G & D Ch. 13

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Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood

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  • G & D Ch. 13

    1. 1. CHAPTER 13 Physical & Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood
    2. 2. The Nature of Middle Adulthood <ul><li>Defining Middle Adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>40 to ~65 </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Changes & Health </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Gray hair, baldness, weight gain </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in bones & joints </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of bone mass </li></ul><ul><li>Makes bones weaker & more brittle </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>Bones become porous & easy to break </li></ul><ul><li>More common in women </li></ul>
    3. 3. Physical Changes & Health <ul><li>Osteoarthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual onset & progression of pain & disability, with minor signs of inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes noticeable in late middle age or early old age </li></ul><ul><li>Common in people with joints subjected to routine overuse & abuse (athletes, manual laborers) </li></ul><ul><li>Hands, spine, hips, & knees </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid Arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Disease of the joints that also develops slowly & typically affects different joints causing different types of pain than osteoarthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Morning stiffness & aching in fingers, wrists, & ankles, with joints swelling </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Changing Senses <ul><li>Vision changes </li></ul><ul><li>Presbyopia: loss of near vision </li></ul><ul><li>Glaucoma: fluid pressure in the eye increases because of improper drainage or too much is produced </li></ul><ul><li>1-2% over 40 affected </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans particularly susceptible </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated can cause blindness </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Changing Senses <ul><li>Hearing declines gradually </li></ul><ul><li>Presbycusis: Loss of high frequency hearing </li></ul><ul><li>About 12% between 45 & 65 </li></ul><ul><li>Men are more prone than women </li></ul><ul><li>Some loss due to environment </li></ul><ul><li>Aging brings loss of hair cells </li></ul><ul><li>Eardrum becomes less elastic </li></ul>
    6. 6. Physical Changes & Health <ul><li>Climacteric </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of ability to bear children </li></ul><ul><li>Usually begins in 40s & complete by late 50s </li></ul><ul><li>Menopause </li></ul><ul><li>During climacteric, menstruation becomes irregular & eventually stops </li></ul><ul><li>Some stop menstruating around 40, others may have regular periods into mid-50s </li></ul><ul><li>Most have last period in early 50s </li></ul><ul><li>Ovulation may continue for 1 – 2 years afterward </li></ul>
    7. 7. Physical Changes & Health <ul><li>Estrogen-related symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, & urine leakage </li></ul><ul><li>Symptomatic symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty sleeping, headaches, rapid heartbeat, & stiffness or soreness in the joints, neck, or shoulders </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic differences in symptoms seem to be related to cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Treating symptoms of menopause </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) </li></ul><ul><li>Taking low doses of estrogen, often combine with progestin </li></ul><ul><li>HRT reduces estrogen-related symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Also reduces risk of osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>May have role in helping prevent Alzheimer’s </li></ul><ul><li>Drawback is increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer if taken for 10 or more years </li></ul>
    8. 8. Changes in Men <ul><li>Sperm production decline 30% between 25 & 60 </li></ul><ul><li>Enlargement & stiffening of prostate gland </li></ul><ul><li>May obstruct urinary tract </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate cancer concern </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual reduction in testosterone levels after mid-20s </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in sexual performance </li></ul><ul><li>Less perceived demand to ejaculate </li></ul><ul><li>Need longer time & more stimulation to achieve erection & orgasm </li></ul><ul><li>Much longer resolution phase </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent failures to achieve orgasm & loss of erection during intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>With willing partner, sexual activity can be lifelong </li></ul>
    9. 9. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Practical Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>The broad range of skills related to how individuals shape, select, or adapt to their physical & social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of Practical Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Important approach in assessing adults’ competence in performing everyday tasks </li></ul>
    10. 10. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Becoming an Expert </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence tends to improve throughout one’s lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Expert’s behavior patterns: </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t always follow the rules as novices do </li></ul><ul><li>More flexible, creative, & curious </li></ul><ul><li>Have superior strategies for accomplishing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Spend more time planning </li></ul><ul><li>Declines in expert performance not nearly as great as they are for the abilities of information processing, memory, & fluid intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Adult learners differ from younger </li></ul><ul><li>Have a higher need to know why they should learn something before undertaking it </li></ul><ul><li>Enter learning situations with more & different experiences on which to build </li></ul><ul><li>Most willing to learn those things they believe are necessary to deal with real-world problems rather than abstract, hypothetical situations </li></ul><ul><li>More motivated by internal than external factors </li></ul>
    11. 11. Intelligence <ul><li>Fluid Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to deal with new problems & situations </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning, spatial orientation, perceptual speed, & verbal memory </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallized Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>The store of information, skills, & strategies acquired through education & prior experiences, & through previous use of fluid intelligence </li></ul>
    12. 12. Religion & Meaning in Life <ul><li>Individual Differences in Religious Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Religion is linked negatively to health with some and positively with others (e.g. cults) </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstream religion has a positive or no relationship to health </li></ul><ul><li>For some, it is important in coping with stress </li></ul><ul><li>For some, it aids in examining life’s meaning </li></ul>
    13. 13. Changing Priorities in Midlife <ul><li>Generativity v. Stagnation </li></ul><ul><li>Generativity: Being productive by helping others to ensure the continuation of society bye guiding the next generation </li></ul><ul><li>Generativity is grounded in the successful resolution of the previous 6 phases </li></ul><ul><li>Many Avenues of Generativity </li></ul><ul><li>Parenting, mentoring, volunteering, foster grandparenting </li></ul><ul><li>Personal concerns & priorities of middle-age adults are different from those of younger adults </li></ul>
    14. 14. Changing Priorities in Midlife <ul><li>Stagnation </li></ul><ul><li>Being unable to deal with the needs of one’s children or to provide mentoring to younger adults </li></ul>
    15. 15. Gender-role Identity <ul><li>Men & women are most different in their gender-role identities in late adolescence & young adulthood but become increasingly similar in midlife & old age </li></ul>
    16. 16. Midlife Transition & Crisis <ul><li>Most people believe they will have a midlife crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence fails to support the idea of a crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Those experiencing a crisis tend to be suffering from general problems of psychopathology </li></ul><ul><li>People do experience some sort of fundamental change at some point during adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Ego resilience: A personality resource that enables one to handle midlife changes </li></ul><ul><li>Ego resilience may account for the 2 outcomes (Generativity & Stagnation) in Erikson’s view of midlife </li></ul>
    17. 17. Middle Age Family Dynamics <ul><li>Becoming Friends/Empty Nest </li></ul><ul><li>Parent child relationships tend to improve when children become young adults </li></ul><ul><li>Key factor to improvement is extent to which parents foster & approve of their children’s attempts at being independence </li></ul><ul><li>When children leave, parents better able to ascertain how the children turned out </li></ul>
    18. 18. When Children Return <ul><li>Empty Nest Satisfaction Short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>½ of children return after leaving </li></ul><ul><li>Men more likely than women to move back </li></ul><ul><li>Children w/low GPAs, low sense of autonomy, or an expectation that their parents would provide a large portion of their income following graduation </li></ul><ul><li>Adult children whose parents were verbally or physically abusive unlikely to move back, as well as those married </li></ul>
    19. 19. Caring for aged parents <ul><li>Most middle-age adults have parents in pretty good health </li></ul><ul><li>A growing number need some sort of care </li></ul><ul><li>Job generally falls on daughter or daughter-in-law </li></ul><ul><li>Daughters 3 X as likely to care for parent(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Filial Obligation </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of responsibility to care for parent if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>All but a small percentage of care to older adults is provided by adult children & other family members </li></ul>
    20. 20. Caregiving Stress <ul><li>2 Main Sources of Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble coping with declines in parents’ functioning </li></ul><ul><li>When caregiving is seen as confining, or seriously infringes on other responsibilities or leads to conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Caring for parent entails psychological costs </li></ul><ul><li>Depression, resentfulness, anger, & guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Financial pressures especially when parent has chronic condition </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses for caring difficult for women </li></ul><ul><li>Coincides with peak employment years </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards as well </li></ul><ul><li>Parent(s) loss of independence & autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Most move in as last resort </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 receiving help with daily activities feel negatively about it </li></ul>
    21. 21. Grandparenting <ul><li>Interaction with Grandchildren </li></ul><ul><li>Many functions of grandparents reflect social & personal dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Social needs & expectations of what grandparents are supposed to do </li></ul><ul><li>Personal satisfaction & individual needs fulfilled by grandparent </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning of Grandparenting Along 5 Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Centrality </li></ul><ul><li>Grandparenting is most important thing in their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Valued Elder </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as being wise </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgence </li></ul><ul><li>Spoiling the grandchildren </li></ul><ul><li>Reinvolvement with personal past </li></ul><ul><li>Recalling the relationship had with own grandparents </li></ul><ul><li>Immortality through clan </li></ul><ul><li>Taking pride in the fact that they will be followed by 2 generations </li></ul>
    22. 22. Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren <ul><li>Grandparents more likely to have independent lives from children or grandchildren </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest change for grandparents are increasing number becoming custodial parents for grandchildren </li></ul><ul><li>Raising grandchildren not easy </li></ul><ul><li>Rates of problem behavior, hyperactivity, & learning problems are high & have negative effect on relationship </li></ul>
    23. 23. Stress & Health <ul><li>A number of specific changes in the body (e.g. increased heart rate, sweaty palms, hormone secretions) brought about by external situations </li></ul><ul><li>Stress results when you appraise a situation or event as taxing or exceeding your personal, social, or other resources & endangering your well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Day-to-day hassles that upset & annoy us prove to be most stressful </li></ul><ul><li>Culture plays an important role in how stress is perceived </li></ul>
    24. 24. Stress & Health <ul><li>Coping </li></ul><ul><li>Any attempt to deal with stress </li></ul><ul><li>People appraise different situations as stressful at different times and at different ages </li></ul><ul><li>Stress, coping, & physical health </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic stress suppresses the immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Increases susceptibility to viral infection, increases risk of atherosclerosis & hypertension, & impaired memory & cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Type A behavior pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Intensely competitive, angry, hostile, restless, aggressive, & impatient </li></ul><ul><li>Type B behavior pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite of type A </li></ul><ul><li>Type A 2 X more likely to develop cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Some type A characteristics may be motivating for some people </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated to stick to diet or exercise </li></ul>
    25. 25. Exercise <ul><li>Aerobic Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise that places moderate stress on the heart by maintaining a pulse rate between 60% & 90% of one’s maximum heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Subtract age from 220 for maximum heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Products of aerobic exercise </li></ul>
    26. 26. Personality <ul><li>The 5-Factor Model of Personality Traits </li></ul><ul><li>Opposing dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroticism v. Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Anxious, hostile, self-conscious, depressed, impulsive, & vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion v. Introversion </li></ul><ul><li>Thriving on social interaction, likes to talk, takes charge easily, readily expresses opinions & feelings, likes to keep busy, much energy, prefers stimulating & challenging environments </li></ul><ul><li>Openness v. Closed to Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Vivid imagination & dream life, appreciation of art & strong desire to try anything once </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness v. Antagonism </li></ul><ul><li>Being accepting, willing to work w/others, & caring </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness v. Undirectedness </li></ul><ul><li>Hard-working, ambitious, energetic, scrupulous, & persevering </li></ul>

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