Memory recap 2009


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  • Cartoon of Tulving, a well known memory researcher. He believes that animals don’t have an episodic memory (memory of personal experience eg. Your birthday) so while they may know many things they do not remember past experiences the way we do
  • Sometimes a certain smell takes you back to your childhood - eg. candy floss for me reminds me of the fair
  • durations
  • Epilepsy – tendency to have recurring seizures caused by a sudden burst of activity in the brain. Seizure – uncontrolled movements . Hippocampus – part of the brain that plays role in memory and spatial movement
  • Central executive – directs your focus eg. Watch tv. The separate mental subsystems allow us to process images and words simultaneously
  • Write on board - Dual store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin) suggests that the only way to learn new material and commit it to long term memory was via the short term store. It assumed that the longer an item was held in the Short term store more likely it was to go into LTM
  • Semantic -
  • Look at the idea of memory trace more for forgetting
  • Memory recap 2009

    1. 1. MEMORY ‘’ When I was younger, I could remember anything, whether it had happened or not’’ Mark Twain
    2. 2. Definition of Memory <ul><li>The mental processes used to encode , store and retrieve information </li></ul>
    3. 3. Encoding <ul><li>This takes many forms: visual, semantic, auditory, taste and smell. The information is transformed into codes, which create a memory trace, which is then stored in memory </li></ul>
    4. 4. Storage <ul><li>Storage: </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the amount of </li></ul><ul><li>information that can be </li></ul><ul><li>stored in memory </li></ul><ul><li>Duration: </li></ul><ul><li>How long information is </li></ul><ul><li>stored in memory </li></ul>
    5. 5. Retrieval <ul><li>The process where information is dug out of memory, including recognition, recall and reconstruction. </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Multi-store Model of Memory In 1968 Atkinson & Shiffrin propose the classic three stage memory model
    7. 7. The case of H.M. (Blakemore 1988) <ul><li>H.M. underwent an operation for epilepsy and his hippocampus was removed on both sides of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>He had severe amnesia, in that he had difficulty laying down memories, even though he could remember things before the operation </li></ul><ul><li>This evidence supports the claim that there is a short-term and a long-term memory </li></ul>
    8. 8. two different memory stores <ul><li>Information is maintained by continued attention and rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of trace: up to 30 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: Stores 7 +/- 2 items </li></ul><ul><li>Information is maintained by repetition, organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of trace: from minutes to years </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: limit not known </li></ul><ul><li>Short term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Long term memory </li></ul>
    9. 10. Baddeley’s model of working memory The contemporary model of working memory suggests an attentional control system, the central executive, that is supported by two subsystems, one visual, one verbal
    10. 11. Automatic or effortful processing? <ul><li>Automatic processing: the processing of information that guides behaviour, but without conscious awareness, and without interfering with other conscious activity that may be going on at the same time: </li></ul><ul><li>for example, driving slowly down a street (automatic processing) while looking for a specific address (conscious processing) </li></ul>
    11. 12. Levels of processing <ul><li>Craik and Lockhart (1972) challenged the idea of the dual store model (STM/LTM) and suggested that rehearsal is not enough to account for memory. Too simplistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Craik and Lockhart believe that memories occur as a by-product of the processing of information </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed that shallow processing of information results in a weak memory trace, compared to deep processing which results in a stronger, more durable memory trace. </li></ul>
    12. 13. Shallow…………..Deep <ul><li>Information can be encoded at different levels, from shallow to deep: </li></ul><ul><li>Case (shallow level of processing): </li></ul><ul><li>Is the word in capital letters? BOOK </li></ul><ul><li>Rhyme (intermediate level of processing): </li></ul><ul><li>Does the work rhyme with fate? LATE </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence (deep level of processing): </li></ul><ul><li>Does the word fit the sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>He met a __________ in the pub? FRIEND </li></ul>
    13. 14. Levels of processing
    14. 15. Implicit/explicit memory <ul><li>Explicit (declarative) memory : those things that you are aware of remembering and that you can describe in words, such as your birthday, or the meaning of the word &quot;cradle&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of explicit memory: </li></ul><ul><li>Episodic memory  the meal you ate last night, or the name of an old classmate, or the date of some important public event. </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic memory  is the system that you use to store your knowledge of the world. It includes our memory of the meanings of words–the kind of memory that lets us recall not only the names of the world’s great capitals, but also social customs, the functions of things, and their colour and odour. </li></ul>
    15. 16. Implicit memory <ul><li>Implicit (procedural) memory : expressed by means other than words. For example, when you ride a bike, juggle some balls or simply tie your shoelaces, you are expressing memories of motor skills that do not require the use of language. We form implicit memories without being aware that we are doing so. </li></ul>
    16. 17. How are memories stored? <ul><li>Work with HM and other amnesiacs implicates the hippocampus as being crucial for memory formation </li></ul><ul><li>explicit memories are laid down via the hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit memories are associated with the cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroscience explores the synaptic changes that affect memory </li></ul>
    17. 18. Synaptic changes and memory <ul><li>Hebb suggested in 1949 that memory is specific patterns of activity across a network of neurons. Synapses (connections between neurons) become more extensive during the learning. This is a &quot;mechanism&quot; of long-term memory.  </li></ul><ul><li>Long Term Potentiation (LTP) an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory </li></ul><ul><li>Fields (2005) with repeated neural firing a nerve cell’s genes produces synapse strengthening proteins, enabling long term memory to form </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    18. 19. Retrieval <ul><li>Retrieving a memory might involve recall, recognition or relearning </li></ul><ul><li>The encoding specificity principle states that memory is improved when information available at encoding is also available at retrieval. </li></ul><ul><li>Say &quot;silk&quot; five times. Now spell &quot;silk.&quot; What do cows drink?  </li></ul><ul><li>If you said milk that is an example of phonetic priming </li></ul>
    19. 20. Retrieval…. <ul><li>...Is context dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Godden & Baddeley (1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Abernathy (1940) </li></ul><ul><li>and state dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Goodwin et al (1969) </li></ul>
    20. 21. Stress affects memory…