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2011 ch 4


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This chapter focuses on how the senses work and how our perceptions are organized. The Gestalt principles of perceptual organization is discussed.

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
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2011 ch 4

  1. 2. Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception
  2. 3. Sensory Systems: The First Step <ul><li>How Do Sensory Systems Function? </li></ul><ul><li>Primary function of the senses is to act as biological transducers </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Transduction </li></ul>
  3. 4. Vision <ul><li>Visible Spectrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the electromagnetic spectrum to which the eyes respond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brightness </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Structure of the Eye
  5. 6. Vision: Rods and Cones <ul><li>Two types of photoreceptors located in retina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cones: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have 6.5 million </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual receptors for bright light (daylight) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Color vision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rods: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have 100 million </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual receptors for dim light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black and white </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Vision: Color <ul><li>Trichromatic Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color vision theory that states we have three cone types: red, green, blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other colors produced by a combination of these </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black and white produced by rods </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Vision: Color <ul><li>Opponent Process Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Color vision theory based on three opponent “systems”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red/green; Blue/yellow; black/white </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exciting one color in a pair (red) blocks the excitation in the other member of the pair (green) </li></ul><ul><li>Afterimage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual sensation that remains after stimulus is removed </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Hearing: Structure of the Ear <ul><li>Outer and Middle Ear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinna: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visible, external part of the ear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tympanic Membrane: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eardrum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory Ossicles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three small bones that vibrate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>link eardrum with the cochlea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malleus (hammer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incus (anvil) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stapes (stirrup) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Hearing: Structure of the Ear <ul><li>Inner Ear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cochlea: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Snail-shaped </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organ of hearing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair Cells: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptor cells within cochlea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transduce vibrations into nerve impulses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once dead they are never replaced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ of Corti: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Center part of the cochlea containing hair cells, canals, and membranes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Hearing <ul><li>Sound Waves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhythmic movement of air molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarefaction and compression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amplitude </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Hearing: Detecting Higher and Lower Sounds <ul><li>Frequency Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As pitch rises, nerve impulses of the same frequency flow into the auditory nerve: also known as the “piano theory” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher and lower tones excite specific areas of the cochlea: also known as the “microphone theory” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Hearing Loss <ul><li>Conduction Hearing Loss </li></ul><ul><li>Poor transfer of sounds from tympanic membrane to the inner ear </li></ul><ul><li>Compensate with hearing aid </li></ul><ul><li>Sensorineural Hearing Loss </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by damage to inner ear hair cells or auditory nerve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing aids useless; auditory messages cannot reach brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cochlear Implant: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic device that stimulates auditory nerves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulation Deafness </li></ul><ul><li>Damage caused by exposing hair cells to excessively loud sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typical at rock concerts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By age 65, 40% of hair cells are gone </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. The Sense of Smell <ul><li>Olfaction </li></ul><ul><li>A chemical sense </li></ul><ul><li>The Route </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve Endings to The Neurons to The Olfactory Bulb to The Limbic System </li></ul><ul><li>The Lock & Key Theory </li></ul><ul><li>5 Odors Identified </li></ul><ul><li>Floral, Camphoric, Musky, Minty, & Etherish </li></ul>
  14. 15. Taste <ul><li>Gustation </li></ul><ul><li>A Chemical Sense </li></ul><ul><li>The Route </li></ul><ul><li>The Tongue to The Papillae to The Taste Buds to The Brain </li></ul><ul><li>5 Tastes Identified </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter, & Umami </li></ul>
  15. 16. Grace and Balance <ul><li>The Kinesthetic Sense </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps us informed about movement of body parts & their position in relation to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle Movement, Posture, & Joints </li></ul><ul><li>Information comes from stretch receptors, the tendons, & the internal organs. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Balance & Equilibrium <ul><li>Vestibular Sense </li></ul><ul><li>The Vestibular Sense keeps us informed about balance & the position of our body in space. </li></ul><ul><li>Hair cells in the inner ear bend in relation to the position & movement of the head giving information that the brain uses to help us maintain our balance and to sense changes in our movement through space. </li></ul>
  17. 18. The Tactile Senses <ul><li>Touch </li></ul><ul><li>Skin receptors that make us aware of how & where we’re being touched. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors beneath the skin that make us aware of deeper touch. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors are found just beneath the skin to give the sensation of hot, cold, and warm. </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Tactile Senses <ul><li>P a i n </li></ul><ul><li>Pain is adaptive & lets us know there’s something wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Pain receptors are located not just in the skin, but also in other parts of the body: muscles, joints, ligaments, teeth, & the internal organs. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Kinds of Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Dull (slow) pain </li></ul><ul><li>Long axons </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp (fast) pain </li></ul><ul><li>Short axons </li></ul><ul><li>The Gate Control Theory of Pain </li></ul><ul><li>There is a “neurological gate” in the spinal cord controlling the transmission of pain messages to the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Dull, throbbing pain is conducted through the gate by thinner & slower nerve fibers that carry signals for touch & temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Faster, thicker nerve fibers cause a bottleneck at the gate, blocking the passage of other messages. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Perceiving Reality <ul><li>Apparent Motion </li></ul><ul><li>The Autokinetic Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent motion of a single light in total darkness. </li></ul><ul><li>The Phi Phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>A series of blinking lights. </li></ul><ul><li>The Stroboscopic Effect </li></ul><ul><li>The “jerky” effect of a strobe light blinking in total darkness with movement. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Perceptual Organizational Principles <ul><li>Figure – Ground </li></ul><ul><li>The simplest type of organizational principle </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible Figure-Ground </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear Figure-Ground </li></ul><ul><li>Illusory Figure-Ground </li></ul>
  21. 22. Filling in the Gaps <ul><li>Closure </li></ul><ul><li>The tendency to perceive an object or shape even when the form isn’t complete. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Perceiving Depth & Distance <ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Similar objects are perceived as being together. </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Stimuli close together are perceived as being together. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Perceiving Depth & Distance <ul><li>Interposition </li></ul><ul><li>Something is placed between the eye and the object. </li></ul><ul><li>Texture Gradient </li></ul><ul><li>Textured objects further away look smooth. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Perceiving Depth & Distance <ul><li>Linear Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence of lines or the vanishing point in art. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerial Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Close objects appear clearer than those farther away. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Perceiving Depth & Distance <ul><li>Motion Paralax </li></ul><ul><li>Closer objects seem to move faster than those farther away when in motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Light and Shadow </li></ul><ul><li>Gives objects the appearance of three dimensions. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Perceiving Depth & Distance <ul><li>Relative Size </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller the image of an object is on the retina, the farther away it seems. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Height </li></ul><ul><li>Objects higher in the visual field are perceived as farther away. </li></ul>
  27. 28. The Optic Chiasm <ul><li>Point in the temporal area of the brain where the optic nerve crosses over from left to right. </li></ul><ul><li>This is where stereo vision is created. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Stereoscopic Vision <ul><li>Seeing the world in Three-Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Binocular cues: </li></ul><ul><li>Retinal Disparity </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between the two eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence </li></ul><ul><li>The eyes focusing close up </li></ul><ul><li>Stereoscopic Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing depth naturally </li></ul>
  29. 30. Perceptual Constancies <ul><li>Size Constancy </li></ul><ul><li>Objects continue to remain the same size no matter how distant. </li></ul><ul><li>Shape Constancy </li></ul><ul><li>Objects remain the same shape even if the image on the retina shows a different shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Color Constancy </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by lighting (artificial, colored, or natural). </li></ul>
  30. 31. Visual Illusions
  31. 32. More Illusions
  32. 33. More Illusions
  33. 34. Subliminal Perception <ul><li>Stimulation below the threshold of conscious awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no evidence to support subliminal perception occurring. </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Masking </li></ul><ul><li>There is no evidence to support reverse masking causes subliminal or any other stimulation. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Subliminal Ads
  35. 36. More Subliminals