Berger Ls 7e Ch 15


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Chapter 15

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Berger Ls 7e Ch 15

  1. 1. Part V Adolescence: Cognitive Development Chapter Fifteen Adolescent Thinking Teaching and Learning
  2. 2. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>…adolescence combines ego, logic, and emotions… ego overwhelms logic; sometimes emotions overrides both… </li></ul>
  3. 3. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Adolescent Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brain maturation, intense conversation, additional years of schooling, moral challenges, and increased independence occurs between 11 and 18 years of age </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Egocentrism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adolescent egocentrism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a characteristic of adolescent thinking that leads young people (ages 10-13) to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a young person might believe that his or her thoughts, feelings, and experiences are unique, more wonderful or awful than anyone else’s. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>The Invincibility Fable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an adolescent’s egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unprotected sex, drugs, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or high speed driving </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Imaginary Audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the other people who, in an adolescent’s egocentric belief, are watching, and taking note of, his or her appearance, ideas, and behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this belief makes many teenagers very self-conscious </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Egocentrism Reassessed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recent waves of research has found that many adolescents do not feel invincible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>egocentrism “may signal growth towards cognitive maturity” (Vartanian, 2001) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Formal Operational Though </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piaget’s theory, the fourth and final stage of cognitive development, characterized by more systematic logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Piaget’s Experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… showed that, in contrast to concrete operational children, formal operational adolescents imagine all possible determinants, and systematically: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>varied the factors one by one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>observed the results correctly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>kept track of the results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>drew the appropriate conclusions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Piaget’s Experiments </li></ul>
  11. 11. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Hypothetical-Deductive Though </li></ul><ul><ul><li>…formal operational thought is the capacity to think of possibility, not just reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hypothetical though </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reasoning that includes propositions possibilities that may not reflect reality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Abstract Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deductive reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out (deduce) specifics—top-down thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inductive reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reasoning from one or more specific experience or facts to a general conclusion, may be less cognitively advanced than deduction—bottom-up reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Intuitive, Emotional Thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>…because adolescents can use hypothetical-deductive reasoning does not mean that they use it… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>…adolescents find it easier and quicker to forget about logic and follow impulse </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Two Modes of Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dual-process model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotions and one for analytical processing of stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><ul><li>intuitive thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thought that arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation—past experiences, cultural assumptions, and sudden impulses are the precursors of intuitive thought—contextualized or experiential thought </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analytic thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thought that results from analysis, such as a systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequences, possibilities and facts… analytic thought depends on logic and rationality </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Comparing Intuition and Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sunk cost fallacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the belief that if time or money has already been invested in something, then more time or money should be invested </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>because of this fallacy, people spend money trying to fix a “lemon” of a car or sending more troops to win a losing war </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Adolescence: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Better Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adolescents use their minds with more economy than children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with age thinking is more efficient and less likely to go off on a tangent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analytic mode joins the intuitive mode </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>“ Given the nature of the adolescent mind, we are left with the question to ponder: What and how should teenagers be taught?” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Teaching and Learning <ul><ul><li>secondary education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the period after primary education and before tertiary education….it usually occurs from about age 12 to18, although there is some variation by school and by nation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>traditionally grades 7th through 12th </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Teaching and Learning <ul><ul><li>separate schools have been created for children who have outgrown primary school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>once called high school, with younger students put in separate schools called junior high (7th,8th,9th grades) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Teaching and Learning <ul><ul><li>middle school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a school for the grades between elementary and high school...middle school can begin with 5 th grade or and usually ends with 8 th grade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with puberty occurring earlier than in years past…often at age 11… many intermediate middle schools have been established to educate 6th graders with 7th and 8th graders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9th graders have been reassigned to high schools </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Teaching and Learning <ul><ul><li>middle school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>academic achievement often slows down and behavioral problems become more commonplace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the first year of middle school is called the “low ebb” of learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>many teachers feel ineffective </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>long term academic trajectories are strongly influenced by experienced in grades 6 th -8 th </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Teaching and Learning <ul><ul><li>middle school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>middle school scheduling means teachers have many students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bonding between students and teachers is key to learning…yet, doesn’t always occur do to scheduling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>students’ relationships with one another deteriorate... due to the numbers of people they come in contact with in schools </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Teaching and Learning <ul><ul><li>middle school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>answers are not clear… adolescent egocentrism is particularly strong in early adolescence and the intuitive thought generally overwhelms logic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>research finds that egocentrism, intuitive thought, and logic coexist in every classroom </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Technology and Cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is no longer limited only to developed nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teenagers worldwide use the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adults hope that computers will be a boon to learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some fear that technology will undercut respect for adults and schools </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Technology and Cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… it is easy to see egocentrism and intuitive thought in adolescent use of technology… it is easy to see the educational possibilities… however, it is not obvious how adults can guide teenagers through the current maze of technology. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Transitions and Translations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students find that changes, even positive ones, are disruptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transitions from one school to another are difficult, decreasing a person’s ability to function and learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changing schools just when the growth spurt and sexual characteristics develop is bound to create stress </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Transitions and Translations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hormones, body shape, sexual impulses, family and culture contribute to disorders in transition </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Teaching and Learning in High School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adolescents think abstractly, analytically, hypothetically, logically… personally, emotionally, intuitively and experientially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by high school, the curriculum and teaching style is often analytic and abstract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adolescents can use logic to override the “biases that not only preserve existing beliefs but also perpetuate stereotypes and inhibit development.” </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Focus on the Brightest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an evaluation that is critical in determining success or failure… if a single test determines whether a student will graduate or be promoted, that is a high-stakes test </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Focus on the Dropouts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not every student who begins secondary school stays until finished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developed nations typically require students to stay in school between 14 and 18, with age 16 being the average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the U.S. and Canada 90% are high school graduates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most dropouts leave at the age of 17 </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Student Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students who are capable of passing classes are as likely to drop out as those with learning disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>persistence, diligence, and motivation play more crucial roles than intellectual ability when it comes to earning a high school diploma </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Student Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many students express boredom and unhappiness with school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>honor students and delinquents have “high rates of boredom, alienation, and disconnection from the meaningful challenge” of school </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Student Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students are often disengaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>usual because formal operational thought is promoted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>egocentric and intuitive thought, are more rational and social, and are usually excluded </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Student Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students are often disengaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>teachers are hired for their expertise in one or more academic fields, rather than their ability to relate to adolescents </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Student Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>possible improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>keep high schools small </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>200 to 400 students </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>encourage extracurricular activities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>School violence </li></ul><ul><li>“ The same practices that foster </li></ul><ul><li> motivation and education can also </li></ul><ul><li> prevent violence.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students are less likely to be destructive or afraid if … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they are engaged in learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bond with teachers and fellow students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are involved in school activities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>School violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>studies also show that metal detectors, and strict punishment, are more likely to increase violence than decrease violence </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>School violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primary prevention to improve school climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increase friendships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strengthen teacher-student relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>promote student involvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>programs that teach conflict resolution have also had some success </li></ul></ul>