The Periodic Table

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The Periodic Table

  1. 1. The Periodic Table of Elements
  2. 2. The Periodic Table <ul><li>The horizontal rows of the periodic table are called periods </li></ul><ul><li>The vertical columns are called families (or groups ) </li></ul><ul><li>Elements in the same family have similar physical and chemical properties </li></ul>
  3. 3. Periodic Table
  4. 4. Metals <ul><li>Metals are on the left and in the centre of the periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Metals have the following physical properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conduct heat and electricity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ductile and malleable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>shiny </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>solid at room temperature (except mercury) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Metals <ul><li>Metals have the following chemical properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can easily corrode/oxidize </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>react with acid to release hydrogen gas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Metals
  7. 7. Non-Metals <ul><li>Non-metals are on the right side of the periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Non-metals have the following physical properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>poor conductors of heat and electricity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>usually solid or gas at room temperature (only Bromine is a liquid at room temperature) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Non-Metals <ul><li>Non-metals have a wide range of chemical properties and reactivities </li></ul><ul><li>have a tendency to gain electrons in a chemical reaction </li></ul>
  9. 9. Non-Metals
  10. 10. Metalloids <ul><li>Metals are separated from non-metals by a staircase of elements called metalloids </li></ul><ul><li>Metalloids are elements with properties intermediate between metals and non-metals </li></ul>silicon tellurium
  11. 11. Metalloids <ul><li>Physical properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solid at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be shiny or dull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brittle (not ductile) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may conduct electricity, poor conductor of heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vary </li></ul></ul>silicon tellurium
  12. 12. Metalloids
  13. 13. Chemical Families Chemical Family = Groups of elements that have similar physical and chemical properties
  14. 14. Chemical Families <ul><li>Alkali Metals (Group 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Reactivity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reacts easily with water and air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reacts easily with halogens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shiny, silvery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only found in nature as compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compounds are white solids soluble in water </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Chemical Families <ul><li>Alkaline Earth Metals (Group 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Reactivity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less reactive than group 1 metals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shiny, silvery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forms compounds that are often insoluble in water </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Chemical Families <ul><li>Halogens (Group 17 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Reactivity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reacts easily with alkali metals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>poisonous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exists naturally as compounds </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Chemical Families <ul><li>Noble Gases (Group 18) </li></ul><ul><li>Reactivity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inert, stable, unreactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be excited by electricity to produce colours, but are chemically unchanged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>colourless, odourless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gases at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>does not form compounds </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Chemical Families <ul><li>All atoms of elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>For example, all elements in group 1 have one valence electron </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Elements will react so that they have the same number of electrons as an atom of the closest noble gas. </li></ul>Noble Gases
  20. 21. <ul><li>For example, neon is the closest noble gas in the periodic table to sodium , magnesium and aluminum </li></ul>Noble Gases
  21. 22. Periodic Table reactivity increases
  22. 23. reactivity increases Periodic Table

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