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  1. 1. MEMORY… By BNYS 3rd year SVYASA
  2. 2. CONTENTS… Introduction Definition What is memory…..??? Sensory memory Short term memory Long term memory Memory is classifies into two types  1. Explicit memory  2. Implicit memory
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION• Memory is the processes by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved• Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli• Storage is the second memory stage or process
  4. 4. DEFINITION• Memory is defined as the ability to recall the past experience• It is also defined as retention of learned materials• Some memories remain only for few seconds• Others last for hours, days, months or years together
  5. 5. SENSORY MEMORY Sensory memory corresponds approximately to the initial 200–500 millisecond after an item is perceived sensory memory that briefly stores an image which has been perceived for a small duration
  6. 6. COUNT… This entails that we maintain information over periods of time This is the retrieval of information that we have stored
  8. 8.  Generally , memory is also classified as:- Short term memory Long term memory
  9. 9. SHORT-TERM MEMORY Short-term memory allows recall for a period of several seconds to a minute without rehearsal Short-term memory is believed to rely mostly on an acoustic code for storing information
  10. 10. COUNT… It is the recalling the events that happened very recently, within hours or days There is another from of short term memory called working memory It is a very short period on the basis of which an action is executed
  12. 12. LONG-TERM MEMORY The storage in sensory memory and short-term memory generally have a strictly limited capacity and duration Long-term memory can store much larger quantities of information for potentially unlimited duration This information is said to be stored in long-term memory
  13. 13. COUNT… It is otherwise called remote memory It is the recalling of the events of weeks, months, years or sometimes lifetime  Examples are recalling first day of schooling, birthday celebration of previous year, picnic enjoyed last week
  14. 14. LONG-TERM MEMORY Long term memory Explicit Implicit non- declarative declarative Episodic Somatic Procedural (Idea, Facts (Words and Emotional (skill) etc…) concepts etc…)
  15. 15. MEMORY IS CLASSIFIES INTO TWO TYPES 1. Explicit memory 2. Implicit memory
  17. 17. EXPLICIT MEMORY Explicit memory It is otherwise know as declarative memory It is defined as the memory that involves conscious recollection of past experience The information stored may be about a particular event that happened at a particular time and place Examples :-  Recollection of a birthday party celebrated three days Explicit memory involves hippocampus and medial part of temporal lobe
  19. 19. IMPLICIT MEMORY It is defined as the memory in which past experience is utilized without conscious awareness It helps to perform various skilled activities properly For example, cycling, driving, playing tennis,dancing,typing
  20. 20.  Depending upon the duration , memory is classified into three types Sensory memory Primary memory Secondary memory
  22. 22. SENSORY MEMORY It is the ability to retain sensory signals in the sensory areas of brain It is the initial stage of memory It resembles working memory
  23. 23. PRIMARY MEMORY It is the memory of facts, words, numbers, letters or other information recalled for a few seconds to few minutes at a time One need not search or squeeze through the mind but this memory is easily replaced by new bits of memory Example:---
  24. 24. SECONDARY MEMORY It is storage of information in the brain for a longer period The information could be recalled after hours, days, months or years It also called fixed memory or permanent memory It resembles long term memory
  25. 25. SENSORY MEMORY Sensory Memory: Storing an exact copy of incoming information for less than a second; the first stage of memory Icon: A fleeting mental image or visual representation Echo: After a sound is heard, a brief continuation of the sound in the auditory system
  26. 26. TECHNIQUES USED TO ASSESS INFANT’SMEMORY Infants do not have the language ability to report on their memories So, verbal reports cannot be used to assess very young children’s memory
  27. 27. TECHNIQUES USED TO ASSESS OLDER CHILDRENAND ADULTS MEMORY Paired associate learning Free recall Recognition Detection Paradigm
  28. 28. PAIRED ASSOCIATE LEARNING During this task a subject would be asked to study a list of words and then sometime later they will be asked to recall
  29. 29. FREE RECALL Free recall is a basic paradigm in the psychological study of memory The recall period typically lasts a few minutes, and can involve spoken or written recall Items are usually presented one at a time for a short duration
  30. 30. RECOGNITION Remember a list of words or pictures List of alternatives that were not presented in the original list
  31. 31. DETECTION PARADIGM Individuals are shown a number of objects and colors samples
  32. 32. PHYSIOLOGY Brain areas involved in the neuroanatomy of memory such as the hippocampus Learning and memory are attributed to changes in neuronal synapses The hippocampus is important for explicit memory Also important for memory consolidation
  33. 33. FUNCTION OF HIPPOCAMPUS The hippocampus from the olfactory bulb The second major line of thought relates the hippocampus to memory Changes in synaptic connections in the hippocampus Hippocampus plays some sort of important role in memory
  34. 34. COUNT… Hippocampus damage may also cause memory loss and problems with memory storage.
  35. 35. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE OF MEMORY Encoding of working memory involves the spiking of individual neurons induced by sensory input working memory signals in both medial temporal lobe strong relationship between working memory and long-term memory
  36. 36. MEMORY IN INFANCY A growing body of research now indicates that infants as young as 6-months can recall information after a 24-hour delay
  37. 37. DISORDERS Loss of memory is known as amnesia Alzheimers disease Parkinsons disease Hyperthymesia Korsakoffs syndrome Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
  39. 39. PARKINSONS DISEASE•Also affect memory and cognition
  40. 40. HYPERTHYMESIA Also affect memory and cognition Affects an individuals autobiographical memory That they cannot forget small details that otherwise would not be stored
  41. 41. KORSAKOFFS SYNDROME Known as Korsakoffs psychosis, amnesic- confabulatory syndrome Organic brain disease that adversely affects memory
  42. 42. TIP-OF-THE-TONGUE PHENOMENON Common temporary failure of word retrieval from memory