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Thinking
The definition of
thinking:
The mind is the idea
while thinking
processes of the brain
involved in
processing
information ...
Some limit in the definition of
thinking is as follows:
1. Thinking is the activity of human reason as a
process of streng...
(9) http://www.dartmouth.edu/%7Ecompose/faculty/pedagogies/thinking.html#elements
4. Thinking is processing information me...
Thinking Process The processes of
thought are as follows:
1. Understanding the formation. Understanding, formed
through th...
(10)
2. Opinion Formation- Formation of opinion is to put the
relationship between two terms or more. The opinions
express...
3. Conclusion withdrawal or Establishment Decision - 
The decision is the result of the act makes sense to form a
new opin...
(1) p15 – paraphrase of an excerpt from The Delphi Report
Thinking Function: Thinking function involves
1. Interpretation ...
(3) http://criticalthinking.org/University/intraits.html
- Heuristic That helps to simplify the problem,
influenced by pas...
Development of Thinking 
Piaget argued that the logical
way of thinking evolved gradually, at
about the age of two years a...
(2)
  1. Sensory Motor Stage
Lasts from birth until the age
of 2 years. At this stage,
infants build an
understanding of t...
2. Pre-operational stage
Lasted roughly from age 2 to 7
years. At this stage, children begin to
describe the world with wo...
(2)
 3. Concrete operational
stage Lasted roughly from ages 
7-11 years. At this stage 
children can carry out 
operations...
4. Formal Operational Stage It appears from 
the age of 11-15 years. At this stage the 
individual beyond the real world, ...
(5)  http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html
Language and Mind
            Thinking is an activity that
resulted...
In everyday life, is easy once observed that originated 
from the mind, then set out in the talk, there appeared 
many eff...
(5)  http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html
Language in the system memory, 
then work affecting the course of 
...
About
This Powerpoint Presentation
is Prepared by:
Miles Therese Granada
Bithiah Marielle Olay
Franzel Flores
Mikkha Canlas
http...
THINKING - PSYCHOLOGY
THINKING - PSYCHOLOGY
THINKING - PSYCHOLOGY
THINKING - PSYCHOLOGY
THINKING - PSYCHOLOGY
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THINKING - PSYCHOLOGY

  1. 1. Thinking
  2. 2. The definition of thinking: The mind is the idea while thinking processes of the brain involved in processing information such as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, to reason and make decisions.
  3. 3. Some limit in the definition of thinking is as follows: 1. Thinking is the activity of human reason as a process of strengthening the relationship between stimulus and response. 2. Thinking is a reasonable working of various views with the knowledge that has been stored in the mind long before the emergence of new knowledge. 3. Thinking can be interpreted to remember something, and questioned whether there is a relationship between what is intended.
  4. 4. (9) http://www.dartmouth.edu/%7Ecompose/faculty/pedagogies/thinking.html#elements 4. Thinking is processing information mentally or cognitively by rearranging the information from the environment and the symbols are stored in the memory of his past. 5. Thinking is a symbolic representation of some event train of ideas in a precise and careful that began with the problem. 6. Thinking is a mental process mental representations newly formed through the transformation of information by interaction, attributes such as the assessment of mental abstraction, logic, imagination and problem-solving.
  5. 5. Thinking Process The processes of thought are as follows: 1. Understanding the formation. Understanding, formed through the three stages as follows: a. Analysis of the characteristics of similar objects. These objects we look at the elements - elements one by one. For example, or set up a human sense. b. Comparison - compare these features to be found traits - traits which are the same, which is not the same, which is always there and which ones do not always exist where the essential and which are not essential. c. Abstraction, that is set aside, dispose, traits that are not essential, capturing the essential characteristics.
  6. 6. (10) 2. Opinion Formation- Formation of opinion is to put the relationship between two terms or more. The opinions expressed in the language called the sentence, which consists of basic sentence or the title or subject and predicate. Furthermore, the opinion can be divided into three kinds: a.Affirmative or positive opinion, the opinion which declares a state of something, for example Franzel was clever, and aswell as Yyah….and so on. b.b. Negative opinion, the repeal That opinion, which clearly explains the absence of anything thing else on the nature of things: For example Mikkha is ugly and so skinny. c.c. Modalities That opinion stating opinion- the possibility of something on the nature of things: for example it might rain today, Miles might not come. And so on.
  7. 7. 3. Conclusion withdrawal or Establishment Decision -  The decision is the result of the act makes sense to form a new opinion based on the opinions that already exist. There are three kinds of conclusions, ie a. Inductive inference the decisions taken from the  opinion - opinion toward a particular public opinion. b. Deductive conclusions  Deductive decision drawn from the general to the specific, so in contrast to inductive decision. c. Conclusion analogical - The decision is a decision that analogical obtained by comparing or customize with specific opinions that already exist. (2) p7. http://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/DEXadobe.PDF
  8. 8. (1) p15 – paraphrase of an excerpt from The Delphi Report Thinking Function: Thinking function involves 1. Interpretation Problems:  Known also by defining the problem by way of creative thinking 2. Problem Solving Strategy: Make a selection of the best problem-solving strategies some problem-solving strategies are often used - Trial anderror It took a long time (Short Term  Memory). Trial and error is to try to resolve if one tried to repeat it will know where lies the fault. - Informational Retrieval retrieve the information for solving problems quickly (Long Term Memory) - Algorithm That is a problem-solving method that guarantees a solution if the problem of available opportunities for someone to develop it.
  9. 9. (3) http://criticalthinking.org/University/intraits.html - Heuristic That helps to simplify the problem, influenced by past experience. There are four heuristic methods are: 1. Hill Climbing A heuristic strategy in which each step is concern to move closer to its final destination. 2. Sub goals Method of solving a problem by making it smaller or in pieces, everywhere respective aims to simplify the solution 3. Mean and Analysis A heuristic strategy that will target to reduce differences between the situation with the desired objectives through the intermediary of a way. 4. Working Backward A heuristic strategy where we have to move backwards from our goal in some circumstances
  10. 10. Development of Thinking  Piaget argued that the logical way of thinking evolved gradually, at about the age of two years and in about seven years. Piaget explained, thinking children did not like thinking adults. Children's minds seem to be different with a larger person. Children seem to solve the problem in an entirely different level. Differences children who are smaller and bigger is not too related to the issues that older children have more knowledge, but because they are different kinds of knowledge, the present invention Piaget began studying the development of mental structure. Jean Piaget was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology"
  11. 11. (2)   1. Sensory Motor Stage Lasts from birth until the age of 2 years. At this stage, infants build an understanding of the world by coordinating the experiences of sensors (such as seeing and hearing) with physical motor actions, the so-called sensory motor. At the beginning of this stage, the newborn has a little more than a reflex patterns. The following developmental stages according to Piaget: 
  12. 12. 2. Pre-operational stage Lasted roughly from age 2 to 7 years. At this stage, children begin to describe the world with words and pictures. Symbolic thinking beyond the simple relationship between the sensor information and physical action. However, even preschoolers can symbolically depicts the world, according to Piaget, they are still not able to implement what is called "surgery"-an internalized mental actions that allow the children to do mentally what was previously done physically. The following developmental stages according to Piaget: 
  13. 13. (2)  3. Concrete operational stage Lasted roughly from ages  7-11 years. At this stage  children can carry out  operations, and logical  reasoning replaces intuitive  thought as far as thought can be  applied to the specific examples  or concrete. For example,  concrete operational thinking  can not imagine the steps  necessary to solve an algebra  problem, which is too vague to  be considered at this stage of  development.  The following developmental stages according to Piaget:
  14. 14. 4. Formal Operational Stage It appears from  the age of 11-15 years. At this stage the  individual beyond the real world, concrete  experiences and think in abstract and more  logical. As part of a more abstract thinking,  adolescents develop a picture of an ideal  state. They can think what kind of parents the  ideal and compare their parents with this ideal  standard. They began to prepare for the  possibilities for the future and in awe of what  they can do. In solving the problem, the formal  operational thinker is more systematically,  develop hypotheses about why things happen  like that, then test this hypothesis by way of  deductive reasoning.    (5)  http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html The following developmental stages according to Piaget:
  15. 15. (5)  http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html Language and Mind             Thinking is an activity that resulted in the discovery of the human person is directed to a destination. We think to find the  knowledge and understanding that  we want. Thinking is the main  thing that distinguishes between  humans and animals. Humans may  think because human whereas  animals do not have the  language. Animal language is an  instinct that does not need to be  studied and taught, while human  language is the result of culture  that must be learned and taught.  Disadvantages of the animal  does not know the words to  issue his mind. With language,  humans can give names to  everything, whether visible or  invisible. All objects, jobs, and  others abstract, is named. That  way, everything that has ever  observed and experienced can  be saved, be responses and  experiences, then processed  (think) into insights.             
  16. 16. In everyday life, is easy once observed that originated  from the mind, then set out in the talk, there appeared  many effects both positive and negative. So, the truth of  a language is not solely lie in the composition of  grammatical alone, but also on governance thought,  intention, and the implications that arise from an  utterance. The idea is not simply embodied one word  only, but requires a form of sentence. Regarding the  relationship of language and mind there is a saying  "Language indicates the quality of the speaker". Or  expanded again "demonstrated the nation's language"  means a person's personality or a nation can be observed  and analyzed from the speech he said, he loves reading,  also from the character of the existing language support.  (5)  http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html
  17. 17. (5)  http://criticalthinking.org/University/helps.html Language in the system memory,  then work affecting the course of  feelings and thoughts that passed  its out-put in the form of speech  and behavior. Watson through his  theory to say that thinking is  essentially implicit  behavior. Thought to be motor  behavior. Thinking out loud aims  to whisper to yourself. Thus the  indissoluble link between thought  and language. Language is the  actualization of the mind. No  one's language will not understand  what others are thinking and what  she thought.
  18. 18. About
  19. 19. This Powerpoint Presentation is Prepared by: Miles Therese Granada Bithiah Marielle Olay Franzel Flores Mikkha Canlas http://psiko-info.blogspot.com/2011/06/berpikir-dalam-psikologi.html SOURCE: Research Of Topic: Miles Therese Granada Production of Copies: Bithiah Marielle Olay
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This is a powerpoint that explains the art of thinking in Psychology

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