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Fire Safety Management

Nc Das
Nc Das
Nc DasADDITIONAL MEDICAL SUPERINTENDENT at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital

The presentation provides an outline about the fire control system and how to act in case of a fire disaster.

Fire Safety Management

1 of 52
FIRE SAFETY
MANAGEMENT


DR. N. C. DAS
WHY FIRE SAFETY
The hospital, as an Institution is prone to fire because of:-
 Having many heat-dissipating equipments,
 Combustible gasses /fuel, chemicals, used in different
areas.
A lot of electrical wiring, high voltage connections.
Fire prone articles like gauze, cotton, linen, books and
registrars.
Heavy Equipments and electrical gadgets.
that are inflammable and prone to hazardous incidents.
proper precautions has to be taken while planning
the infrastructure.
Adequate measures need to be considered, designed and
practised to ensure safety to all.
 Indicators like architectural designs, interior designs,
electrical wiring, appropriate equipment planning and
proper waste management are considered while planning
such safety measures.
STEPS OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

                      Mitigation
                    Mitigation


                         Mitigation



   Recovery   Recovery          Preparedness   Preparedness



                         Response



                         Response
MITIGATION

• Planning
• Analysis of weaknesses and identifying
  gaps
• Testing and Practices
• Learn from mistakes and make
  improvements
• Institute practices and policies
• Collaboration
PREPAREDNESS

•   Exercise
•   Training
•   Resource management
•   Planning
RESPONSE

•   Supplies
•   Staff
•   Procedures
•   Relationship cooperation
•   Unified management of disasters

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Fire Safety Management

  • 2. WHY FIRE SAFETY The hospital, as an Institution is prone to fire because of:-  Having many heat-dissipating equipments,  Combustible gasses /fuel, chemicals, used in different areas. A lot of electrical wiring, high voltage connections. Fire prone articles like gauze, cotton, linen, books and registrars. Heavy Equipments and electrical gadgets. that are inflammable and prone to hazardous incidents. proper precautions has to be taken while planning the infrastructure. Adequate measures need to be considered, designed and practised to ensure safety to all.  Indicators like architectural designs, interior designs, electrical wiring, appropriate equipment planning and proper waste management are considered while planning such safety measures.
  • 3. STEPS OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT Mitigation Mitigation Mitigation Recovery Recovery Preparedness Preparedness Response Response
  • 4. MITIGATION • Planning • Analysis of weaknesses and identifying gaps • Testing and Practices • Learn from mistakes and make improvements • Institute practices and policies • Collaboration
  • 5. PREPAREDNESS • Exercise • Training • Resource management • Planning
  • 6. RESPONSE • Supplies • Staff • Procedures • Relationship cooperation • Unified management of disasters
  • 7. RECOVERY AND RESILIENCY • Internal effort within an organization to ensure that all critical business and service functions are resistant to disruption by fire i,e. • Business Continuity • Recovery Plans • Insurance Coverage • Continuity of operations • Continuity of services
  • 8. 4 phases of a SOP TEMPLATE comprehensive emergency management approach • Mitigation/Preparedness activities of the threat/event. State several objectives/strategies for: - Hazard reduction and resource issues - Preparedness and resource issues • Response/Recovery from the threat/event. State several objectives/strategies for: - Hazard control and resource issues - Hazard monitoring - Recovery
  • 9. SOP TEMPLATE • Notification procedures - Within facility, system - Other - (gov, external etc.) • Specialized staff training, references and further assistance - Texts and manuals on specific issues and procedures • Review date
  • 10. 9 STEPS PROCESS FOR FIRE SAFETY 1 2 3 4 Develop Hazard Develop Standard Implement Form Vulnerability Operating Mitigation and Emergency Analysis & Procedures Preparedness Management Complete Activities Operating Unit Develop Strategies Committee for Mitigation, Take Actions to Templates Establish Roles, Preparedness, Reduce Impacts, Assign Determine Threats Response & Build Capacity Responsibilities and Impacts Recovery 5 Report Results of Mitigation and Preparedness to Emergency Management Committee On-going Monitoring 6 7 8 9 Develop Implement Annual Emergency Conduct Staff Emergency Evaluation Operations Education & Operations & Corrective Plan Training Plan, Conduct Actions Organizational Understand Roles, Critique Review and Refine the Concept of Build Competencies Emergency and Confidence Rehearsal or Operations Actual Event Management Program
  • 11. PLANING AND MANAGEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INTERIOR DEGINING PLANNING PLANNING FIRE SAFETY TRAINING FIRE SAFETY EQUIPMENT/SERVICES AND PRATICES PLANING SAFETY/ SECURITY FIREPROTECTION FIRE PRTECTION EQUIPMENTS EQIPMENTS SYSTEM
  • 12. INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING Architectural designs, interior designs, electrical wiring, Appropriate equipment planning and proper waste management are taken in to consideration at the stage of planning for fire safety.
  • 13. ARCHITECT & LAYOUT PLANNING Following points must be kept in mind during building planning. There is sufficient open space around the building Sufficient open space between two buildings so as to minimize fire spread possibilities from or to neighboring structures. Also there should be enough space for movement and parking of fire fighting vehicles, ambulances, etc in the premises and wide road approach to the building. Considering the size & number of occupancy, lobbies, staircases, ramps, etc should be sufficiently wide to ensure easy movement of traffic and quick evacuation during emergencies.
  • 14. ARCHITECT & LAYOUT PLANNING The design of the building structure should be so planned that it allows pressurised exclusion of smoke in case of fire or any smoke leak.  Must have enough doors and windows for proper ventilation. Adequate emergency rescue aids and suitable refuge area should be incorporated in the design. Ideally, a heavy-duty elevator especially for use of fire fighting personnel only and used in case of emergency only should be incorporated. The building should be so designed that it can resist damages due to earthquakes to a fair extent. Safe and easy means of access should be provided to and in every place of work /in patient area. This should enable access to all including the disabled to move easily. In case of an emergency, safe and rapid exit should be provided for all occupants. Each building must have separate fire exit, staircase with proper signage.
  • 15. INTERIOR DESIGNING The critical areas like Labs X-Ray, OT, ICU etc where heavy equipments are installed should be well protected and extra precautionary measures should be implemented in such critical areas,  Interior should have fire proof doors, windows, walls and roof covered with fire proof materials. The floor should be so designed that they are free from obstructions, are slip-resistant & even. Openings in floors should be securely fenced or covered. Staircases, ramps should be provided with substantial handrails and other suitable support means to prevent slipping, wherever necessary. Easy access for the servicing and maintenance of plant, machinery and buildings should also be incorporated in a design. The building should be so designed that it can resist damages due to earthquakes to a fair extent
  • 16. INTERIOR DESIGNING The interior designer also needs to incorporate the environment safety measures such as:- Adequate natural light, fresh air and colour therapy on walls and lights. The designs should be such that there is minimal use of combustible materials like gases, petrol or kerosene. The designs should use plenty of good quality fire retardant material for interior furnishing and decoration purposes. Appropriate waste management systems also need to be designed to prevent accidents due to hazardous waste. The gas and oxygen pipelines must be made of copper.
  • 17. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING For electrical wiring designs and AC plant:- •The electrical wiring could be enclosed in metal/ heavy gauge screwed conduits. •The cable passing from one floor to the other should be suggestively sealed off effectively to minimize fire-spread possibilities. •Good quality copper cables well covered, switches , plugs and sockets to be used for good conduction and heat resistance. •There should not be any loose wire hanging. •A master control switch for each floor should be located at the ground floor for easy switching off of systems in case of emergency. •It is highly advisable to use individual air- conditioning or space heating systems for each floor in large buildings. •However in case of centralized systems that is generally preferred in hospital infrastructures; care should be taken to provide appropriate automatic fire dampers for each floor in the common ducting system.
  • 18. MACHINERY DESIGNS •Proper cooling facilities to dissipate heat should be provided for equipments/plants/machinery generating heat. •Boilers, plant rooms, freezers, manholes and similar confined spaces should have effective means to ensure safe access & exits. •All equipments should be earthed properly to dissipate the static charges to the earth. •Incorporate totally enclosed switchgear systems/ miniature circuit breakers instead of ordinary fuses. •Always emergency power supply arrangements need to be designed & incorporated in case of total system switch- offs during emergency. •Appropriate fire fighting equipments, fire detection, smoke and heat detection alarms should be incorporated in the design. •The fire-fighting equipment as per quality standards and norms should be used..
  • 19. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS SYSTEM CENTRAL LOCAL Fire Water Hydrant System Fire Extinguishers Fire Protection System Fire Fighting Fire Detection System Equipments.
  • 20. FIRE TETRAHEDRON The four Elements which required fire to spread is called “FIRE Tetrahedron”
  • 21. CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE TYPE A TYPE B wood and paper. liquids and gases. FIRE TYPE C TYPE K TYPE D Energized Oils & Fats Combustible Metals electricity.
  • 22. WATER – HYDRANT SYSTEM There is a separate water tank under/over ground to be exclusively used for Fire hydrants. Each building has got a fire hydrant connected to the tank by steel water pipes. The hydrants have hose pipes and various nozzles to be fitted in to hose on one side and the other side is attached to hydrant. Fire Hydrant Hose Pipe Nozzles
  • 23. PROTECTION SYSTEM 1.Protection System mainly contains dry chemicals and acids, Coming on contract it releases Foam which covers the flame there by cutting down the Oxygen supply. The type of foam used are, CO2, Foam Chemicals. 2.Sprinkler system "Sprinkler system" means a system of piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards and installed to control or extinguish fires. The system includes an adequate and reliable water supply, and a network of specially sized piping and sprinklers which are interconnected. The system also includes a control valve and a device for actuating an alarm when the system is in operation. The sprinklers are fitted on the roof of the building SPRINKLERS Sprinkler on roof
  • 25. LOCAL PROTECTION LOCAL EQUIPMENT FIRE FIGHTING FIRE EXTINGUISHER EQUIPMENTS (Fire Hose Box, Fire Man Axe, Fire Beater, Fire Hook, Fire Bucket,)
  • 26. TYPE OF EXTINGUISHER Class A – ordinary combustibles (wood, cloth, paper) Class B – flammable liquids, gases, greases Class C – energized electrical equipment Class D – combustible metals B C D A
  • 27. TYPE OF EXTINGUISHER The National Fire Prtection Association (NFPA) classifies fires into five general categories (U.S.): Class A fires are ordinary materials like burning paper,, cardboard, plastics etc. Class B fires involve flammble or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, and common organic solvents used in the laboratory. Class C fires involve energized electrical equipment, such as appliances, switches, panel boxes, power tools, hot plates and stirrers. Water can be a dangerous extinguishing medium for class C fires because of the risk of electrical shock unless a specialized water mist extinguisher is used. Class D fires involve combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium as well as reagents such as alkyllithiums, Grignards and diethylzinc. These materials burn at high temperatures and will react violently with water, air, and/or other chemicals. Class K fires are kitchen fires ie. Ghee and oils..
  • 28. BASIC TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS The two most common types of extinguishers in laboratories are pressurized dry chemical (Type BC or ABC, left) and Carbon dioxide.
  • 29. INSTALLATION AND General Requirements Wall Mounted, easy to locate and visible from a distance so that they are readily accessible. Only approved extinguishers shall be used (ISI) Fire Fighting equipments in the vicinity. Inspect Extinguishers once a month. The pressure is at the recommended level in the gauge in green zone The extinguisher is not blocked by objects that could interfere with access in an emergency. The pin and tamper seal (if it has one) are GAUGE intact. There are no dents, leaks, rust, chemical deposits and other signs of abuse/wear and tear.
  • 30. MAINTENANCE Maintain extinguishers in a fully charged and operable condition Visually inspected monthly Maintained annually Hydrostatically tested periodically to ensure that the cylinder is safe to use. If the extinguisher is damaged or needs recharging, get it replaced immediately. Recharge all extinguishers same time after use regardless of how much they were used.
  • 31. FIRE SAFETY RULES The “National Building Code of India”, 1980, issued by the Indian Standards Institution, serves as excellent references to safety management for infrastructures. The Tariff Advisory Committee of the General Insurance Industry and the Metropolitan City has their own requirement.  Government Authorities recognize fire hazards with large buildings and have developed rules and regulations for fire protection and fire fighting requirements in large buildings. Fire Clarence is not given by the authority if these rules are not complied with by the owner as it is mandatory under Law..
  • 32. TRAINNING IN USE OF EXTINGUISHERS Employees designated to use fire fighting equipment should be trained in:- i)Use of extinguishers ii) Associated Hazards Initially and Annually iii) General principles of fire extinguisher use iv)Where portable fire extinguishers have been provided for employee use in the workplace, employees must be provided with an educational program. v)Employees designated to use extinguishers must receive instruction and hands-on practice in the operation of equipment
  • 33. FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT The employer should ensure maintenance and inspection of fire fighting equipment at least annually, Ensure safe operational condition of the equipment. Training of employees in use of fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers to be inspected at least monthly Respirators shall be inspected at least monthly
  • 34. PERSONAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENTS The personal protection equipments include Gloves, Canister Gas Mask, Breathing Apparatus Set, Resuscitator, Aluminized Suit, Helmet, Goggle, Shower & Fountain, Emergency Kit, Safety Torch, Siren, Wind Sock, Stretcher, Gum Boot, Face Shield, Ear Muff, Ear Plug, Apron, Blanket, PVC Suit, Plus Pressure Suit, Safety Belt, Safety Net, Rope Ladder, Traffic Control & Road Safety Devices, Safety Sign & Posters. These are only used by trained “Fire Fighters” of Fire Department.
  • 35. SECURITY EQUIPMENT These are used by ‘FIRE MEN’ only and includes:- Hand Held Metal Detectors Door Frame Metal Detectors CCTV Alarm Systems Access Control system
  • 36. INTERNAL EMP SHOULD BE: • For All-hazards • Comprehensive Emergency Management • Dynamic and continuously updated • Compatible with standard EM concepts, yet unique to the particular facility • Include involvement with community and external entities • Fully supported by management
  • 37. EM PROGRAM GOALS – Continuity of care. – Safety of patients, families and staff. – Support to community (and Nation). – Preservation of vital records and property.
  • 38. INTERNAL DISASTER ACTION PLAN It is activated when the hospital buildings are effected in disaster. Action plan should clearly mention: • Alternate site (dharmashala,Temple,Schools,Playground nearby) • Folding tents, cots, trolleys for temporary shelters • Identify a nearby tent house to provide beds,blankets • TPT for transportation of cases to alternate sites or hospital • First aid and drug kits, potable lights. • Portable communication system. • Identify local voluntary organization, who can provide services of care,food and water.
  • 39. STEPS OF FIRE MANAGEMENT RAISE RUN RESCUE
  • 40. ACTIONS FOR MINOR FIRE The building is being evacuated (fire alarm is pulled) The fire department is called (dial 101). The fire is small, contained and not spreading beyond its starting point. The exit is clear, and you can fight the fire with your back to the exit. You can bend down to avoid smoke. The proper extinguisher is immediately available at hand. Aware of the instructions and know how to use the extinguisher.  In major fire start Evacuation.
  • 41. EVACUATION Planning evacuation: Emergency Preparedness Committees and integration with region or operational area plans Identification of alternative locations Communications Transport options Cache of supplies or resources Employee safety and well-being Intense focus on facilities’ ability to respond Evacuation must be done in partnership Personnel were sent with NICU, ICU, and psychiatric patients, stable patients were not accompanied Patients moved using backboards, walking, wheelchairs, blankets, sheets. Stairs only to be used No special equipment used
  • 42. Increased need for wheelchairs, walkers, adult diapers, colostomy supplies and personal hygiene items, soft foods, clothing changes, portable oxygen and medicines. Evacuation requires a command structure to best manage the situation Safety of the patients, visitors and staff - All are at risk! Coordination and tracking are needed Staff health and safety while meeting the hospital’s medical mission are the highest priorities in responding to any type of incident. Evacuation can be coordinated by a central Emergency Operations Center (EOC) or independently by the affected facility and had equal success Should have a secondary evacuation plan in the absence of area EOC Evacuation from any cause requires accountability for patients and for staff Family members who are with patients or staff in a crisis situation Priority for relocation will depend on the stability of the patients and the resources available
  • 43. OPTIONS IN EVACUATIONS 1. Shelter in place 2. Horizontal or lateral movement 3. Vertical evacuation 4. Complete facility evacuation 5. The situation may require all methods 1.Shelter-in-Place Stay in the facility but minimize the hazardous impact Example: distance from a hazardous spill, isolated fires, security breach Fire location 2. Horizontal or Lateral Evacuations Moving to other wings in the facility, beyond fire doors, into a safety zone Easier movement of beds and equipment Faster in initial phases Further evacuation may not be necessary or shelter-in-place option may be ordered
  • 44. 3. Vertical Evacuations •Complex •Cumbersome •Increased physical risks •Depending on cause for the evacuation, elevators and escalators may be prohibited or out of operation 4. Who is Evacuated First Green - Walking Yellow - Chair assist Red - Full assist in stretcher and accompany The basic concept of triage in a disaster circumstance is to do the greatest good for the greatest number
  • 45. FACILITY AND UTILITY CONSIDERATIONS 4. Evacuation devices (evacuation chairs and sleds) or manual carries may be required •Most evacuations can be controlled . •In a controlled evacuation, exit at direction of Incident Command Center, Fire or Police or authority in charge •Lateral / horizontal first •Vertical second •Evacuees can be staged in outside areas to facilitate transport Evacuations may require rapid shut down of ventilation systems, power, water, gas and other infrastructure controls for the protection of everyone Risks include: explosion, flooding, electrocution, toxic gases
  • 46. AREAS OFTEN NEED A SPECIFIC PLAN The nature of the patients or residents of the facility may require more specific plans and techniques Examples: •Sensory impaired (sight, hearing) •Specialty units: dialysis, operating rooms, ICUs, psychiatric care, hyperbaric oxygen chambers •Pediatrics facilities, NICU •Extended care units
  • 47. EVACUATION FROM THE OPERATING ROOM Cancellation of OR cases In evacuation procedures: •Stabilization and premature closure of case •Airway management with alternative means •Life support mechanisms •Transport options from OR •Management in alternative environment •Transfer to stable environment Know the routes and clear the corridor Gather transport stretchers & devices Conclude procedure as soon as possible Maintain life supports Maintain anesthetic state
  • 48. Take necessary meds with patient to continue anesthesia during transport Control bleeding Sterile towels/covers over surgical sites Remove intravenous solutions from poles - place in transport with the patient Disconnect unnecessary leads, lines or other equipment If time permits: •Gather minimal number of instruments for transport •Take additional intravenous solutions •Secure equipment for transport •Don’t delay
  • 49. COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION OF PATIENTS •Private cars •Public buses •Hospital vans •Ambulances Communications intermittent but all evacuations relied on functioning communications Pay phones, cell phones, intermittent landlines, ham radios, ambulance radios, hand-held radios
  • 50. SECURITY CHALLENGES IN EVACUATIONS Security staff in most hospitals are: •Private guards (hospital or contract) •Unarmed and have no powers of arrest •Expected to restrain violent patients or visitors or act as deterrents Trend of minimal staffing and inadequate coverage with a dependency on local law enforcement Facilities may need to make do with on site security Law enforcement agencies may be overrun with urgent requests for multiple types of assistance and no prioritization Training must include exercises and realistic planning and models
  • 51. SUMMARY Evacuation requires planning Most evacuations are controlled Multiple resources are required Specific needs must be considered Departmental plans should be specific Employee and patient safety requires training Evacuations may need to include families and visitors Accountability is important in considering the safety for all involved Security will have to be managed internally at least in initial phases
  • 52. hospiad Hospital Administration Made Easy http//hospiad.blogspot.com An effort solely to help students and aspirants in their attempt to become a successful Hospital Administrator. DR. N. C. DAS Based on Extracts from Internet.