MEMORY AS AN INFORMATIONPROCESSING APPROACH Conversely, memory failure—for example, forgetting an important fact—reflects a breakdown ENCODING in one of these stages of memory.the initial perception and STORAGE registration of information. the retention of encoded information over time. RETRIEVALWhenever people successfully recalla prior experience, they must have the processes involved inencoded, stored, and retrieved using stored information.information about the experience.
TYPES OF MEMORYSENSORY MEMORYSHORT TERM MEMORYLONG TERM MEMORY
SENSORY MEMORY are momentary recordings of information in our sensor systems. In fact, most information only lasts a few seconds and is replaced with something else that captures our attention. Recorded from Iconic memory – visual Echoic memory – auditory Transfer to short term memory is controlled by attention
SHORT TERM / WORKING MEMORY Psychologists originally used the term short-term memory to refer to the ability to hold information in mind over a brief period of time. The term working memory is now commonly used to refer to a broader system that both stores information briefly and allows manipulation and use of the stored information. Limited amount of information for a brief period of time. Roughly seven plus minus two
SHORT TERM / WORKING MEMORY Information is held from 15 to 20 seconds and if not transferred to long term memory it is lost primarily through interference and decay. Memories are transferred to long term memory through rehearsal. If you need to store more, you may be helped by the use of CHUNKING, or grouping items into categories which will be easier to store and to retrieve later. The successful formation of a chunk is known as CLOSURE.
LONG TERM MEMORY Generally, long-term memory describes a system in the brain that can store vast amounts of information on a relatively enduring basis. When you play basketball, remember that you had lunch at Jack in the Box yesterday, recall your first birthday party at a club, play the Wii, or sing your favorite song, you draw on information and skills stored in long-term memory.
LONG TERM MEMORY Holds very large amount of information for long periods of time. Information in the long term memory become relatively permanent. Three kinds of Long Term Memory: Episodic - refers to memories of specific episodes in one’s life and episodic memories are connected with a specific time and place. Semantic - refers to our general knowledge of the world and all of the facts we know Procedural - refers to the skills that humans possess
THEORIES OF FORGETTING Interference Theory – the ability to learn new information is disrupted by what we have learned before and what we will learn in the future. Proactive – when previous learning interferes with later learning Retroactive – when later learning disrupts earlier learning Decay Theory – if information is not used with time, forgetting occurs Repression - refers to forgetting an unpleasant event or piece of information due to its threatening quality.
OTHER CONCEPTS Déjà Vu and Jamais Vu The sense of déjà vu (French for “seen before”) is the strange sensation of having been somewhere before, or experienced your current situation before, even though you know you have not. The sense of jamais vu (French for “never seen”) arises when people feel they are experiencing something for the first time, even though they know they must have experienced it before.
OTHER CONCEPTS Flashbulb memory is an unusually vivid memory of an especially emotional or dramatic past event. May also be associated with vivid emotional experiences in one’s own life: the death of a family member or close friend, the birth of a baby, being in a car accident, and so on. Tip-of-the-tongue state. Refers to the situation in which a person tries to retrieve a relatively familiar word, name, or fact, but cannot quite do so.
OTHER CONCEPTS Eidetic imagery or photographic memory the ability to recall every detail after looking at a picture or page for a few seconds Persons with this unusual form of memory must be able to hold visual images much longer and form very numerous associations in a short time Mnemonist
AMNESIA Inability to recall information Types Anterograde amnesia – inability to remember information/ events after the accident or brain injury Retrograde amnesia – inability to remember information/ events that occurred prior to the accident
BRAIN DAMAGE & ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE Brain Damage Tumors, strokes, surgery can produce various types of memory impairment Alzheimer’s Disease A progressive mental deterioration that occurs most commonly in old age.
IMPROVING MEMORY Chunking Mnemonic Devices Overlearning Organization of text materials Organization of lecture notes Method of Loci Peg Word Method PQ4R Method - Preview, Questions, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review Spaced Learning