increase, at least until fifties </li></ul><ul><li>May be inflated due to practice effects and attrition </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven performance due to influences of neurological aspects, which decline with age and cultural aspects which improve with age </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence peaks during early adulthood and then declines </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood Intelligence <ul><li>Ability to apply mental powers to new problems </li></ul><ul><li>Perceiving relationships, forming concepts, drawing inferences </li></ul><ul><li>Decline probably due to changes in brain </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence improves through middle age and on </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to remember and use information acquired over a lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on education and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Uses stored information and automatic processing </li></ul><ul><li>IQ tests may lack ecological validity </li></ul><ul><li>Rely on timed, physical responses </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction time slows with age </li></ul><ul><li>Results may be due to physical, not cognitive changes </li></ul><ul><li>Adults face real-life problems </li></ul><ul><li>Need measures of practical problem solving </li></ul>
  9. 9. Post Formal Thought <ul><li>Goes beyond abstract, formal thought </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on subjective feelings and intuition as well as logic </li></ul><ul><li>Relativistic </li></ul><ul><li>Sees shades of gray, interprets meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates opposing views </li></ul><ul><li>Able to reconcile/choose among conflicting views </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis, antithesis, synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Middle age is when most people either become more spiritual or return to their religious beliefs. </li></ul>