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Musculoskeletal Injuries
Musculoskeletal Injuries
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Fracture copy

  1. 1. Musculoskeletal Injuries Presented By Sriloy Mohanty B.N.Y.S.
  2. 2. Musculoskeletal injuries includes strains , sprains, fractures & dislocations. sriloy21@gmail.com
  3. 3. sriloy21@gmail.com
  4. 4. Definition A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon in which the muscle fibers tear as a result of overstretching A sprain is an injury in a joint, caused by the ligament being stretched beyond its own capacity sriloy21@gmail.com
  5. 5. sriloy21@gmail.com
  6. 6. Signs and symptoms strain • localized stiffness, • discoloration • bruisingaround the strained muscle sprain • Pain • Swelling • Bruising • Decreased ability to move the limb • If the ligament is ruptured, one may hear a popping sound • Difficulty using the affected extremity sriloy21@gmail.com
  7. 7. Treatment • Rest: The sprain should be rested – No additional force should be applied on site of the sprain. • Ice: Ice should be applied immediately to the sprain to reduce swelling and pain – It can be applied for 10–15 minutes at a time (longer application of ice may cause damage instead of healing) – 3-4 times a day. – Ice can be combined with a wrapping to minimize swelling and provide support. sriloy21@gmail.com
  8. 8. sriloy21@gmail.com
  9. 9. Cont… • Compression: Dressings, bandages, or ace-wraps should be used to immobilize the sprain and provide support – When wrapping the injury, more pressure should be applied at the far end of the injury and decrease in the direction of the heart – Compression should not cut off the circulation of the limb.[8] • Elevation: Keeping the sprained joint elevated (in relation to the rest of the body) will also help minimize swelling sriloy21@gmail.com
  10. 10. sriloy21@gmail.com
  11. 11. FRACTURE
  12. 12. Fracture is a partial or complete breakage or crack in a bone. Both direct & indirect force can cause fracture. fracture can be with / without displacement of bone fragments. sriloy21@gmail.com
  13. 13. Types: Stable fracture- broken bone ends do not move, either because they are incompletely broken or jammed together. Unstable fracture- broken bone ends can easily move out of position that increases the risk of damage to blood vessels, nerves & organs. sriloy21@gmail.com
  14. 14. • Open fracture: Skin breaks causing open wound. sriloy21@gmail.com
  15. 15. Closed fracture: Skin above the fracture is intact. sriloy21@gmail.com
  16. 16. Complete fracture sriloy21@gmail.com
  17. 17. Greenstick fracture: is an incomplete break in a bone, tend to occur in children, whose bones are more flexible sriloy21@gmail.com
  18. 18. • A hairline fracture is the result of insufficient trauma (e.g. force or impact) to cause much movement between the fragments of bone. sriloy21@gmail.com
  19. 19. Compression fracture sriloy21@gmail.com
  20. 20. Fragmentary fracture sriloy21@gmail.com
  21. 21. sriloy21@gmail.com
  22. 22. Assessment: • Quickly assess five P’s in musculoskeletal injuries : Pain- location, severity & quality of pain. Paresthesia- abnormal sensation or loss of sensation indicates neuromuscular involvement. paralysis- nerve damage. pallor – neurovascular compromise. Pulse- decreased or absent pulse indicates reduced blood supply to the area. sriloy21@gmail.com
  23. 23. Symptoms • Severe pain • Difficulty in movement • Swelling/ bruising / bleeding • Deformity / abnormal twist of limb • Tenderness on applying pressure • Crepitus me be heard • Signs of shock sriloy21@gmail.com
  24. 24. First-aid Depends on type & location of fracture sriloy21@gmail.com
  25. 25. For open fractures: • Control bleeding • Dress the wound • Immobilize. For closed fractures: • Calm the person • Bandage the injured part to an unaffected part of the body • Immobilize • Shift to hospital sriloy21@gmail.com
  26. 26. DO NOT • Massage the affected area • Straighten the broken bone • Move without support to broken bone • Move joints above / below the fracture • Give oral liquids / food sriloy21@gmail.com
  27. 27. Prevention • Wear protective pads / helmets when driving • Teach children / practice, safe habits sriloy21@gmail.com
  28. 28. First aid Based on location of fracture: Facial fracture: • If unconscious but breathing normally, place the patient on their side in a supported position & Call for an ambulance. • If conscious, allow the patient to rest in the position of greatest comfort, generally half-sitting or lying down with the head tilted to the injured side. Provide a clean pad or some tissues for the patient to mop up any blood, saliva or mucus. sriloy21@gmail.com
  29. 29. • If the jaw appears broken or dislocated, allow the patient to support the injured part with soft pad. • Gently apply a cold compress to reduce pain & swelling. Note: ask the casualty to split out any blood, broken teeth or dentures from his mouth. sriloy21@gmail.com
  30. 30. Fracture of the collarbone: Carefully immobilize the arm with padding under the armpit and apply either an elevation sling or an arm sling depending on the patient’s preferred position of greatest comfort. sriloy21@gmail.com
  31. 31. • Gently place soft padding between arm & body to make more comfortable. • Send the casualty to hospital in sitting position. sriloy21@gmail.com
  32. 32. Shoulder injury: To treat shoulder injury follow RICE procedure: Rest ice pack Compression Elevation sriloy21@gmail.com
  33. 33. Upper arm, elbow & lower arm injury: position of greatest comfort- generally sitting in a chair or half sitting with support. Allow the patient to support the arm on the injured side on a pillow or folded clothing. Place a triangular bandage between the chest & the injured arm. sriloy21@gmail.com
  34. 34. sriloy21@gmail.com
  35. 35. sriloy21@gmail.com
  36. 36. sriloy21@gmail.com
  37. 37. sriloy21@gmail.com
  38. 38. sriloy21@gmail.com
  39. 39. Spine fracture • Severe pain in the back • Loss of control over limbs • Loss of sensation of the limb below the injury sriloy21@gmail.com
  40. 40. sriloy21@gmail.com
  41. 41. Treatment • Do not move • Put a rolled cloth along the side of the trunk to support the person • Wait for ambulance • Place pads between leg and tie a bandage in 8 shape • Always remember to take the patient in supine position sriloy21@gmail.com
  42. 42. Neck fracture • Use a cervical collar or make 1 with paper and triangular bandage • Maintain airway sriloy21@gmail.com
  43. 43. Facture of the lower limb • Pain with movement • Swelling • Tenderness • Not able to bend the leg • Signs of shock sriloy21@gmail.com
  44. 44. First aid • Use pads, sticks, bandages to immobilize • Elevate • Restrict movement • Supine position sriloy21@gmail.com
  45. 45. Dislocation • Dislocation occurs in a joint when it is pushed beyond its normal range of motion. • A dislocation is where a bone has been displaced from its normal position at a joint. sriloy21@gmail.com
  46. 46. Signs and symptoms • Strong pain in the articulation at the time of the accident. • A limb is deformed in case of sprains. • Swelling which manifest itself quickly. • Pain increase while moving the articulation sriloy21@gmail.com
  47. 47. thanQ... sriloy21@gmail.com

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