Human memory


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Human memory

  1. 1. LouisYasmina Raidan Grace Jaydeep
  2. 2. Memory Process by which information is:  Acquired  Encoding  Stored in the brain  Storage  Later retrieved  Retrieval  Eventually (possibly) forgotten
  3. 3. Information-Processing Model of Memory  Computer as a model for our memory  Three types of memory  Sensory memory  Short-term memory (STM)  Long-term memory (LTM)  Can hold vast quantities of information for many years
  4. 4. Information-Processing Model of Memory Retrieval Attention Encoding Sensory Short-term Long-termStimulus memory memory memory Forgetting Forgetting Forgetting
  5. 5. Sensory Memory  Stores all the stimuli that register on the senses  Lasts up to three secondsSensory  Two types Sensory  Iconic memory Input Memory  Visual  Usually lasts about 0.3 seconds  Sperling’s tests (1960s)  Echoic memory (we’ll come back to this)
  6. 6. Sperling’s Experiment
  7. 7. Sensory Memory  Echoic memory  Sensory memory for auditory input that lasts only 2 to 3 secondsWhy do we need sensory memory?
  8. 8. Short-term Memory Limited capacity  Can hold 7 ± 2 items for about 20 seconds  Maintenance rehearsal  The use of repetition to keep info in short-term memory CHUNK  Meaningful unit of information  Without rehearsal, we remember 4 ± 2 chunks  With rehearsal, we remember 7 ± 2 chunks  Ericsson & Chase (1982) 893194434925021578416685061209488885687727 31418610546297480129497496592280
  9. 9. Short-term Memory000545404844846647741506113
  10. 10. Short-term Memory5695 33475839 75218814
  11. 11. Long-term Memory  Once information passes from sensory to short-term memory, it can be encoded into long-term memory Retrieval Attention EncodingSensory Sensory Working or Long-term Memory Short-term memory Input Memory
  12. 12. Long-term memory - Encoding Elaborative rehearsal  A technique for transferring information into long- term memory by thinking about it in a deeper way Levels of processing  Semantic is more effective than visual or acoustic processing
  13. 13. Long-term memory Procedural (Implicit)  Memories of behaviors, skills, etc.  Demonstrated through behavior Declarative (Explicit)  Memories of facts  Episodic – personal experiences tied to places & time  Semantic – general knowledge
  14. 14. Retrieval  Retrieval  Process that controls flow of information from long-term to working memory store  Explicit memory  The types of memory elicited through the conscious retrieval of recollections in response to direct questions  Implicit memory  A nonconscious recollection of a prior experience that is revealed indirectly, by its effects on performance
  15. 15. Retrieval – Explicit Memory Retrieval failure  Tip-of-the-tongue (Brown & McNeill)  Retrieval failure is a common experience. Have you ever felt as thought a word or name you were trying to recall was just out of reach – on the tip of your tongue?
  16. 16. Retrieval – Explicit Memory Context-Dependent Memory  We are more successful at retrieving memories if we are in the same environment in which we stored them State-Dependent Memory  We are more successful at retrieving memories if we are in the same mood as when we stored them
  17. 17. Retrieval – Implicit Memory Showing knowledge of something without recognizing that we know it Research with amnesics Déjà vu  The illusion that a new situation is familiar
  18. 18. Forgetting Lack of encoding  Often, we don’t even encode the features necessary to ‘remember’ an object/event Decay  Memory traces erode with the passage of time  No longer a valid theory of forgetting  Jenkins & Dallenbach (1924)
  19. 19. Forgetting Repression  There are times when we are unable to remember painful past events  While there is no laboratory evidence for this, case studies suggest that memories can be repressed for a number of years and recovered in therapy
  20. 20. Interference theory Forgetting is a result of some memories interfering with others  Proactive interference  Old memories interfere with ability to remember new memories  Retroactive interference  New memories interfere with ability to remember old memories  Interference is stronger when material is similar
  21. 21. Memory Construction Schema theory Illusory memories  People sometimes create memories that are completely false
  22. 22. Improving Memory Practice time  Distribute your studying over time Depth of processing  Spend ‘quality’ time studying Verbal mnemonics  Use rhyming to reduce the amount of info to be stored
  23. 23. Improving Memory Interference  Study right before sleeping & review all the material right before the exam  Allocate an uninterrupted chunk of time to one course Context reinstatement  Try to study in the same environment & mood in which you will be taking the exam
  24. 24. Test
  25. 25. Photographic memoryThe problem essentially the confusion overthe term and many individuals believe thata photographic memory is supposed topresent a photographic image in their brainof the information.