Memory Process by which information is: Acquired Encoding Stored in the brain Storage Later retrieved Retrieval Eventually (possibly) forgotten
Information-Processing Model of Memory Computer as a model for our memory Three types of memory Sensory memory Short-term memory (STM) Long-term memory (LTM) Can hold vast quantities of information for many years
Information-Processing Model of Memory Retrieval Attention Encoding Sensory Short-term Long-termStimulus memory memory memory Forgetting Forgetting Forgetting
Sensory Memory Stores all the stimuli that register on the senses Lasts up to three secondsSensory Two types Sensory Iconic memory Input Memory Visual Usually lasts about 0.3 seconds Sperling’s tests (1960s) Echoic memory (we’ll come back to this)
Sensory Memory Echoic memory Sensory memory for auditory input that lasts only 2 to 3 secondsWhy do we need sensory memory?
Short-term Memory Limited capacity Can hold 7 ± 2 items for about 20 seconds Maintenance rehearsal The use of repetition to keep info in short-term memory CHUNK Meaningful unit of information Without rehearsal, we remember 4 ± 2 chunks With rehearsal, we remember 7 ± 2 chunks Ericsson & Chase (1982) 893194434925021578416685061209488885687727 31418610546297480129497496592280
Long-term Memory Once information passes from sensory to short-term memory, it can be encoded into long-term memory Retrieval Attention EncodingSensory Sensory Working or Long-term Memory Short-term memory Input Memory
Long-term memory - Encoding Elaborative rehearsal A technique for transferring information into long- term memory by thinking about it in a deeper way Levels of processing Semantic is more effective than visual or acoustic processing
Long-term memory Procedural (Implicit) Memories of behaviors, skills, etc. Demonstrated through behavior Declarative (Explicit) Memories of facts Episodic – personal experiences tied to places & time Semantic – general knowledge
Retrieval Retrieval Process that controls flow of information from long-term to working memory store Explicit memory The types of memory elicited through the conscious retrieval of recollections in response to direct questions Implicit memory A nonconscious recollection of a prior experience that is revealed indirectly, by its effects on performance
Retrieval – Explicit Memory Retrieval failure Tip-of-the-tongue (Brown & McNeill) Retrieval failure is a common experience. Have you ever felt as thought a word or name you were trying to recall was just out of reach – on the tip of your tongue?
Retrieval – Explicit Memory Context-Dependent Memory We are more successful at retrieving memories if we are in the same environment in which we stored them State-Dependent Memory We are more successful at retrieving memories if we are in the same mood as when we stored them
Retrieval – Implicit Memory Showing knowledge of something without recognizing that we know it Research with amnesics Déjà vu The illusion that a new situation is familiar
Forgetting Lack of encoding Often, we don’t even encode the features necessary to ‘remember’ an object/event Decay Memory traces erode with the passage of time No longer a valid theory of forgetting Jenkins & Dallenbach (1924)
Forgetting Repression There are times when we are unable to remember painful past events While there is no laboratory evidence for this, case studies suggest that memories can be repressed for a number of years and recovered in therapy
Interference theory Forgetting is a result of some memories interfering with others Proactive interference Old memories interfere with ability to remember new memories Retroactive interference New memories interfere with ability to remember old memories Interference is stronger when material is similar
Memory Construction Schema theory Illusory memories People sometimes create memories that are completely false
Improving Memory Practice time Distribute your studying over time Depth of processing Spend ‘quality’ time studying Verbal mnemonics Use rhyming to reduce the amount of info to be stored
Improving Memory Interference Study right before sleeping & review all the material right before the exam Allocate an uninterrupted chunk of time to one course Context reinstatement Try to study in the same environment & mood in which you will be taking the exam
Photographic memoryThe problem essentially the confusion overthe term and many individuals believe thata photographic memory is supposed topresent a photographic image in their brainof the information.