Lifespan Chapter 12 Online Stud


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Lifespan Chapter 12 Online Stud

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Social and Personality Development in Early Adulthood
  2. 2. Childhood Temperament and Adult Py (attachment and relationships later) <ul><li>Easy and difficult temperaments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>children with easy temperament at age 3 - 5 are more likely to be well-adjusted as young adults and vice versa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inhibition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals who had an inhibited temperament in childhood are less likely than other adults to be assertive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3-year-old children who showed good control of their emotions were more resilient to stress and were more likely to continue to handle emotions effectively as adults </li></ul><ul><li>3-year-olds who had low emotional control and were not very resilient were likely to show problems in the same areas as young adults </li></ul>
  3. 3. A. Erikson and Young Adulthood <ul><li>Intimacy vs. Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Post adolescence into early 30s. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties at this stage = lonely and fearful of relationships (= failure of identity stage?) </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Intimacy?
  5. 5. Intimacy and attachment <ul><li>Bowlby and others suggest that attachment in childhood is related to socioemotional development in adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., securely attached infants may later count on their adult romantic partners to be a secure base for comfort and security when stressed, just like infants. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Intimacy and Love during Early Adulthood B. Happiness <ul><li>What makes people happy? </li></ul><ul><li>Should happiness be a goal? </li></ul>
  7. 7. D. Friendship <ul><li>Fill a basic need for belongingness </li></ul><ul><li>How do people become your friends (non-personal qualities)? </li></ul><ul><li>What personal qualities do you look for in a friend? </li></ul><ul><li>Gender diffs in friendships? </li></ul>
  8. 9. Friendship and race: Depends on how you phrase the question
  9. 10. E. Falling in Love <ul><li>STIMULUS-VALUE-ROLE (SVR) THEORY (Murstein): relationships proceed in a fixed order of three stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role stage </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Falling in Love <ul><li>How do you know if you are in love? </li></ul>
  11. 12. Falling in Love Men
  12. 13. F. Passionate and Companionate Love (two factor theory) <ul><li>PASSIONATE (ROMANTIC LOVE) –powerful absorption. With maturity & time turns to: </li></ul><ul><li>Companionate/Affectionate Love – Wanting physical closeness + deep caring affection </li></ul><ul><li>LABELING THEORY OF PASSIONATE LOVE (Hatfield & Berscheid) –Intense physiological arousal + situational cues indicate that “love” is appropriate label for what is experienced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological arousal may be sexual arousal and excitement or negative emotion like jealousy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., “makes my heart flutter” or “(s)he turns me on.” </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. G. Sternberg’s Triangular Theory: (Three factor theory) <ul><li>Robert Sternberg says that love is made up of three components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings of closeness, affection, connection. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision/Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts of love and determination to maintain that love. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Love takes shape The 3 aspects of love–intimacy, passion, decision/commitment–vary in strength over the course of a relationship. (Sternberg, 1986)
  15. 16. Love takes shape
  16. 17. H. Seeking a Spouse: Is Love Most Important? What do you look for? <ul><li>What else matters? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chastity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attractiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>others too [next] </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Seeking a Spouse: Is Love Most Important?
  18. 19. Marriage Outside of Racial/Ethnic Group Homogamy has been the standard for most marriages in the U.S.. but the rate of marriages crossing ethnic/racial lines has been increasing. Why do you think this is?
  19. 20. II. The Course of Relationships <ul><li>COHABITATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to be younger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whiter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher divorce rates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with assets! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People are marrying older in US: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Median age for men first marriage – 27. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median age for women first marriage – 25. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divorce rates increasing around the world (U.S. not so much since the 1990s) </li></ul>
  20. 22. What Makes Marriage Work?
  21. 23. Perceptions of Marital Quality Partners start out seeing their marriage in an idealized manner. But as time passes, the perception of the marriage often declines. <ul><li>I haven ’ t spoken to my wife in years. I didn ’ t want to interrupt her. </li></ul><ul><li>My wife and I were happy for twenty years , then we met. </li></ul><ul><li>My wife made me join a bridge club. I jump off next Tuesday. </li></ul><ul><li>My wife only has sex with me for a purpose. Last night she used me to time an egg. </li></ul><ul><li>During sex my wife always wants to talk to me. Just the other night she called me from a hotel. </li></ul>Rodney Dangerfield
  22. 24. <ul><li>Gay and lesbian relationships are similar to heterosexual relationships in satisfaction, joy, and conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Most do NOT fit the stereotype of one masculine/one feminine partner </li></ul>Gay Male and Lesbian Adults
  23. 25. Divorce <ul><li>Increases in divorce are correlated with [and next]: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>youthful marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low educational level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not having a religious affiliation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>divorced parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>having a baby before marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both divorced women and men complain of loneliness, diminished self-esteem, anxiety about the unknowns in their lives, and difficulty in forming satisfactory new intimate relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Rate has been dropping since the 1990s </li></ul>
  24. 26. Divorce
  25. 27. Divorce <ul><li>Hetherington: children coping “reasonably well” </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast with Judith Wallerstein </li></ul><ul><li>Hetherington: men and women took six common pathways in exiting divorce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the enhancers – chance to grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the good-enoughs – Lives are similare to pre-divorece; focus on making good decisions. ~40% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the seekers – focus on future; set goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the libertines – life in the fast lane, no rules, sex! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the competent loners – have everything they need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the defeated </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Parenthood: Should you have children? <ul><li>A middle-class family with two children will spend about $284,460/$355,906 (2004, USDA/2008 BabyCenter and others) for each child before the child reaches the age of 18. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( – 650K includes public university @ 45K/yr) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>MYTH
  27. 29. Dual-Earner Couples <ul><li>~ ¾ of married women with school-aged children work outside the home. </li></ul><ul><li>> 50% of mothers of 1-year-olds work outside the home. </li></ul><ul><li>Most families > both partners work, but wife generally spends more time taking care of the children. </li></ul><ul><li>Husbands do outside chores mostly, and women do the housework, child care, meal preparation. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Why Do You Work? <ul><li>Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION (contributes to status too) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INTRINSIC MOTIVATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A sense of personal identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Central to social life. </li></ul>III. Work and Identity
  29. 31. Picking an Occupation (continued) <ul><li>Holland’s Personality Type Theory holds that certain personality types match certain careers. Six types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Gender and Career Choices: Women’s Work MYTH