Successfully reported this slideshow.
Activate your 14 day free trial to unlock unlimited reading.
A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon in
which the muscle fibers tear as a result
A sprain is an injury in a joint, caused by
the ligament being stretched beyond its own
Signs and symptoms
• localized stiffness,
• bruisingaround the strained
• Decreased ability to move
• If the ligament is ruptured,
one may hear a popping
• Difficulty using the
• Rest: The sprain should be rested
– No additional force should be applied on site of the sprain.
• Ice: Ice should be applied immediately to the sprain to reduce
swelling and pain
– It can be applied for 10–15 minutes at a time (longer application of ice
may cause damage instead of healing)
– 3-4 times a day.
– Ice can be combined with a wrapping to minimize swelling and
• Compression: Dressings, bandages, or ace-wraps should be
used to immobilize the sprain and provide support
– When wrapping the injury, more pressure should be applied at the far
end of the injury and decrease in the direction of the heart
– Compression should not cut off the circulation of the limb.
• Elevation: Keeping the sprained joint elevated (in relation to
the rest of the body) will also help minimize swelling
Fracture is a partial or complete breakage or
crack in a bone.
Both direct & indirect force can cause fracture.
fracture can be with / without displacement of
Stable fracture- broken bone ends do not move,
either because they are incompletely broken
or jammed together.
Unstable fracture- broken bone ends can easily
move out of position that increases the risk of
damage to blood vessels, nerves & organs.
• Open fracture: Skin breaks causing open
Closed fracture: Skin above the
fracture is intact.
• Quickly assess five P’s in musculoskeletal
Pain- location, severity & quality of pain.
Paresthesia- abnormal sensation or loss of
sensation indicates neuromuscular involvement.
paralysis- nerve damage.
pallor – neurovascular compromise.
Pulse- decreased or absent pulse indicates
reduced blood supply to the area.
• Severe pain
• Difficulty in movement
• Swelling/ bruising / bleeding
• Deformity / abnormal twist of limb
• Tenderness on applying pressure
• Crepitus me be heard
• Signs of shock
Depends on type & location of fracture
For open fractures:
• Control bleeding
• Dress the wound
For closed fractures:
• Calm the person
• Bandage the injured part to an unaffected part of
• Shift to hospital
• Massage the affected area
• Straighten the broken bone
• Move without support to broken bone
• Move joints above / below the fracture
• Give oral liquids / food
• Wear protective pads / helmets when driving
• Teach children / practice, safe habits
Based on location of fracture:
• If unconscious but breathing normally, place the
patient on their side in a supported position &
Call for an ambulance.
• If conscious, allow the patient to rest in the
position of greatest comfort, generally half-sitting
or lying down with the head tilted to the injured
side. Provide a clean pad or some tissues for the
patient to mop up any blood, saliva or mucus.
• If the jaw appears broken or dislocated, allow
the patient to support the injured part with
• Gently apply a cold compress to reduce pain &
Note: ask the casualty to split out any blood,
broken teeth or dentures from his mouth.
Fracture of the collarbone:
Carefully immobilize the arm with padding
under the armpit and apply either an
elevation sling or an arm sling depending on
the patient’s preferred position of greatest
• Gently place soft padding between arm &
body to make more comfortable.
• Send the casualty to hospital in sitting
Upper arm, elbow & lower arm injury:
position of greatest comfort- generally sitting in
a chair or half sitting with support.
Allow the patient to support the arm on the
injured side on a pillow or folded clothing.
Place a triangular bandage between the chest &
the injured arm.
• Do not move
• Put a rolled cloth along the side of the trunk
to support the person
• Wait for ambulance
• Place pads between leg and tie a bandage in 8
• Always remember to take the patient in
• Use a cervical collar or make 1 with paper and
• Maintain airway
Facture of the lower limb
• Pain with movement
• Not able to bend the leg
• Signs of shock
• Use pads, sticks, bandages to immobilize
• Restrict movement
• Supine position
• Dislocation occurs in a joint when it is pushed
beyond its normal range of motion.
• A dislocation is where a bone has been
displaced from its normal position at a joint.
Signs and symptoms
• Strong pain in the articulation at the time of
• A limb is deformed in case of sprains.
• Swelling which manifest itself quickly.
• Pain increase while moving the articulation