Chap15 16


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Chap15 16

  1. 1. Chapter 15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood
  2. 2. Noticeable Visible Changes <ul><li>See first outwardly visible signs of aging (40s or 50s) </li></ul><ul><li>Fine lines and wrinkles (loss of collagen and fat under skin) </li></ul><ul><li>Age spots </li></ul><ul><li>Hair becomes thinner and grayer. </li></ul><ul><li>Fingernails and toenails </li></ul>
  3. 3. Height, Weight and Strength: The Benchmarks of Change <ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Max during the 20’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains stable till about 55 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Height decrease and many gain weight </li></ul><ul><li>Body fat increases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of body weight in adolescence, about 20% or more in middle age. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individuals 30% or more overweight, increase probability of dying by about 40%. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Strength, Joints, and Bones <ul><li>Muscle strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noticeable decrease by mid 40s (back & legs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bone Density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces with age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men loose about 1 inch in height </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women loose about 2 inches in height </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>OSTEOPOROSIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones become brittle, fragile, and thin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by lack of calcium in the body, and lack of exercise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the late 30s there is progressive bone loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women experience about twice the rate of bone loss as men. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bones break more easily and heal more slowly. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Vision <ul><li>Vision (starting at age 40) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual acuity - the ability to discern fine spatial detail in both close and distant objects - begins to decline. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change shape and elasticity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>become less transparent, which reduces the amount of light entering. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PRESBYOPIA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearly universal; loss of “near vision” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Hearing <ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Begins gradual decline in middle adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>PRESBYCUSIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primary loss is for sounds of high frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 12 % between 45 and 65 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men are more prone to hearing loss than women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other aging is caused by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of hair cells in the inner ear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ear drum becomes less elastic with age </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Liters of blood pumped per minute decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary arteries narrow </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol level increases with age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>begins to accumulate on the artery walls by age 60 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artery walls thicken </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure increases </li></ul><ul><li>Results in higher risk of stroke or heart attack </li></ul>
  8. 8. Health and Disease <ul><li>Number of accidents decline </li></ul><ul><li>Less susceptible to colds and allergies </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic disorders increase in middle adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences in chronic disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men have a higher incidence of fatal chronic conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women have a higher incidence of nonfatal ones. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Climateric <ul><li>Changes in Sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>typically need more time to get an erection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>volume of fluid in ejaculation declines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>production of Testosterone (Male sex hormone) also declines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walls of the vagina become less elastic and thinner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vagina shrinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>potentially making intercourse painful for some women. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Menopause <ul><li>Begins late 40’s or early 50s </li></ul><ul><li>Cessation of menstruation </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic decline in estrogen produced </li></ul><ul><li>Causes symptoms such as “hot flashes,” nausea, fatigue, and rapid heartbeat </li></ul><ul><li>Some report depression and irritability </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hormonal Changes in Middle-Aged Men <ul><li>Hormonal changes, but nothing like the dramatic drop in estrogen that women experience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone production declines 1% a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm count has slow decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men do not lose their fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drop in testosterone levels results in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual drive often lessens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erections are less full, less frequent, and require more stimulation to achieve them. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Sexual Attitudes and Behavior <ul><li>Sexuality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not fade away for most middle age adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of sexual intercourse may decrease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For most, sexual activities remain a vital part of lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributions to sexual freedom: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No kids at home </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menopause eliminates need for birth control </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Intelligence <ul><li>Fluid intelligence: ability to deal with new problems and situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) inductive reasoning, spatial orientation, perceptual speed, and verbal memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>begins to decline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence: information, skills, and strategies that people have acquired through education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>continues to increase </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Speed of Information Processing <ul><li>Perceptual speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline begins in early adulthood, continues in middle adulthood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment through reaction-time tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) Push button at the sight of a light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-aged adults are slower than young adults </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not dramatic decline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More of a decline for women than for men. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Memory <ul><li>Verbal memory peaks in 50s. </li></ul><ul><li>Some studies show a decline (cross-sectional) </li></ul><ul><li>Effective memory strategies, such as organization and imagery decrease the decline </li></ul><ul><li>Actually, using such strategies may improve memory </li></ul>
  16. 16. Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Increases steadily throughout the work life, from age 20 to 60. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For college-educated and non-college-educated adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For women and men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater commitment to and involvement in our work as we get older. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you can work when how much you want as opposed to what they have to, they are happiest </li></ul>
  17. 17. Leisure <ul><li>More ime when you are free to pursue activities and interests of their own choosing—hobbies, sports, reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Link between type A behavior and heart disease/longevity </li></ul>
  18. 18. Chapter 16 Socioemotional Development in Middle Adulthood
  19. 19. Generativity vs. Stagnation <ul><li>Generativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adults’ desire to leave a legacy to the next generation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immortality through a legacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieved through parenting, teaching, leading, doing things to benefit the community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stagnation or self-absorption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>develops when individuals sense that they have done nothing for the next generation </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Affectionate Love <ul><li>Affectionate or companionate love increases during middle adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Security, loyalty, and mutual emotional interest become key. </li></ul><ul><li>A relationship is believed to mature when partners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>share knowledge with one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assume responsibility for each other’s satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>share private information that governs their relationship </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Marriage and Divorce <ul><li>For married individuals in midlife, most voiced considerable satisfaction with being married. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>72% of married midlife individuals reported that their marriage was either “excellent” or “very good.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Getting married in midlife: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lowered men’s anxiety, depression, and feelings of vulnerability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women felt more positive emotions than they had previously. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Couples who divorce in midlife tend to be cool, distant, and have suppressed emotions. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Consequences of Divorce in Midlife <ul><li>Many perceive divorce in midlife as failing in the best years of their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce in Midlife: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men became more depressed and had lower achievement goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women who divorced in middle age showed a surge in positive emotions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The perils of divorce in midlife may be fewer and less intense than for younger individuals. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Empty Nest and Its Refilling <ul><li>Empty Nest Syndrome characterized by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease in marital satisfaction due to the children’s departure which leaves parents with an empty feeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>True for parents who live vicariously through their children </li></ul><ul><li>Most parents do not experience less marital satisfaction, in fact for many it increases after their children have left home. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Coming Home <ul><li>More adult children are returning to live at home after an unsuccessful career or divorce. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>42% of middle-aged parents had serious conflicts with their resident adult children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common complaints is a loss of privacy (both parents and children) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creates a disequilibrium, requiring considerable adaptation on both parties’ parts. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Parenting Conceptions <ul><li>Middle-aged parents notice as children became adults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they gained a new sense of appreciation for their commitment and influence as parents. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many parents of adult children regret not having had more involvement and better relationships with their children. </li></ul><ul><li>Children in middle adulthood restructure perceptions of parents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>viewing them more as unique individuals. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Siblings and Friends <ul><li>The majority tend to be close to siblings </li></ul><ul><li>This pattern has continued from childhood </li></ul><ul><li>It is rare for sibling closeness to develop for the first time in adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Friendships continue to be as important in midlife as they were in early adulthood. </li></ul>