Chapter 7: Memory
What is Memory? <ul><li>The outcome of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, ...
Stages of Memory <ul><li>Memory systems act like a computer with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Information Processing Approach Sensory Storage Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory
Stages of Memory <ul><li>Sensory Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first stage of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores ...
Stages of Memory <ul><li>Short-Term Memory (STM)   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives portion of information from sensory memo...
Stages of Memory <ul><li>Short-Term Memory (STM)   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ano...
Short-Term Memory <ul><li>Digit Span   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test of attention and short-term memory </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Short-Term Memory <ul><li>Chunking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of grouping bits of information into larger units  </li><...
Short-Term Memory <ul><li>Rehearsal Styles:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance Rehearsal   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
Stages of Memory <ul><li>Long-Term Memory (LTM)   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storing information relatively permanently  </li><...
Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Permanence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some studies suggest memories are permanent </li></ul></ul><ul><...
LTM: Constructing Memories <ul><li>As new LTM memories are formed, old memories are updated, changed, lost, or revised. </...
Memory and the Brain <ul><li>Long-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning alters the activity, structure, and chemistry...
LTM: Organizing Memories <ul><li>Network Model:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory model that views it as an organizational sys...
Types of Long-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Explicit (Declarative) Memory Implicit (Non-Declarative) Memory Episodic Memory...
Summary of Forgetfulness <ul><li>Concept  Description  Example </li></ul><ul><li>...
Forgetting <ul><li>Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Retrograde Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of memory for events preceding an a...
The Interference Theory of Forgetting <ul><li>Retroactive Interference </li></ul><ul><li>New memories block  the retrieval...
The Fallibility of Memory <ul><li>Improper storage cues </li></ul><ul><li>The memories weren’t given the appropriate cues ...
Situational Factors in Memory <ul><li>State Dependent Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Recall is best when you are in the same sta...
Why Do We Forget? <ul><li>The lower brain checks out emotional possibilities & alerts the cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Transla...
Retrieving Information <ul><li>Styles of Retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sequential Search </li></ul><ul><li>Going through ...
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2011 ch 7

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This chapter looks at the processes involved in memory as well as reasons we forget.

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2011 ch 7

  1. 2. Chapter 7: Memory
  2. 3. What is Memory? <ul><li>The outcome of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) information </li></ul><ul><li>2 basic categories of learning: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Non-associative </li></ul><ul><li>Results from an experience with a single type of event </li></ul><ul><li>2. Associative </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the conjunction of 2 or more events </li></ul>
  3. 4. Stages of Memory <ul><li>Memory systems act like a computer with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Converting information into a useable form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typing data into a computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holding this information in memory for later use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieval: Taking memories out of storage </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Information Processing Approach Sensory Storage Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory
  5. 6. Stages of Memory <ul><li>Sensory Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first stage of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores an exact copy of incoming information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iconic memories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fleeting visual or mental images </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lasts about ½ second </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Echoic memories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brief continuation of the sound in the auditory system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lasts about 2 seconds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Stages of Memory <ul><li>Short-Term Memory (STM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives portion of information from sensory memory through the selective attention filter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Holds small amounts of information briefly </li></ul><ul><li>Information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be coded as images or phonetically (based on sound) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is lost unless it is rehearsed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is very sensitive to interruption or interference </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Stages of Memory <ul><li>Short-Term Memory (STM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another name for STM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>like a mental “scratchpad” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>especially used for thinking and problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Short-Term Memory <ul><li>Digit Span </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test of attention and short-term memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>String of numbers is recalled forward or backward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically part of intelligence tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magic Number 7+/-2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STM is limited to holding seven (plus or minus two) information bits at once </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Short-Term Memory <ul><li>Chunking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of grouping bits of information into larger units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on meaningfulness of the bits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-Term Memory capacity is then </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 ± 2 chunks </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Short-Term Memory <ul><li>Rehearsal Styles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance Rehearsal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeating information silently to prolong its presence in STM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a.k.a. rote learning; not effective for long-term learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborative Rehearsal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Links new information with existing memories and knowledge in LTM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good way to transfer STM information into LTM </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Stages of Memory <ul><li>Long-Term Memory (LTM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storing information relatively permanently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored on basis of meaning and importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered limitless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more you know, the easier it is to add new information </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Permanence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some studies suggest memories are permanent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wilder Penfield stimulated brain areas with an electrode during brain surgery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patients reported vivid memories of long-forgotten events when stimulated </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. LTM: Constructing Memories <ul><li>As new LTM memories are formed, old memories are updated, changed, lost, or revised. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process of reorganizing or updating long-term memories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gaps “filled in” using logic, reasoning, or adding new information </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Memory and the Brain <ul><li>Long-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning alters the activity, structure, and chemistry of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many parts of brain become active when we form long-term memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific regions may encode specific LT memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural (skill) memories stored in cerebellum </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. LTM: Organizing Memories <ul><li>Network Model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory model that views it as an organizational system of linked information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If ideas are “farther” apart, it takes longer chains of associations to connect them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Redintegrative Memory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memories that are reconstructed or expanded by starting with one memory and then following chains of association to related memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One memory triggers another </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Types of Long-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Explicit (Declarative) Memory Implicit (Non-Declarative) Memory Episodic Memory Semantic Memory Motor Skills Habits Simple Classically Conditioned Responses Procedural Memory
  17. 18. Summary of Forgetfulness <ul><li>Concept Description Example </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Decay Theory Gradual fading of memory as a Facts you learned in school gradually </li></ul><ul><li>function of time fade out of memory over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Interference Theory Disruption of memory caused by After sifting through your psychology </li></ul><ul><li>interference of previously learned lecture, you forget what you learned in </li></ul><ul><li>material or newly learned material chemistry class the hour before. </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval Theory Failure to access material stored in You have difficulty remembering </li></ul><ul><li>memory because of encoding failure something you know is stored in </li></ul><ul><li>or lack of retrieval cues memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated Forgetting Repression of anxiety-provoking You cannot remember a traumatic </li></ul><ul><li>material childhood experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Retrograde Amnesia Loss of memory of past events After suffering a blow to the head in a </li></ul><ul><li> car accident, you are unable to remem- </li></ul><ul><li> ber details of the accident itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterograde Amnesia Loss of impairment of the ability to Due to a brain disorder, you find it </li></ul><ul><li>form or store new memories difficult to retain new information </li></ul>
  18. 19. Forgetting <ul><li>Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Retrograde Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of memory for events preceding an accident, injury, or disease without loss of earlier memories. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterograde Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of memory for events after an accident, injury, or disease but not necessarily for subsequent memories. </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Korsakoff’s Syndrome </li></ul>
  19. 20. The Interference Theory of Forgetting <ul><li>Retroactive Interference </li></ul><ul><li>New memories block the retrieval of old memories ; new learning interferes or inhibits your ability to remember something you had learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive Interference </li></ul><ul><li>Old memories block the retrieval of newer memories : old learning interferes or inhibits your ability to learn something now. </li></ul>
  20. 21. The Fallibility of Memory <ul><li>Improper storage cues </li></ul><ul><li>The memories weren’t given the appropriate cues to encode them properly </li></ul><ul><li>Memory changes over time </li></ul><ul><li>Neuronal and biochemical changes reconstruct & deconstruct memories </li></ul><ul><li>Memory’s Fallacies </li></ul><ul><li>1. Transience : The forgetting that occurs with the passing of time. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Absent-mindedness : Often attributed to 4 things, 1) divided attention, 2) insufficient attention at the time of encoding, 3) “operating on automatic,” and 4) encoding at an extremely shallow level. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Blocking : Retrieval cues are unavailable even though a word or name has been encoded and stored. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Misattribution : Recalling events that never happened or recalling them incorrectly or at the wrong time or place. This occurs in the absence of suggestion. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Suggestibility : The tendency to use misleading information from external cues into personal recollections. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Bias : Memories of the past are rescripted to fit your present views and needs (past events are filtered by current knowledge, memories are shaped to your present interpretation of the world, the past is constructed as similar or different than the present). </li></ul><ul><li>7. Persistence : Remembering things you wish to forget (failures, traumas, sadness, disappointments, etc.). </li></ul>
  21. 22. Situational Factors in Memory <ul><li>State Dependent Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Recall is best when you are in the same state of mind that you learned something in. </li></ul><ul><li>Context Dependent Memory </li></ul><ul><li>It’s easier to remember something when you’re in the same context in which you learned it. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Why Do We Forget? <ul><li>The lower brain checks out emotional possibilities & alerts the cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Translation from STM to LTM involves processing the meaning of the stimulus & categorizes it. </li></ul><ul><li>SIS is clear but each new impression destroys the one before. </li></ul><ul><li>The primacy & recency effects </li></ul>
  23. 24. Retrieving Information <ul><li>Styles of Retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sequential Search </li></ul><ul><li>Going through each piece of information until the appropriate information is found. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Using Retrieval Cues </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval is through a semantic network of associations. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearsal & Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Method of Loci </li></ul><ul><li>Mnemonics </li></ul><ul><li>Overlearning </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningfulness </li></ul>

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