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Learning
Mr. Johny Kutty Joseph
Assistant Professor
Definition
• It is acquiring of knowledge.
• Learning is the acquisition of new behavior or
the strengthening or weakening...
Nature & Characteristics
• Learning is a process.
• It involves all the experiences from birth to death:
produce change in...
Factors affecting learning
• Factors related to learner: Age, Motivation,
intelligence, Aptitude (innate and specific lear...
Types of learning
• Verbal learning: the language we speak,
communication, signs, pictures, symbols, words,
figures, etc a...
Types of learning
• Serial learning: learning alphabets, multiplication table, the
name of states in the country, list of ...
Types of learning: Based on modes of
learning
• It is also called as theories of learning. The
major classifications are;
...
Trial and error theory
• the propagator of this theory is Edward l Thorndike.
• It is the result of his experiments perfor...
Edward L. Thorndike’s Law of Effect
Thorndike’s Puzzle box
Trial and error theory
Summary of the experiment;
a. drive: intensified hunger due to the sight of food.
b. Goal: to get t...
Trial and error theory
Laws of learning: based on the experiment conducted.
a. The law of readiness: learning takes place ...
Theory of Insightful learning
• It is the typical human learning and includes cognitive
processes.
• It is a type of learn...
Theory of Insightful learning
• It is the typical human learning and includes cognitive
processes.
• It is a type of learn...
Theory of Insightful learning
Theory of Insightful learning
• Using boxes to reach banana. (different sized boxes.)
• Using boxes and stick to reach ban...
Theory of Insightful learning
Factors affecting insightful learning
• Experience: Past experiences.
• Intelligence: basic ...
Learning by observation
• We learn behavior through observation in addition to
trial and error or insightful learning.
• A...
Learning by Conditioning
• Most of the learning takes place through conditioning, such
as sucking at the sight of the milk...
• Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which
people (or any organism) learns to associate two
stimuli that occu...
Terminologies used
• Classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov in
1900s.
• Neutral Stimulus: a stimulus that, b...
His experiment on dog
Elements of the experiment
• Unconditioned stimulus: US: natural stimulus
the food
• Unconditioned response: UR: the natur...
Similar experiment by Watson
• He took one infant call Albert.
• The baby was given with a rabbit to play with.
• Baby was...
Principles of Classical Conditioning
Process
• The acquisition phase is the initial learning of the
conditioned response—f...
• Spontaneous Recovery.
Extinction does not mean, however, that the dog
has simply unlearned or forgotten the association...
• Generalization
After an animal has learned a conditioned
response to one stimulus, it may also respond to
similar stimu...
• Discrimination
The opposite of generalization is
discrimination, in which an individual learns to
produce a conditioned...
Application of Classical Conditioning
• classical conditioning explains some cases of phobias,
which are irrational or exc...
Application of Classical Conditioning
• To treat phobias of specific objects, the therapist
gradually and repeatedly prese...
• Operant or Instrumental Conditioning is a type of
learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened if it
is reinforc...
B.F. Skinner Experiments
B.F. Skinner Experiments
• He designed a special puzzle box.
• It had level that when pressed provide a cup
water/food.
• ...
Principles of Operant Conditioning
1. Reinforcement refers to any process that
strengthens a particular behavior—that is,
...
2. Punishment weakens a behaviour, reducing the chances that
the behavior will occur again.
– Positive: involves reducing ...
4. extinction is the elimination of a learned behavior
by discontinuing the reinforcer of that behavior.
• A behaviour lea...
Discrimination is learning that a behavior will be
reinforced in one situation but not in another.
• The man may learn tha...
Application of Operant Conditioning
• Parents
• Teachers
• Behavior therapists use shaping techniques to teach
basic job s...
• This theory is propagated by Abraham
Maslow.
• The behaviour is the struggle to satisfy the
different levels of need as ...
• It is also basically the subtype of humanistic theory.
• Roger distinguished two types of learning as cognitive and
expe...
• He classifies the role of teacher as;
1. Making favourable and positive environment.
2. Making clear objectives of the l...
• Transfer refers to the transfer of knowledge, training and
habits acquired in one situation to another situation. Eg.
Ab...
• Ones habitual way of doing his study in a particular way and
style may be termed as his study habit.
• The scholars and ...
2. Adopt a desirable mode and time of note/material making.
3. There should be no stress or dependence on the mechanical
m...
9. Respect the individual difference: (studying early morning or
late night)(studying in silence or in music listening)(st...
Learning, Psychology
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Learning, Psychology

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Learning, types and theories

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Learning, Psychology

  1. 1. Learning Mr. Johny Kutty Joseph Assistant Professor
  2. 2. Definition • It is acquiring of knowledge. • Learning is the acquisition of new behavior or the strengthening or weakening of old behavior as the result of experience. – Henry P Smith • Learning is the acquisition of habits, knowledge and attitude. – Crow and Crow • Learning is relatively permanent change in behaviour brought about by experience - Rod Plotnik.
  3. 3. Nature & Characteristics • Learning is a process. • It involves all the experiences from birth to death: produce change in behavior. • Learning makes change in behavior either +ve or –ve. • Learning prepares an individual for adjustment and adaptation. • All learning is purposeful and goal oriented. • The scope of learning is too wide. • Learning is universal and is continuous. • Learning does not include those changes that occurs as part of maturity, drugs etc.
  4. 4. Factors affecting learning • Factors related to learner: Age, Motivation, intelligence, Aptitude (innate and specific learning ability), maturation, physical condition of learner, mental health and emotions of learner. • External Factors: good physical environment, quality of teaching, social support, availability of resources. • Factors related to method of learning: basic education level, length of working period, repetition, learning methods.
  5. 5. Types of learning • Verbal learning: the language we speak, communication, signs, pictures, symbols, words, figures, etc are used for verbal learning. • Motor learning: driving a car, flying a plane, drawing, using equipments etc. • Conceptual learning: it’s a form of mental image which denotes a generalized idea about the things, persons, or events. • Problem solving: a higher type of learning. It requires the use of reasoning, thinking, imagination, generalization etc.
  6. 6. Types of learning • Serial learning: learning alphabets, multiplication table, the name of states in the country, list of PMs, Presidents etc. • Paired-associate learning: a learning of something in association with something else. Ganga = River Ganges, Kishanpur= Lord Krishna : Match the following. Dog, Parrot, Milk, animals, Birds, Cat • Bloom’s domains of learning: affective , psychomotor and cognitive learning. To learn Chess one has to learn the rules of the game (cognition), how to hold and move the pieces on chess board (psychomotor), get involved in game and like the play (affective) • Informal (from parents, friends etc.), formal (school and teachers), non-formal learning. (clubs, workshops mutual interest groups etc.)
  7. 7. Types of learning: Based on modes of learning • It is also called as theories of learning. The major classifications are; a. Learning by trial and error. b. Learning by insight. c. Learning by observation. d. Learning by conditioning. e. Humanistic theory of learning f. Roger’s theory of learning.
  8. 8. Trial and error theory • the propagator of this theory is Edward l Thorndike. • It is the result of his experiments performed on chickens, rats, and cats. • He put a hungry cat in a puzzle box. • There was only one door. • A fish was kept outside. • the door was latched. • The repeated movements made the door open. • He repeated the experiments many times. • The cat learned how to remove the latch and open the door.
  9. 9. Edward L. Thorndike’s Law of Effect Thorndike’s Puzzle box
  10. 10. Trial and error theory Summary of the experiment; a. drive: intensified hunger due to the sight of food. b. Goal: to get the food from outside the box. c. Block: closed door/latch d. Random movements: trying to get out of box. e. Chance success: first opening of the door. f. Selection: recognizing the right movement to open the door/latch g. Fixation. Learn to open the door.
  11. 11. Trial and error theory Laws of learning: based on the experiment conducted. a. The law of readiness: learning takes place when the person has readiness to learn. Motivation is important in learning. The physical and mental readiness to learn. b. The law of exercise/Use and disuse or practice: learning takes place through repetition and practice. Nursing skills learning. Class room teaching is only introduction. c. The law of effect/Satisfaction and dissatisfaction: feeling is important, effect is important, satisfaction makes us confident, feeling of self worth.
  12. 12. Theory of Insightful learning • It is the typical human learning and includes cognitive processes. • It is a type of learning or problem solving that happens all of sudden, by understanding the relationships between various parts of the problem rather than through trial and error. Plan and execute actions before we get endangered. • It include holistic view of situation and generalization of conclusions.
  13. 13. Theory of Insightful learning • It is the typical human learning and includes cognitive processes. • It is a type of learning or problem solving that happens all of sudden, by understanding the relationships between various parts of the problem rather than through trial and error. Plan and execute actions. • It include holistic view of situation and generalization of conclusions. • The main propagator of this theory is Kohler. • He did an experiment on chimpanzee called Sultan.
  14. 14. Theory of Insightful learning
  15. 15. Theory of Insightful learning • Using boxes to reach banana. (different sized boxes.) • Using boxes and stick to reach banana. (longer and shorter sticks.) • This experiment follows some principles such as a. Identifying the problem. b. Organizing the pain of action. c. Using insight.
  16. 16. Theory of Insightful learning Factors affecting insightful learning • Experience: Past experiences. • Intelligence: basic and acquired intelligence. • Learning situation: favorable situation • Initial efforts: a short period of planning • Repetition & Generalization: learning to solve a problem by practicing.
  17. 17. Learning by observation • We learn behavior through observation in addition to trial and error or insightful learning. • A child may understand the effect of a wrong behavior by seeing his friend getting punished for the same. • Children learn and imitate behavior they have observed in other people or family members. • Not all observed behavior is learnt. • Learning by observation mainly includes the aspects such as attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation.
  18. 18. Learning by Conditioning • Most of the learning takes place through conditioning, such as sucking at the sight of the milk bottle, making grimaces in response to a dislike, smiling in response to other's smile etc. • The Mechanism of Conditioning is mainly classified into A. Classical Conditioning: a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired: a response which is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone. B. Operant Conditioning. It is a type of learning where behaviour is controlled by consequences. Key concepts in operant conditioning are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment and negative punishment.
  19. 19. • Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which people (or any organism) learns to associate two stimuli that occur in sequence. • Classical conditioning occurs when a person forms a mental association between two stimuli, so that encountering one stimulus means the person thinks of the other. • Condition: to make people or animals act or react in a particular way by gradually getting them used to a specific pattern of events.
  20. 20. Terminologies used • Classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov in 1900s. • Neutral Stimulus: a stimulus that, before conditioning, has no effect on the desired response. • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that brings about a response without having been learned. • Unconditioned response (UCR): a response that is natural and needs no training. • Conditioned Stimulus (CS): Once-neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus. • Conditioned response (CR): a response that, after conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus.
  21. 21. His experiment on dog
  22. 22. Elements of the experiment • Unconditioned stimulus: US: natural stimulus the food • Unconditioned response: UR: the natural response of salivation. • Conditioned Stimulus: CS: artificial stimulus ringing the bell. It is a substitute to natural stimulus. • Conditioned response: CR: the response to conditioned stimulus.
  23. 23. Similar experiment by Watson • He took one infant call Albert. • The baby was given with a rabbit to play with. • Baby was happy and pleasant. • He created a loud noise to frighten the boy as soon as the baby touched rabbit. • Baby was frightened. • He repeated it for number of times. • Slowly the baby feared the rabbit and never came near to it. • This also supports the theory of classical conditioning.
  24. 24. Principles of Classical Conditioning Process • The acquisition phase is the initial learning of the conditioned response—for example, the dog learning to salivate at the sound of the bell. • Extinction is used to describe the elimination of the conditioned response by repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus.  If a dog has learned to salivate at the sound of a bell, an experimenter can gradually extinguish the dog’s response by repeatedly ringing the bell without presenting food afterward.
  25. 25. • Spontaneous Recovery. Extinction does not mean, however, that the dog has simply unlearned or forgotten the association between the bell and the food. After extinction, if the experimenter lets a few hours pass and then rings the bell again, the dog will usually salivate at the sound of the bell once again. The reappearance of an extinguished response after some time has passed is called spontaneous recovery.
  26. 26. • Generalization After an animal has learned a conditioned response to one stimulus, it may also respond to similar stimuli without further training. If a child is bitten by a large black dog, the child may fear not only that dog, but other large dogs.  This phenomenon is called generalization. Less similar stimuli will usually produce less generalization. For example, the child may show little fear of smaller dogs.
  27. 27. • Discrimination The opposite of generalization is discrimination, in which an individual learns to produce a conditioned response to one stimulus but not to another stimulus that is similar. For example, a child may show a fear response to freely roaming dogs, but may show no fear when a dog is on a leash or confined to a pen.
  28. 28. Application of Classical Conditioning • classical conditioning explains some cases of phobias, which are irrational or excessive fears of specific objects or situations. • classical conditioning explains many emotional responses—such as happiness, excitement, anger, and anxiety—that people have to specific stimuli. • classical conditioning procedures are used to treat phobias and other unwanted behaviors, such as alcoholism and addictions.
  29. 29. Application of Classical Conditioning • To treat phobias of specific objects, the therapist gradually and repeatedly presents the feared object to the patient while the patient relaxes. • Through extinction, the patient loses his or her fear of the object. • In one treatment for alcoholism, patients drink an alcoholic beverage and then ingest a drug that produces nausea. • Eventually they feel nauseous at the sight or smell of alcohol and stop drinking it.
  30. 30. • Operant or Instrumental Conditioning is a type of learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened if it is reinforced and weakened if it is punished. • The term operant conditioning refers to the fact that the learner must operate, or perform a certain behaviour, before receiving a reward or punishment. • American psychologist B. F. Skinner became one of the most famous psychologists in history for his pioneering research on operant conditioning. • In fact, he coined the term operant conditioning.
  31. 31. B.F. Skinner Experiments
  32. 32. B.F. Skinner Experiments • He designed a special puzzle box. • It had level that when pressed provide a cup water/food. • Each time the lever is pressed a sound also was created. • He put a hungry/thirst rat in the cage. • At regular interval he used to press the lever and feed the rat. • Fe a times later the rat started doing it by itself whenever it felt hungry/thirsty. The sound associated with it and food/water acted as the positive reinforcement.
  33. 33. Principles of Operant Conditioning 1. Reinforcement refers to any process that strengthens a particular behavior—that is, increases the chances that the behavior will occur again. – Positive reinforcement: a method of strengthening behavior by following it with a pleasant stimulus. – Negative reinforcement: Negative reinforcement is a method of strengthening a behavior by following it with the removal or omission of an unpleasant stimulus.
  34. 34. 2. Punishment weakens a behaviour, reducing the chances that the behavior will occur again. – Positive: involves reducing a behavior by delivering an unpleasant stimulus if the behavior occurs. – Negative: involves reducing a behavior by removing a pleasant stimulus if the behavior occurs. 3. Shaping is a reinforcement technique that is used to teach animals or people behaviors that they have never performed before. • In this method, the teacher begins by reinforcing a response the learner can perform easily, and then gradually requires more and more difficult responses. • For example, to teach a rat to press a lever that is over its head, the trainer can first reward any upward head movement, then an upward movement of at least one inch, then two inches, and so on, until the rat reaches the lever.
  35. 35. 4. extinction is the elimination of a learned behavior by discontinuing the reinforcer of that behavior. • A behaviour learned is not always permanent. • If a rat has learned to press a lever because it receives food for doing so, its lever-pressing will decrease and eventually disappear if food is no longer delivered. 5. Generalization and discrimination occur in operant conditioning in much the same way that they do in classical conditioning. • In generalization, people perform a behaviour learned in one situation in other, similar situations. • For example, a man who is rewarded with laughter when he tells certain jokes at a bar may tell the same jokes at restaurants, parties, or wedding receptions.
  36. 36. Discrimination is learning that a behavior will be reinforced in one situation but not in another. • The man may learn that telling his jokes in church or at a serious business meeting will not make people laugh.
  37. 37. Application of Operant Conditioning • Parents • Teachers • Behavior therapists use shaping techniques to teach basic job skills to adults with mental retardation. • Therapists use reinforcement techniques to teach self- care skills to people with severe mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, and use punishment and extinction to reduce aggressive and antisocial behaviors by these individuals. • to treat stuttering, marital problems, drug addictions, impulsive spending, eating disorders, and many other behavioral problems.
  38. 38. • This theory is propagated by Abraham Maslow. • The behaviour is the struggle to satisfy the different levels of need as given in the picture.
  39. 39. • It is also basically the subtype of humanistic theory. • Roger distinguished two types of learning as cognitive and experimental learning. • Cognitive learning is meaningless unless it is applied. Eg. Mathematics, history, geography. • Experimental learning includes personal involvement. It is self initiated, self evaluation. • He believes in the strength and potentials of human beings like natural learning inclination and interest. • The role of teacher, parents an well wishers in learning are to help the learner in changing desire for personal change and motivation. • The learning should care and facilitate growth and developments according to their requirement.
  40. 40. • He classifies the role of teacher as; 1. Making favourable and positive environment. 2. Making clear objectives of the learning. 3. Organising learning resources. 4. Balancing intellectual and emotional components of learning. 5. Sharing the feelings and thoughts of learner. • He the symbol of good learning are 1. Minimum threat to the learner. 2. Good participation of learner. 3. Good performance in practical, social, personal, and research areas. 4. Learner develop willingness to learn and utilize self-evaluation.
  41. 41. • Transfer refers to the transfer of knowledge, training and habits acquired in one situation to another situation. Eg. Ability to play Badminton can be transferred to play Tennis. • Types of Transfer; 1. Positive transfer: previously learnt benefits performance or learning of new things. Eg. Learning of Basic science helps in learning higher education. 2. Negative Transfer. previously learnt hinders performance or learning of new things. Eg. A Child learns to pronounce BUT correctly but finds difficult pronounce PUT in the same manner. 3. Zero Transfer. The previous leraning have no influence on other learning. Eg. Learning Science and Arts.
  42. 42. • Ones habitual way of doing his study in a particular way and style may be termed as his study habit. • The scholars and psychologists have found that the following principles to be followed as good study habits. a. Establishing Proper time schedule for studying: Time Management is a great art. It is useless to make such a comment as “not getting enough time”. We should be quite regular, devoted and punctual to allot time for study. b. Observing desirable healthy habits for carrying out study in the planned time schedule: this can be understood with the following aspects. 1. Concentrate attention to study and preparation of study material.
  43. 43. 2. Adopt a desirable mode and time of note/material making. 3. There should be no stress or dependence on the mechanical memorization of the studied material. Use insight. 4. Practice makes the man perfect. Make a habit of revising and practising the studied material. 5. Better to study three or four subjects in a span of time of three or fours hours. The change and variety will help in creating interest. 6. Love and respect your teachers. 7. Maintain healthy desirable body postures and positions for study. It includes the place selected for self study. 8. Try to observe the principle of work and rest.
  44. 44. 9. Respect the individual difference: (studying early morning or late night)(studying in silence or in music listening)(studying alone or with class mates)(reading silently or reciting louder). Don’t feel jealous on other ability and don’t be inferior. 10. Study when you feel motivated, energetic. Don’t try study when you feel sleepy or stressed. 11. Best way to learn is discuss with colleagues, teaching others, and practicing what you have learned.

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