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Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 227                ]oSn-I-ssI-X-h-b-en¬           ...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 228sXmΩ≥      sXmΩ≥ am™q¿ Ic-bn¬ tNe-¶-cn-Ip-Spw-_...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 229sNbvXv sXmSp-]pg Nmem-t»-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. amXy...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 230A¬t^m≥k F∂o mep ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn-®p. aqØ ]p{Xn ta...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 231tPm¿÷ns‚ aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw A[ym...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 232tdm_n≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp.    t__n 1998 Pq¨ 22-˛v Im...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 233      tZh-kym-bpsS aqØ ]p{Xn A®m-Ωsb `c-W-ßm-Øv...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 234tXma€v (Nn-WvUp) sk_m-Ãy≥ F∂o c≠m¨ a°-fp-≠v. Ch...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                             235]≈n-bn-S-hI It®m-en-Ip-Spw-_-Øn¬s∏´ Xøn¬ tPmk-^ns‚aIƒ tacnsb ]p¿hnh...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 236°p-∂p. jmPn kuØv C≥Uy≥ _m¶v tN¿∏p-¶¬ imJm amt-P...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                               237     Hutk- ∏ - ® s‚ c≠m- a sØ ]p{X≥ kn_n {]hn- Ø mwsXt°-°q‰v Nmt°...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 238      {]Ya ]p{X≥ tPmk^v D≈-mSp ]≈n CS-hI shf-f-...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 239°p-´n) hnhmlw sNbvXv tImgn-t°mSv saUn-°¬ tImtf-...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 240dnb F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠v. ]p{Xn -tc-Jsb Im...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 241Øp-¶¬ {^©p-Ip´n sXømΩ aI≥ Ahn-cm-®≥ hnhmlw Ign-...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 242       tPm_v km_p ^nkn-Ivkn¬ a{Zm-kn¬ sNss∂ bqW...
hmIbm-nbn-¬               243
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Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 247               Be-bv°¬ IpSpw_w          Be-bv°¬...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                          248-an-√msX `mcy acn-°bm¬ Nnd-°Shp-Icbn¬ aÆ≥πm-°¬ IpSpw-                 ...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 249      mem-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk (tPmknen)sb Im™n-c∏≈n ...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 250     Hutk-∏ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (tSmwk¨) Af...
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Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 257      hmIm-n-bn¬ Ipºp-°¬ imJ      hmIm-n-bn¬ sN...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                             258°-SpØv ]Sp-∏n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. ]m∏-®p tUmfn, _om, _nµpF∂ aq∂p ]p{Xn-am...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 259]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. C´n-sF-∏np k¥m--ß-fn...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 260(eoemΩ)sb Acp-hn-Øpd ]≈n CS-hI BgmØv tXmakv aI≥...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 261aØmbn      Ipºp-°¬ aØm-bn-bpsS c≠m-asØ aI≥ aØmb...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                    262B‚Wn (B¬hn≥), amXyp (Ae≥) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp≠v.Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p∂p.      aqØ-]...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                          263]nXm-hns‚ IqsS CS-a-dp-In¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tkmPv A∂mΩF∂ Hcp ]p{Xn-bp≠v.  ...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 264en¬ Nmt°m-bpsS aI≥ amWn hnhmlw sNbvXp. Gen-°p´n...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 265      ]p{X≥ tPm¨k¨ ]me-°mSv s]m∂-t¶m´v am{]mWwt...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 266     tPm¿Pns‚ ]p{Xn Sn‚p-hns Iqcm-®p≠v sSn-b-]m...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 267sNbvXv Be-t°mSv Ac-ßØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. kÆn°v tdmjv...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 268ºn¬ nj (t{_mWnb)sb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw _l-d...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 269     Nmt°m-bpsS Ggm-asØ ]p{X≥ amXyp (kPn) U¬ln-...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 270Xo-bXn acWw {]m]n®v ]S-Øp-°-Shv Xncp-Ip-Spw_ tZ...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 271t]mƒ aI≥ FΩm-p-h¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨: 0485 225...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 272]m∏-®≥     aqØ-]p-{X≥ ]m∏-®≥ oeq¿ ]Sn-™m-td¬ Ip...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 273(Ip´n-®≥), tPm¿÷v (h°-®≥), tPmkv, B‚Wn (tSman) ...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 274-sNdn-bm≥      aØm-bn-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-...
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Page 3

  1. 1. ]oSn-I ssItXm-en¬ 207
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  21. 21. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 227 ]oSn-I-ssI-X-h-b-en¬ sXmΩ≥ (A©mw Xe-ap-d) memw Xe-apd ]oSn-I-bn¬ C´n sF∏ns‚ XrXo-b-]p-{X≥sXmΩ≥ abn-em-Sq¿ am∏n-f-bmb Ggm-t®-cn¬ sSp-º-≈n¬n∂pwhnhmlw sNbvXv sXt°-ssI-X-h-b¬ ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®p.At±lw Hcp tImS-Xn-n-b-a-]-WvUn-Xpw hm‹nbpw tImS-Xn-bn¬hyh-l-cn-°p∂ h°o-ep-am-bn-cp-∂p. sXmΩv BK-kvXn, C´n sF∏vsXmΩ≥, DWns®dn-bXv F∂n-ßs mep ]p{X-∑mcpw amΩn, A∂,Gen, tdmk F∂ mep ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠m-bn. aqØ ]p{Xn-bmbamΩnsb ]mem Aßm-Snbn ]-bv°¬ hnhmlw sNbvX-b-®p.hm¿≤-Iy-Im-eØn ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®p-a-cn-®p. c≠m-a-sØ-]p-{Xn A∂sb amdn-bnSw Ic-bn¬ thß-∏≈n¬ sXmΩ≥ hnhmlw -sNbvXp. aq∂masØ-]p{Xn Gen ico-cm-kzmÿyw nanØw Ahn-hm-ln-X-bmbn ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®p. mem-a-sØ-]p{Xntdmksb Ce™n Ic- b n¬ XS- Ø n¬ ]mXm- º pg Hutk∏phnhmlw sNbvXp.BKkvXn A©mw- X - e - a pd sXmΩs‚ aqØ- a - I ≥ BKkv X n c≠phnhmlw Ign-®p. BZy-ambn ]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ sh´p-Im-´n¬ Nocmw-Ip-gn-bn¬n∂pw DWn-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ aIƒ tdmksbhnhmlw sNbvXv Cu¥p-¶¬ ]IpXn ]pcn-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®p.a°-fn-√msX `mcy acn-°-bm¬ c≠m-a-Xmbn tahnS Fd-tIm-∂n-°p-Spw-_-Øn¬s∏´ sF°-c-n∂pw Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXp. IS-_m-≤y-X-aqew GI-ÿm-h-c-am-bn-cp∂ sXs°-Cu-¥p-¶¬ ]IpXn]pc-bnSw Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbm-K-Ønv Xosd-gp-Xn-sIm-SpØvIpSpw-_-tbm-K-Øns‚ ta¬tm-´-Øn¬ IS-_m-≤yX Xo¿°p-Ibpwaq∂p-m-ep-h¿jw Ign™v Ah-sc-Øs∂ XncnsI Gev]n-°p-IbpwsNbvXp. BK-kvXn°v sXmΩ≥ Fs∂mcp ]p{Xpw A®mΩFs∂mcp ]p{Xnbpw Pn-®p. Pzc-∏n ]nSn-s]´v `mcybpw ]p{Xnbpwacn-®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  22. 22. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 228sXmΩ≥ sXmΩ≥ am™q¿ Ic-bn¬ tNe-¶-cn-Ip-Spw-_-Øn¬s∏´ ap´-Øp-ho-´n¬ Ip™q-™ns‚ aIƒ t{Xkymsb hnhmlw sNbvXv]nXm-hns‚ IqsS Cu¥p-¶¬ ]IpXn ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-k-am-°n.Sn. sXmΩv BK-kvXn, t__n, amXyp, tPm¿÷v F∂ mep ]p{X-∑mcpw Gen Fs∂mcp ]p{Xnbpw D≠m-bn. ]p{Xn Gensb (X-¶-Ω) Ing-t°-I-c-im-J-bn¬s∏´ Cfw-tXm´-Øn¬ sXmΩs‚ aI≥a-bv°-°-≠-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp.BKkvXn (A-∏-®≥) sXmΩs‚ aqØ-a-I≥ BKkvXn (A-∏-®≥) ]q™m¿ aWn-bw-Ip∂v InS-ß-Ømsg tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ s]Æ-Ωsb hnhmlwsNbvXv sXmSp-]pg Nne-hn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. BK-kvXn°v t{X€y(tUm¨kn) F∂ ]p{Xnbpw PÃn≥ F∂ ]p{X-p-ap-≠v. ]p{XntUm¨knsb Aºmd nc-t∏¬ Ip∂Øv (]p-fn-°¬) tPmkv tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ {]Imiv tPmkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw _mw•q-cn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. ]p{X≥ PÃn≥ gvknwKv ]Tw Ign™vtKmh-bn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p.tXmakv (t_-_n) sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (t_-_n) taep-Im-hn¬ h´-a-‰-Øn¬ Ip™q™v aIƒ t{K€nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv]∂n-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p-∂p. t__n°v PnΩn, Pn¬k¨ F∂o c≠p]p{X-∑mcpw [y F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap-≠v. aqØ ]p{X≥ PnΩn sX°pw-`mKw h´-°p-t∂¬ h¿°n tPm¿÷ns‚ aIƒ tacn (n-kvan) sbhnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. ]p{Xn- [ygvknwKv Ign-™v _mw•q¿ sk‚ v a¿Ømkv tlmkv]n-‰en¬ tPmen -sNøp-∂p. Pn¬k¨ hnZym¿∞n-bm-Wv.amXyp (am-Øp-°p-´n) sXmΩs‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ amXyp (am-Øp-°p-´n) I∏mSv]pXn-bm-]-d-ºn¬ sXmΩn-°p-™ns‚ aIƒ tacn-°p-´nsb hnhmlw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  23. 23. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 229sNbvXv sXmSp-]pg Nmem-t»-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. amXyp-hnv tXma€v(a-p) Fs∂mcp ]p{X-p-≠v.tPm¿÷v sXmΩs‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿÷v Non-°pgn hmfn-bw-πm-°¬ aØmbn aIƒ euensb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]mem-bn¬]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPm¿÷nv tXma€v (A-e≥),amXyp (sj-bn≥) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠v. c≠pt]cpw hnZym¿∞n-I-fm-Wv. 2010 HIvtSm-_¿ 17-˛mw XobXn sXmΩs‚ `mcy t{XkymΩacn®v Cfw-tXm´w ]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn-ep≈ IpSpw-_-I-√-d-bn¬kwkvI-cn-®p.C´n sF∏v (Bdmw Xe-ap-d) A©mw Xe-apd sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ C´n sF∏v""Xd-bn¬ am∏nfbmb hmbva-‰-Øn¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬ tZh-€ym-bpsSaIƒ Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXv ssIX-h-b-en¬ Ipt∂¬]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®p. Ipt∂¬ C´n sF∏nv sXmΩ≥, tZh-kym, Hutk-∏v, aØm-bn, h¿°n, C´n sF∏v F∂o Bdp ]p{X-∑mcpw amΩn, adn-bw, A∂-°p-´n, Gen F∂ mep ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn-®p. aqØ ]p{XnamΩnsb ao-®n¬ Ic-bn¬ ""hb-e-s°m-ºn¬ am∏nf bmb ]p√m´vh¿°n-bpsS aI≥ sXmΩ≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnadnbw (kn-ÿ tImte-Øp-`m-bn) BPvao-cn¬ `qZmkn B{i-a-Øn¬tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xn-bm-bn. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂-°p-´nsb ss]I-bn¬ Ip‰n-°m´v ho´n¬ sXmΩs‚ aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp.mem-asØ ]p{Xn Gen-°p-´nsb ]mem-bn¬ s]mcp-t∂m-en¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ ]pXp-a t]mØs‚ aI≥ aWn-ae Xma-kw Nmt°m(Im-°q) hnhmlw sNbvXp.sXmΩ≥ C´n sF∏v (Ggmw Xe-ap-d) C´n sF∏ns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ Ggmw Xe-apd sXmΩ≥ ]memCS-hI I´-°-bØv amØs‚ aIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXvAd-°p-fØv Xma-kn-®p. sXmΩv C´n-°p-™v, tPm¿÷v, t__n,tPmWn F∂o mep ]p{X- ∑ m- c pw, tacn, en√n, Gen- b mΩ,○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  24. 24. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 230A¬t^m≥k F∂o mep ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn-®p. aqØ ]p{Xn tacnsb]mem ]pØ≥]≈n CS-hIbn¬ n∂pw Ad-°p-fØp Xma-kn-°p∂ - -Ipcn-ipw-aq-´n¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aI≥ a-Ømbn hnhmlw sNbvXp.c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn en√n A€mw anj-n¬ tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xn-bm-bp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Gen-bmΩ (Sr. Gaincarla) tImgn-t°m´v aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂p Iym- k v{Xo- b m- b n. mem- a sØ ]p{XnA¬t^m≥km (kn-kn-en)sb sXmSp-]pg Hf-a‰w ]men-bØv tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ tPmkv hnhmlw Ign®p.C´n°p™v (F´mw Xe-ap-d) sXmΩs‚ aqØ ]p{X≥ C´n-°p™v hmg-°p-fØv ºym]d-ºn¬ h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ adn-bsØ hnhmlw sNbvXv Im™m¿Rc-fw-]p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. C´p-°p™v 1978 Unkw-_¿ amkw11-˛mw XobXn acn®v Ad-°pfw ]g-b-]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p. C´n-°p-™nv _m_p, jn_p, _nPp F∂o aq∂v ]p{X-∑mcpwP€n, hn≥kn, kn≥kn F∂o aq∂v ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn-®p. C´n-°p-™ns‚ aqØ ]p{X≥ _m_p Bc°pg s]ßm-∏n-≈n¬ dmWnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p._m_p-hnv om, oXm, nΩnb F∂o aq∂v ]p{Xn-am-cp-≠v. ]p{Xnom _n.-sSIv Ign-™p-n¬°p-∂p. ]p{Xn oXm _mw•q-cn¬ _n.-F-kv.kn. gvknw-Knv ]Tn-°p-∂p. nΩnb H∂mw ¢m€n¬ ]Tn-°p-∂p. - C´p-°p-™ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ jn_p tXm{]mw-IpSn ]pfn-b-∑m-°¬ kvIdn-bm-bpsS aIƒ tagvknsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw e≠-n¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. jn_p-hnv tPmhn≥, Pn_n≥F∂o c≠m¨a-°-fp-≠v. Ccp-hcpw hnZym¿∞n-I-fm-Wv. C´n- ° p- ™ ns‚ aq∂m- a sØ ]p{X≥ _nPp IpS- b - Ø q¿Im≠mhw ho´n¬ n∂pw B≥knsb hnhm-lw -sNbvXv Im-Um-bn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. Ch¿°v A≥{Un F∂ ]p{Xpw A∂F∂ ]p{Xnbp-ap-≠v. Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fm-Wv. C´n-°p-™ns‚ aqØ-]{Xn sP€nsb ]mem-bn¬ ]¥-∏-≈n¬h°®≥ aI≥ A{_mlw (t_-_n-®≥) hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn hn≥knsb sSp-¶p∂w ]pXn-bm-]-d-ºn¬○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  25. 25. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 231tPm¿÷ns‚ aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw A[ym-]-I-cm-Wv. tImgn-t°mSv Xma-kn-°p-∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn kn≥knsb ]mem-bn¬ n∂pw sNdp-]pgXma-kn-°p∂ Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ sNdn-bm≥ aI≥ kPnhnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw knwK-∏q-cn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p.tPm¿÷v sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿÷v C≥Uy≥ anen-´dnk¿∆o-kn¬ Fb¿t^m¿kn¬ tPmen sNbvXp hnc-an-®-tijwCt∏mƒ Ata-cn-°-bn¬ sSIvkm-kn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. tPm¿÷v]∂n-a‰w nen-b-d-bn¬ Ip´n-bpsS aIƒ t{Xkym (s]-Æ-Ω) sbhnhmlw sNbv X p. s]Æ- Ω bpw Ata- c n- ° - b n- e m- W v . Ch¿°vt_m_≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw sa¿en≥ F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap-≠v. Ccp-hcpwAta-cn-°-bn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p.t__n sXmΩs‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ t__n tImX-aw-KeØv aßm´v -Ipcym-t°mkns‚ aIƒ h’-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xmakn-°p-∂p. Ch¿°v sXmΩ≥ (jm-Pp) Ipcym-t°mkv(tjm-_n) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw sSkven, ssj_n F∂o c≠p]p{Xn-am-cp-am-Wv. t__n-bpsS aqØ aI≥ jmPp FSXzm ap´m¿ Bdp-]-d-bn¬kvIdn-bm-®≥, X¶Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tkmWnsb hnhmlwsNbvXv ad-bq-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. jmPp-hnv sÃ√, sU√ F∂oc≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw Atemjn F∂ ]p{X-p-ap-≠v. Ch¿ ]Tn-°p-∂p. t__n-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tjm_n ao¶p∂w ]mtd-°p-Sn-bn¬ tPmk-^v-˛-G-eΩ aIƒ knPnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tjm_n°v B≥a-cnb F∂ ]p{XnbpwB¬hn≥ F∂ ]p{X-p-ap-≠v. Ch¿ ]Tn-°p-∂p. t__n-bpsS aqØ-]p{Xn ssj_nsb Fen-hmen hS-t°´vPbnwkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn sSkvensb Nme-°pSn sh‰n-e-∏md ]≈Øv tXma-€v, adn-b-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  26. 26. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 232tdm_n≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. t__n 1998 Pq¨ 22-˛v Im¿ A]-I-S-Øn¬ ac-W-a-S™p.Ad-°pfw ]gb ]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p.tPmWn sXmΩs‚ Cfb ]p{X≥ tPmWn ]pfn-¶p∂v {]mbn-°fw hen-b-X-d-bn¬ aØm-bn, adn-b-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ knknen (tN-®-Ω)sb hnhmlw sNbvXv Im™m-‰n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmWn°vAn¬ (tXm-a-€v) aØmbn (A-o-jv) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw adn-bmΩ (A-p-tamƒ) F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap-≠v. tPmWn-bpsS aqØ ]p{X≥ An¬ Ggp-ap´w Ad-°-tØm-´-Øn¬ ]tc-X-mb tPmkns‚ aIƒ tacn ({]o-Xn) sb hnhmlwIgn®v Im™m-‰n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. An-env tXmΩkv ({In-tÃm)F∂ ]p{X-p-≠v. inip-hm-Wv. tPmWn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Aojv h≠-a‰w ]≈n-bn-S-hI ]¥-bv°¬ tPmkns‚ aIƒ {_nPn‰v (kuay) s hnhmlwIgn-®p. Ch¿ A_p-Zm-_n-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. ]p{Xn Ap-tamƒgvknwKv ]Tw Ign-™p-n¬°p-∂p. tPmWn 1988/94 h¿jw Im¥-√q¿ ]©m-bØv {]kn-U‚m-bn-cp-∂p.tZhkym (Ggmw Xe-apd) Bdmw Xe-apd C´n sF∏ns‚ c≠masØ ]p{X≥ tZhkymc≠p hnhmlw Ign-®p. ]mem-bn¬ ""Xd-bn¬ am∏nfbmb ]Sn-™m-td-X-øn¬ h¿°nbpsS aIƒ Gensb BZy-hn-hmlw sNbvXp Ad-°p-fØv Xma-k-am-°n. tZh-kym°v BZy hnhm-l-Øn-¬ tPmkvF∂ ]p{Xpw A®mΩ, A∂-Ω, s]Æ-Ω, tacn F∂o mep]p{Xnamcpw D≠m-bn. BZy `mcy acn-®-Xn-m¬ c≠m-aXv ]q™m-‰n¬ hb-en¬ tZh-kym-bpsS aIƒ Gensb c≠mw hnhmlw Ign-®p. c≠mw hnhm-l-Øn¬ tXma€v (Ip-™v), t__n, amXyp F∂oaq∂v ]p{X-∑mcpw t{X€ym, A¬t^m≥km F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpwPn-®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  27. 27. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 233 tZh-kym-bpsS aqØ ]p{Xn A®m-Ωsb `c-W-ßm-Øv Ie-b- Ø n- m¬ IpSpw- _ - Ø n¬s]´ aT- Ø n¬ ]d- º n¬ ]m∏- ® ≥hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂Ω BPvao¿ anjy-n¬tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xobmbn.tPmkv tZhkym-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmkv Ipcp-hn-m¬ ]≈n-bn-S-hI am∏-e-I-bn¬ t]mØs‚ aIƒ A∂-Ωsb hnhm-lw -sNbvXvBZyw ad-bq-cpw, ]n∂oSv B ÿew hn‰v NnØn-c-]pcw sN¶p-fØvXma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmknv Bn, tagv-kn, Pn≥kn, ]pjv], o F∂o A©p]p{Xn-amcpw jnPp F∂ ]p{Xpw Pn-®p. jnPp Ieq¿ Xøn¬ ho´n¬ h¿§o-kv, tacn aIƒ kosbhnhmlw sNbvXv NnØn-c-]pcw sN¶p-fØp Xma-kn-°p-∂p. jnPp-hnv A¬m Fs∂mcp ]p{Xn-bp-≠v. tPmkns‚ aqØ ]p{Xn Bnsb sN¶p-fØv If-∏p-c-°¬tPmk^v aI≥ t__n hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn tagvknsb Ad-°pfw πm°q-´Øn¬ NpΩm¿ -tZh€ym aI≥tPmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Pn≥knAkp- J - a mbn Xd- h m- ´ n¬ Xma- k n- ° p- ∂ p. mem- a sØ ]p{Xn]pjv]sb Icn-¶p∂w sh´n-°m-´n¬ t__n-bpsS aI≥ tm_nƒhnhmlw sNbvXp. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn kosb tImgn-t°mSv aÆ-m¬ tkmP≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. tPmkv 1996 hw-_-dn¬ acn®vIpØp-]md ]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p.tXmakv (Ip™v) tZh-kym-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXma€v (Ip-™v) Imfn-bm¿ Xmg-sØ-°p-Sn-bn¬ ]utem-kv˛a¿Ø Zº-Xn-IfpsS aIƒ tacn -(s]-Æ-Ω)sb hnhmlw sNbvXv ad-bq-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Ip™nvam≥k¨, aojv F∂o c≠m¨ a°-fm-Wv. c≠p-t]cpw tZhn-Ip-fØv AUz-tI-‰vkmbn {]mIvSokv sNøp-∂p. ]p{X≥ am≥k¨_mw•q-cn¬ n∂pw tacn (tl-a) sb hnhmlw sNbvXp. am≥k¨○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  28. 28. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 234tXma€v (Nn-WvUp) sk_m-Ãy≥ F∂o c≠m¨ a°-fp-≠v. Ch¿Ip™p-ß-fm-Wv. c≠m-a≥ aojv cmP-Ip-amcn IpØ-m-∏-≈n-bn¬t__n-bpsS aIƒ sado (Pn-p) hns hnhmlw sNbvXp.tZhkym (t_-_n) tZh-kym-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tZhkym (t_-_n) ]ocp-ta-´n¬ `mcXv Kymkv GP≥kn S-Øp-∂p. ]ocp-ta-´n¬ n∂pwtacnsb (sU_n eX) hnhmlw sNbvXp. t__n°v sk_m-Ãy≥(Umd¨) F∂ Hcm¨ Ip´n-bp-≠v. hnZym¿∞n-bm-Wv. t__n 2002-˛¬ lrZ-bm-LmXw aqew ac-W-a-S-™p. Ad-°pfw ]g-b-]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p.amXyp sI. sk_m-Ãy≥ tZh-kym-bpsS mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tUm. amXyp sI.-sk-_m-Ãy≥ tImb-º-Øq-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. amXyp Nß-m-t»cn ]mbn-∏m´v tXm´m-bn-°-S-hn¬ A{_mlw tacn aIƒ en€nsb hnhmlwsNbvXp. amXyp-hnv aco-€m, saeo F∂o c≠p s]¨a-°-fm-Wv.Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p-∂p. amXyp tImb-º-Øq-cn¬ Hcp tI{µ Kh. Kth-jW ÿm]--Øn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. tZh-kym-bpsS ]p{Xn tPmfnsb Bc-°pg X´m-cp-Ip-t∂¬]utem-kv, tacn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tP°_v hnhmlw Ign-®p.aqhm-‰p-]p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmfn Fkv.-_n.-‰n.-bnepw tP°_vFkv.-_n.-sF.-bnepw tPmen sNøp-∂p. tZh-kym-bpsS Cfb ]p{XnPm≥knsb hmg-°p-fØv hS-tImSv an‰-Øm-n-°¬ amXyp (tUm-bn¬) hnhmlw sNbvXp. tZhkym 1995 ¬ acWw {]m]n-®p. Ad-°pfw ]gb]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkv°-cn-®p.tPmk^v (Ip-™v) (Ggmw Xe-apd) Bdmw Xe-apd C´n sF∏ns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v(Ip-™v) c≠p hnhmlw Ign-®p. ]mem-bn¬ Xd-bn¬ am∏n-f-bmbRmh-≈n¬ Xo°pgn hb-en¬ Nmt°m-bpsS aIƒ A®m-ΩsbBZyw hnhmlw sNbvXp. {]kvXpX `mcy acn-®-t∏mƒ tImX--√q¿○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  29. 29. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 235]≈n-bn-S-hI It®m-en-Ip-Spw-_-Øn¬s∏´ Xøn¬ tPmk-^ns‚aIƒ tacnsb ]p¿hnhmlw sNbvXv ]m-em-bn¬ sRm≠n-am-°¬Ih-ebn-ep≈ hcn-°am-°¬ ]pc-bnSw hmßn Xma-kn-®p. BZy hnhm- - -l-Øn¬ Nn∂Ω Fs∂mcp ]p{Xnbpw c≠mw hnhm-lØn¬ km_p, -B‚Wn F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw Pn-®p. ]p{Xn Nn∂-Ωsb ao-®¬ Ing-]-d-bm¿ Ic-bn¬ n∂pw Fen-°p-fØv Xma-kn-°p-∂p.s]ms∂-Sp-Øp-I-t√¬ tZh-kym-bpsS aI≥ aØmbn hnhmlwsNbvXp. tPmk^v (Ip-™v)s‚ c≠mw hnhm-l-Ønse aqØ-]p-{X≥km_p Ing-]-d-bm¿ s]cp-hm®nd tPmk^v Ipcp-hnf t{X€ymΩ Zº-Xn-IfpsS aIƒ s_≥knsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Ing-XSn-bq¿ Im¿Ω¬ - -tlmkv]n-‰-env kao]w Xma-kn-°p-∂p. km_p, Ct∏mƒ tIm˛-Hm-∏-td-‰ohv Un∏m¿´p-sa‚n¬ tPmen tm°p-∂p. km_p-hnv tPml≥F∂ ]p{Xpw l∂ F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap-≠v. Ch¿ Ip™p-ß-fm-Wv. tPmk-^ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ B‚Wn (t_-_n-®≥)]mem-bn¬ CS-tbmSn ]d-ºn¬ {^m≥kokv˛Nn∂Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsSaIƒ knnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-{K-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p.B‚-Wn°v tl, nJnX F∂o c≠p-]p-{Xn-am-cp-≠v. Ch¿ Ip™p-ß-fm-Wv. B‚Wn ]mem-bn¬ {Smh¬ GP≥kn S-Øp-∂p. `mcyknn Xncp-h--¥-]pcw sk{I-´-dn-tb-‰n¬ tem°¬ ^≠v HmUn‰vUn∏m¿´p-sa‚n¬ Iºyq-´¿ Hm∏-td-‰-dmbn tPmen-tm-°p-∂p.sI.-sF. aØmbn C´n sF∏ns‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ aØmbn s{]m^. sI.-sF. aØmbn (Fw.-Fkv.kn.) aWn-ae Ipf-Øq¿ IpSpw-_Øn¬s∏´ - - -sNΩ-c-∏≈n¬ amXyp-hns‚ aIƒ A®m-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp]mem-bn¬ Xma-kam°n. sI.-sF. aØmbn°v tPmk^v (jm-Pn),amXyp (k-Pn) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw Gen (en-€n), sS€n F∂oc≠p ]p{Xnamcpw D≠v. sI.-sF. aØmbn ]mem sk‚ v tXmakvtImtf-Pn¬ s{]m^-kdmbn-cp-∂p. 1975-˛¬ ncym-X-m-bn. sI.-sF. aØmbn-bpsS aqØ ]p{X≥ jmPn sI. amXyqkvISp-Øp-cpØn ap≠-I-∏-d-ºn¬ Fw.-kn. sNdn-bm≥, Gen-bmΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ sseksb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]mem-bn¬ Xma-kn-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  30. 30. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 236°p-∂p. jmPn kuØv C≥Uy≥ _m¶v tN¿∏p-¶¬ imJm amt-P-cmbn tPmen sNøp-∂p. jmPn°v Acp¨, sPdn≥, hnth-Iv, tXP€vF∂o mev B¨a-°-fm-Wv. aqØ-a-I≥ Acp¨ ^cn-Zm-_m-Zn¬F¬ & ‰n. Iº-n-bn¬ F≥Pn-o-b-dmbn tPmen sNøp-∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sPdn≥ ]q-bn¬ Fw.-_n.-_n.-F-kv. v ]Tn-°p-∂p.aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ hnthIpw mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tXP€pw ]Tn-°p-∂p. sI.-sF. aØmbn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ kPn sI. amXyqkvtImSn-°pfw tXm´p-]m´v ]n.-hn. tPmk-^v-˛-F-en-bmΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsSaIƒ Beo-kns hnhmlw sNbvXp. kPn tIme-t©cn knss¥‰vC≥U-kv{Sokv enan-‰-Uns‚ P-d¬ amt-P-cmbn tPmen sNøp-∂p.`mcy Beokv Xpcp-Øn-∏≈n sk‚ v tacokv kvIqfn¬ A≤ym-]n-I-bmbn tPmen sNøp-∂p. Ch¿°v Xcp¨ F∂ ]p{Xpw tkmWpF∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap-≠v. ]p{X≥ Xcp¨ Im°-m´v cmP-Kncn F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKnv ]Tn-°p-∂p. ]p{Xn tkmp kvIqfn¬ ]Tn-°p-∂p. sI.-sF. aØmbn-bpsS aqØ-]p{Xn en€nsb sXmSp-]pg sN´n-∏-dºn¬ AK-Ãn≥, en√n-°p´n Zº-Xn-IfpsS aI≥ tPmWn hnhmlw - -sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn sS€nsb ]mem aq∂mn sNº-I-Øn-m¬amXyp tdmkΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ t_mkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. C´n sF∏ns‚ A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ h¿°n ico-c-kp-J-an-√msX sNdp-∏-Ønse ac-W-a-S-™p.C´n sF∏v (Hu-tk-∏-®≥) C´n sF∏ns‚ Bdm-asØ ]p{X≥ C´n sF∏v ]mem-bn¬hS-°≥ IpSpw-_-Øn¬ Nmt°m-bpsS aIƒ en√n-°p-´nsb hnhmlwsNbvXv ]mem-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. C´n sF∏nv tPmk^v (km-_p) sk_m-Ãy≥ (kn-_n) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw A∂ (ip-`),ko_m F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-am-Wv. aqØ-]p-{X≥ km_p sImcw-Ip-Øn-am-°¬ Ipcym-t°m-kns‚ aIƒ euensb hnhmlw sNbvXp.Ch¿°v tPmk-^v, Ipcy≥ F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠v. c≠p-t]cpw]Tn-°p-∂p. km_p 47-˛masØ hb-€n¬ ncym-X-m-bn.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  31. 31. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 237 Hutk- ∏ - ® s‚ c≠m- a sØ ]p{X≥ kn_n {]hn- Ø mwsXt°-°q‰v Nmt°m˛^ntem Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ kpasb hnhmlwsNbvXv a{Zm-kn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Ch¿°v tacn, ^ntem-anm F∂oc≠p s]¨a-°-fm-Wv. Ccp-hcpw kvIqƒ hnZym¿∞n-I-fm-Wv. Hutk-∏®s‚ aqØ-]p{Xn ip`sb sXt°-°q‰v sk_m-Ãy≥, -tdmkΩ aI≥ tPmkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn ko_sb Icn-°n-tem-´n¬ tZh-€ym, tacnaI≥ tPmkv hnhmlw Ign-®p. Ccp-hcpw Zp_m-bn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. Hutk-∏-®≥ ncym-X-m-bn.sXmΩ≥ (B-dmw- X-e-ap-d) ]oSn-I-ssI-X-h-b-en¬ (A©mw Xe-apd) sXmΩs‚ XrXo-b-]p-{X≥ sXmΩ≥ Nn‰m¿I-c-bn¬ sh≈cn-ßm-´p-am-∏n-f-bmb ImSp-n-eØv Hutk-∏ns‚ aIƒ A∂sb hnhmlw sNbvXv hS-s°-s°-Sp-º≥ ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ (Ip-Sn-en-∏-d-ºn¬) Xma-kn-®p. At±lwBbp¿t∆Z sshZy-imkv{Xw ]Tn-®n-cp-∂p. At±lw acn-®p-t]m-bn.sXmΩv tPmk-^v, tXmakv F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cpw, amΩn, t{Xkym,adn-bw, {_nPo-Øm, A∂, A®mΩ F∂ Ggp ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠m-bn. H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn amΩnsb Acp-hn-Øpd hen-bho-´n¬s∏´ h≈n- -°m-∏n¬ Idp-h-®s‚ aI≥ h¿°n hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ]p{Xn, t{Xkym-sb, ]mem-bn¬ “Xd-bn¬ am∏nf” bmb Rmh-≈n¬a™-°p-t∂¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ Ip™u-tk∏p hnhmlwsNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ aIƒ adn-b-Øns `c-W-ßm-Øp sIm√≥]d-ºn¬ sXmΩ≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. A[n-I-Imew Ign-bpw-aptºk¥m--an-√msX Ahƒ acn-®p. mem-asØ ]p{Xn {_nPo-ØmsbIS-mSv ]≈n-bn-S-hI Ip∂-Øq¿ Nm≠nbpsS aI≥ sk_m-Ãy≥hnhmlw sNbvXp. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂-°p-´nsb am∂m-ØpXS-Øn¬ eq°m-bpsS aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. Bdm-asØ ]p{Xn Gen-°p-´nsb Nß-m-t»-cn¬ IØo-{Z¬ ]≈n CS-hI Be-∏p-d-Øp-Im-´n¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aI≥ tXmakv hnhmlwsNbvXp. Ggm-asØ ]p{Xn A®m-Ωsb ac-ßm-´p-]-≈n-bn-S-hI Xmg-tج Ipcym-t°m-kns‚ aI≥ h¿°n hnhmlw sNbvXp.tPmk^v (Ip-t™-∏v)○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  32. 32. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 238 {]Ya ]p{X≥ tPmk^v D≈-mSp ]≈n CS-hI shf-f-cn-ßm-´p-Ip-Spw-_-amb ]-¥m-Øp tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ t{Xkysbhnhmlw sNbvXv ZØhIm-i-ambn `mcym-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmk-^nv tXma-kv, tPmk-^v, sk_m-Ãy≥ F∂ aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw, tdmk, A∂-°p´n F∂ c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠v. ]p{X≥tXmakv t]Wm´p-I-c-bn¬ Dgp-h-m¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬ tPmk-^ns‚aIƒ Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXp. tXma-knp tPmk^v F∂ Hcp]p{Xpw emen F∂ ]p{Xnbpw Pn-®p. tPmk-^ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v _n.-F-kv.-kn.ho´p-Im-cy-Øn¬ G¿s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. aq∂m-a≥ sk_m-Ãy≥. H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk-Ωsb sXmSp-]pg A©n-cn-°-c-bn¬ ]mW-¶m-´p-ho-´n¬ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂ Iym-kv{Xo-bm-bn.tXmakv Bdmw-X-e-apd sXmΩs‚ ZznXob ]p{X≥ tXmakv Nß-m-t»-cn¬ IØo-{U¬ CS-hI Ifn-°¬ A{_m-l-Øns‚ aIƒ tacn-sb- hnhmlw sNbvXv ssae-s°m-ºn¬ Xm-a-kn-°p-∂p. tXma-knvtPmk^v (s_∂n) F∂ Hcp ]p{X-pw, (tj¿en) A∂-Ω, tacn(Pm≥kn), skeo≥ (tPm-fn), F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. tXmakv 2008 hw-_-¿ 6 v acWw {]m]n-®p. ssae-s°mºv]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p. aqØ ]p{Xn A∂Ω (tj¿en)sb Nß-m-t»-cn-bn¬ Nº-°pfw ]pØ≥]-d-ºn¬ ]n.-sP. B‚WnI{Xn-°p´n Zº-Xn-IfpsS aI≥ tPmk^v B‚Wn hnhmlw Ign-®p. Ccp-hcpw sNs∂-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmk^v B‚Wn s^U-d¬ _m¶v amt-P-cmbn tPmen tm°p-∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn tacn(-Pm≥kn) sb Icn-a-Æq¿ Ac-b-°p-t∂¬ amXyp, {_nPn‰v Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tPmfn amXyp hnhmlwsNbvXp sXmSp-]pg Im™n-c-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Pm≥kn sXmSp-]pg Xmeq-°v Hm^okn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. tPmfn CSp°n If-Ivt{S-‰n¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn tPmfn tImgn-t°mSvap°Øv {]m°p-gn-bn¬ Hutk-∏v, Gen-°p´n aI≥ amXyp (am-Øp-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  33. 33. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 239°p-´n) hnhmlw sNbvXv tImgn-t°mSv saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pn¬ slUvtgv k v Bbn tPmen sNøp- ∂ p. tam≥kns‚ aI≥ s_∂nhmg°pfw Imcyma-Tw, t]mƒ, tXykym-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ_osb hnhmlw sNbvXv ssae-s°m-ºn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p.s_∂n°v Bcym F∂ Hcp ]p{Xn-bp-≠v. Bcy tgvknw-Knv]Tn-°p-∂p.-DWn-s®-dn-bXv ]oSnI ssIX-h-b-en¬ sXmΩs‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ DWn-s®-dn-bXv c≠p hnhmlw Ign-®p. BZyw `c-W-ßm-Øp CS-∏m-Sn-°-c-bn¬ hmfn-πm-°¬ IWn-bmw-]-Sn-°¬ kvIdn-bm-bpsS aIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXp. ssIX-h-b-en¬ Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-k-am-°n. B hnhm-l-Øn¬ sXmΩ≥, sNdn-bm≥, C´n-sF∏v F∂ aq∂p]p{X-∑m-cpw, A®mΩ F∂ Hcp ]p{Xnbpw Pn-®p. `mcy acn-®-t∏mƒDWn-s®-dn-bXv Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ Ic-bn¬ Ing-t°-S-Øp-ho-´n¬ n∂v Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ sNºn-fm-bn¬ ho´n¬ hnhmlw sNbvX-Xpw, hn[-h-bm-bn-Øo¿∂-Xp-amb tdmksb hnhmlw sNbvXp. tdmk a°-fn-√msXacn-®p. DWn-s®-dn-bXv hmIm-n-bn¬ imJ-bn¬s∏´ s√n-ae C´n-sF∏ns‚ ]pc-bnSw hmßn Ahn-tSbv°p Xmakw am‰n. ]p{Xn A®mΩ ico-ckp-Jan-√msX Ahn-hm-ln-Xbmbn ]nXr- - - -Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. aqØ ]p{X≥ sXmΩ≥, cma-]p-c-Øp-n∂pw sXmSp-]pg ap´Øp Xma-kn-°p∂ Xd-bn¬ am∏nf bmb ]≈n-hm-Xp-°¬ n∂pw hnhmlw sNbvXp. a°-fn-√msX sXmΩ≥ acn-°-bm¬ `mcy ]p¿ hnhmlw Ign-®p.sI.-bp. sNdn-bm≥ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ ]b-∏m¿ Ic-bn¬ abn-em-Sq¿Nmt°m-bpsS aIƒ adnbØns hnhmlw sNbvXp. sNdn-bmvtdmbn, kÆn, Pbnw-kv, sk_m-Ãy≥, kPn, sdPn F∂n-ßsBdp-]p-{X-∑m-cpw, tagvkn, emen, eqkn, eom F∂o mep ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠v. sNdn-bms‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ tdmbn tImX-aw-Kew aßm´v amXyp,s]ÆΩ aIƒ F¬k-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp tdmbn°v tcJ,○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  34. 34. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 240dnb F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠v. ]p{Xn -tc-Jsb Im™-ßm´v ]c-∏-hm-g-Nm-cn-°¬ amp-h¬, A∂Ω ZºXnIfpsS aI≥ kPohv hn.amp-h¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn dnb ]Tn-°p-∂p. sNdn-bms‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ kÆn ]mem sh≈-cn-ßm´ps{]m. kÆn,- X-¶Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ An-Xsb hnhmlwsNbvXp. kÆn kuØv C¥y≥ _m¶v _mw•q-cn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. AnXm _mw•q¿ sF.-F-kv.-B¿.H bn¬ kb‚n-Ãm-Wv.Ch¿°p AJn¬, nJn¬, F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠v. Ccp-hcpw]Tn-°p-∂p. sNdn- b ms‚ aq∂m- a sØ ]p{X≥ Pbnwkv ae- _ m¿Bet°m´v H‰ssØ If-∏pc Nmt°m, Gen aIƒ AUz. Nn∂-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Xfn-∏-d-ºn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Ch¿°vkm{µ, kma F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-≠v. Ccp-hcpw kn.F bv°v]Tn-°p-∂p. Pbnwkv Ct∏mƒ IÆq¿ tIcfm tIm¨{K€v Pn√msk{I-´-dn-bm-Wv. sNdn-bms‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ sk_m-Ãy≥ (tZ-hkym-®≥) -Nn‰m-cn-°m¬ _oa-Sn- a-Sp-°-°p-gn-bn¬ tPmk-^v, t{Xkym Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ B≥knsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. an¥p≈n tIm-gn-®m-en¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Ch¿°p nJn-X, taLv F∂o c≠p s]¨a-°-fm-Wv. nJnX kn.-F. °p ]Tn-°p-∂p. taLv kvIqfn¬ ]Tn-°p-∂p. sNdn-bms‚ A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ kPn Ing-t°-°-c-bmbssIsXm- e n¬ C´n- ° p- ™ v , adn- b - ° p´n Zº- X n- I - f psS aIƒkn≥knsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw kn¶-∏q-cn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. Ch¿°v sIhn≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw kvtl F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap-≠v.Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fm-Wv. sNdn-bms‚ Bdm-asØ ]p{X≥ sdPn ]mem-cn-h´w apf-°¬sk_m-Ãy≥, Fen-k-_Øv Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ sPns hnhmlwsNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Ipssh-‰n¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. Ch¿°v sa¬hn≥,am¿´n≥ F∂o c≠p Ip´n-I-fp-≠v. sNdn-bms‚ aqØ-]p{Xn tagvknsb aÆm¿°m´v Im™n-c-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  35. 35. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 241Øp-¶¬ {^©p-Ip´n sXømΩ aI≥ Ahn-cm-®≥ hnhmlw Ign-®p. sNdn-bms‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn emensb Icn-¶p∂w Nº-∏≈n BKkvXn Gen aI≥ AUz. tUm. sk_m-Ãy≥ Nº∏≈nhnhmlw Ign-®p Im°-m´v Xma-kn-°p-∂p. AUz. sk_m-Ãy≥ssltIm¿´n¬ {]mIvSokv sNøp-∂p. emen F^v.-F. kn.-‰n-bn¬F©n-o-b¿ Bbn-cp-∂p. Ch¿°p AJn¬ (Akhil), nJn¬ (Nikhil)F∂n-ßs c≠m¨a°-fp-≠v. sNdn-bms‚ aq∂masØ ]p{Xn eqknsb Ip‰n-bmSn ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ tXma-kv, Nn∂Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tSmw tXma-kvhnhmlw Ign-®p. Ch¿°v tSmWn F∂ B¨Ip-´nbpw B≥tacnF∂ s]¨Ip-´n-bp-ap-≠v. sNdn-bms‚ mem-asØ ]p{Xn eosb s]cp-ºm-hq¿ hncp-∂n-mØv ss]en, X¶Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ jmPn hnhmlw Ign-®p. Ch¿°v a¿en≥, adn≥, F∂o c≠p-Ip-´n-I-fp-≠v.sI.-bp. C´n sF∏v aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ C´n sF∏v (sI.-bp. C´n-bbv∏v _n.-F-kv.-kn) tN¿∏p-¶¬ tIme-Sn-bn¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ Imcm-a-bn¬Nmt°m-bpsS aIƒ X¶Ω _n.-F-kv.knsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ aÆm¿Im´p Xma-kn®p Irjn S-Øp-∂p. C´n- sF∏npkm_p F∂ Hcp ]p{Xpw tPmfn, sP€n, Pm≥kn, PnPn, PbF∂o A©p ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn-®p. C´n- sF∏ns‚ aI≥ km_p Nß-m-t»cnbn¬ ]mem°p-t∂¬ tPm_ns‚ aIƒ _oasb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-lØn¬ -Xma-kn-°p-∂p. km_p Ct∏mƒ aÆm¿°m´v I√Sn (Fw.-C.-F-kv)tImtf-Pn¬ ]Tn-∏n-°p-∂p. km_p-hnv c≠m¨a-°fpw Hcp s]Æp-am-Wv. sF∏v km_p, tPmkv km_p F∂n-ßs ]p{X-∑mcpw nZnbkm_p F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-am-Wv. sF∏v km_p Fw.-Un.-Fkv v Fd-Wm-Ipfw AarXmµ-abn tImtf-Pn¬ ]Tn-°p-∂p. sF∏v km_p Xriq-cn¬ s]√n-t»cnhn≥sk‚ v aIƒ hnn-Xsb hnhmlw Ign-®p. sF∏v km_p-hnvsIhn≥ sF∏v F∂ Hcm¨Ip-´n-bp-≠v.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  36. 36. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 242 tPm_v km_p ^nkn-Ivkn¬ a{Zm-kn¬ sNss∂ bqWn-th-gvkn-‰n¬ ]n.-F-®v.Un sNøp-∂p. nZnb km_p awK-em-]p-cØvtkm^v‰vshb¿ F©n-o-b¿ Bbn tPmen tm°p-∂p. C´n sF∏ns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn tPmfn Nß-m-t»cn ]mem-°p-t∂¬ ]tc-X-mb sk_m-Ãy≥ kvIdnb (kn-_n) hnhmlw Ign®p_m•qcn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn P€nsb ae-∏p-dØvIpgn-°m´v tP°-∫ns‚ aI≥ kÆn hnhmlw sNbvXp Ata-cn-°-bn¬ ÿnc-Xm-a-k-am-Wv. c≠p-t]cpw F©n-o-b¿ BWv. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Pm≥knsb ]mem Ac-b-Øn-m¬ tUm.ssa°nƒ aI≥ hnP-b≥ hnhmlw sNbvNp. c≠p-t]cpw U¬ln-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Pm≥kn sk≥{S¬ hm´¿ AtXm-dn-´n-bn¬Ub-d-IvS¿ Bbn tPmen sNøp-∂p. mem-asØ ]p{Xn PnPnsbNß-m-t»cn hen-b]dºn¬ amXyp aI≥ tPm¿÷v amXyp hnhmlw - - -Ign®v Ata-cn-°-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. PnPn Ata-cn-°-bn¬ sIan-Ãmbn tPmen sNøp-∂p. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn Pbsb sXmSp-]pgXpSn-bw-πm-°¬ s{]m^. Sn.-F-kv. Nmt°mbpsS aI≥ •mUntP°∫v hnhmlw Ign®v _mw•q-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. c≠p-t]cpw_mw•q-cn¬ ss{IÃv tImtf-Pn¬ h¿°v sNøp-∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  37. 37. hmIbm-nbn-¬ 243
  38. 38. 244
  39. 39. 245
  40. 40. 246
  41. 41. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 247 Be-bv°¬ IpSpw_w Be-bv°¬ C´n-s®-dnb (memw Xe-apd) aq∂mw Xe-apd Ing-t°-°c Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ C´n-b-bv∏ns‚XrXo-b]p-{X≥ C´n-s®-dnb ]mem Aßm-Sn-bn¬ I´-°bØn¬ sNdn- - - -bm≥ apX¬ ]nSn-°m-cs‚ ]p{Xnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Be-bv°¬Xma-kn®p. C´n-s®-dnb Ic-{]-[m-nbpw ]mem hen-b-]-≈n-bnse HcptbmK {][m-n-bp-am-bn-cp∂p. kao-]-Øp≈ I≠-ß-fnse s√p-W-°p-∂-Xn-mbn sI´n-bp-≠m-°nb Be-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xn-m-emWv""Be-bv°¬ F∂ t]cp-≠m-bXv. C´n-s®-dn-bbv°v sNdn-bm≥, C´n-s®-dnb, aØmbn F∂ aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw A©p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠mbn.BZy ]p{Xnsb aptØmen sIgp-h≥Ip-f-Øp-I-c-bn¬ Ibn-∏≥πm-°¬ hnhmlw sNbvX-bbv®p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnsb Bc-°p-g-I-c-bn¬ C´n-Ø-t´¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xnsb hmg-°p-fØv t]mtf-Ip-t∂¬ hnhmlw sNbvX-b-b®p. mem-asØ]p{Xnsb ]mem-I-c-bn¬ R≈-°m´p hnhmlw sNbvXp. A©m-asØ ]p{Xnsb aptØm-e]pcw Ic-bn¬ ]≈n-°m-∏dºn¬ hnhmlw - - -sNbvXp. {]Y-a-]p-{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ Be-∏pg sN∂-°m-´p-n∂pwhnhmlw Ign®v hmIm-n-bn¬ Xma-kn®p. Sn. sNdn-bm≥ sXmΩ≥,C´n-s®-dnb, h¿°n, C´n-bbn∏v, sNdn-bm≥ F∂o A©p ]p{X-∑mcpw -Hcp ]p{Xnbpw D≠mbn. ]p{Xnsb hmg-°p-fØv sNm≈m-a-T-Øn¬hnhmlw sNbvXp. sNdn-bms‚ {]Ya ]p{X≥ sXmΩ≥ ]≈n-hm-Xp-°¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬ apf-b-∂q¿n∂pw {_nPo-Ømsb hnhmlwsNbvXv hmImn Ing-t°-]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn®p. sXmΩp sNdn-bm≥, C´n-s®-dnb F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw amΩn, I{Xn F∂ ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. ]p{Xn amΩnsb ]mem-bn¬ hS-°≥ IpSpw-_-Øn¬sh≈m-∏m´p ]m∏≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn I{XnsbtN¿∏p-¶¬ Ipf-∏p-d-Ømsg Xpcp-Øn-°m-hn¬ Nmt°m hnhmlwsNbvXp. Ingt° Be-bv°¬ hmI-bm-n-bn¬ sNdn-bm≥ ]mem hS-°-bn¬n∂pw hnhmlw sNbvXp. k¥m-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  42. 42. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 248-an-√msX `mcy acn-°bm¬ Nnd-°Shp-Icbn¬ aÆ≥πm-°¬ IpSpw- - - - - -_-Øn¬ G¿Ø-bn¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aIƒ A∂sb hnhmlwsNbvXp. sNdn-bmp sXmΩ≥, Hutk∏v, aØmbn, Nmt°m F∂mep ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠mbn.sXmΩ≥ {]Ya ]p{X≥ sXmΩ≥ ]mem CS-hI ]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ sXt°-°-≠-Øn¬n∂pw taep-Im-hn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂aØm-bn-bpsS aIƒ Gensb hnhm-lw-sNbvXv sh≈n-bm-a‰Øv Xma- -kn-°p∂p. Sn. sXmΩp sNdn-bm≥, Pbnwkv, tXmakv F∂ aq∂p]p{X-∑mcpw A∂, Gen, adnbw, tdmk F∂ mep ]p{Xn-amcpwD≠v.sNdn-bm≥ (tPm-kv) aqØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ (tPmkv) s]m≥Ip-∂Øv Iqcn-°m´vtXmakv aIƒ eoem-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Cfw-tZ-iØv Xma-kn®p. 2002¬ sNdn-bm≥ acn®p. sNdn-bmv c≠m¨a-°-fmWv.tPmtam≥, tPmPn. tPmPn Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv tPmen sNøp∂p. c≠m-a≥ Pbnwkv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. hnhmlw Ign-®n-´n√.tXma€v (tPmbn-®≥) taep-Imhv ]pØ≥]p-c-bn¬ Ipcys‚ aIƒkpk-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-lØn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tXma- -knp aq∂p s]¨a-°-fm-Wp-≈Xv. aqØ-]p{Xn tPm^n-bmsb Ipd-hn-e-ßm´v henb t]ßm´v amWn-bpsS aI≥ tPm¿Pv IeymWwIgn®p. c≠p-t]cpw Ipssh-‰n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnacnb kuZn-bn¬ gvkmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{XnA¬t^m≥kv gv k nwKv hnZym- ¿ ∞n- b mWv . aqØ- ] p{Xn A∂(en√n)sb t]cm{º ]mº-°¬ aØ-®s‚ aI≥ Ão^≥ IeymWwIgn®p. Ch¿°v aq∂p B¨a-°-fp≠v. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn tacnsbsNdp-]pg Nne-ºn-°p-t∂¬ kn.-‰n. amXyp IeymWw Ign®p. Ch¿°vc≠mWpw Hcp s]Æp-ap≠v. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Gen (h’Ω)sbGgp-ap´w ]´-cp-aTw tPmk^v aI≥ Nmt°m-®≥ IeymWw Ign®p.Ch¿°v c≠p s]Æpw Hcm-Wp-ap≠v.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  43. 43. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 249 mem-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk (tPmknen)sb Im™n-c∏≈n Imcp- -then tP°_v aI≥ Ipcp-hnf (tPmkv) IeymWw Ign®p Ad-°p-fØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmknen XpS-ß-mSv sslkvIqƒ slUvan-kv{S-kmbn tPmen tm°p∂p. tPmkn-en°p c≠v s]¨Ip-´n-Ifp≠v. -Hutk∏v Ggmw Xe-ap-d-bnse sNdn-bms‚ ZznZob ]p{X≥ Hutk∏v]mem CS-hI ap≠-a-‰-Øn¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ t{Xkymsbhnhmlw sNbvXv Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Hutk-∏np sNdn-bm≥(tPmbn), tXmakv (tSmwk¨), tPmk^v (tPmjn) F∂o aq∂p]p{X-∑mcpw A∂ (eoemΩ), adnbw (h’Ω), t{Xky (Ip´n-bΩ),tdmk (tdmknen) F∂o mep ]{Xnam-cp-amWv. aqØ-]p{Xn A∂ (eoemΩ)sb taep-Im-hn¬ IÆw-Ip-fØvtZh-kym-bpsS aI≥ Ipcy≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. Hutk-∏ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn adnb (h’Ω)Øns ]qh-tØmSv Ing-I-t°-Øp-cp-Øn-bn¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ sk_m-Ãy≥hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ct∏mƒ ap∂n-e-hn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. t^m¨:04822 ˛ 286620. Hutk-∏ns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn t{Xkym(Ip´n-bΩ)sb `c-W-ßmw Ie-b-Øn-m¬ h¿°n-bpsS aI≥ tPm¿÷v hnhmlwsNbvXp. Ct∏mƒ G¥-bm-‰n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. t^m¨: 04828 -˛ 286753. Hutk-∏ns‚ mem-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk (tdmknen)sb IpafnXqß≥]-d-ºn¬ h¿°n-bpsS aI≥ h¿Kokv hnhmlw sNbvXp.t^m¨: 04869 ˛ 223470. Hutk-∏ns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ (tPmbn) Ipd-hn-e-ßmSvht√ym-fn¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ Gensb (eoeΩ) hnhmlw sNbvXp.Ct∏mƒ ap≠-°-bØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmbn°v civan, caym F∂oc≠p s]¨a-°fmWv. Ccp-hcpw gvknwKv ]Tw Ign™v {]mIvSokv -sNøp∂p. t^m¨: 9744641339.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  44. 44. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 250 Hutk-∏ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (tSmwk¨) Af-mSv πmen-°¬ tPmWns‚ aIƒ adn-bsØ (h’Ω) hnhmlwsNbvXp. tSmwk¨ Ct∏mƒ D≈-m-´n-emWv Xmakw. tSmwk¨Pnp F∂ ]p{Xpw dq_n F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{X≥ Pnptlm´¬am-t-Pvsa‚ v ]T-Øn-p-tijw {]mIvSokv sNøp∂p. dq_n -_n.Fkvkn gvknwKv ]Tn-°p∂p. t^m¨: 04822 ˛ 224217. Hutk-∏ns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v (tPmjn) ]bkvau≠v Ip∂Øv C´n-b-hncm tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ A∂ (knknen)sbhnhmlw sNbvXp. Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmjn°v kntPm,entPm F∂o c≠p a°-fmWv. kntPm Ggmw-¢m-kn¬ ]Tn-°p∂p.entPm Ip™mWv. t^m¨: 04822 ˛ 201146, samss_¬ 9744987731.aØmbn sNdn-bms‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ aØmbn XpS-ß-mSv tImX-º-m-n-bn¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aIƒ tdmksb hnhmlw sNbvXpXd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°th 1983¬ ac-W-a-S™p. Cu hnhm-l-Øn¬k¥m--ß-fn√.Nmt°m sNdn-bms‚ memasØ ]p{X≥ Nmt°m ap´w amS-°¬sNdn-bms‚ aIƒ h’-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ap´Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Nmt°mbv°v tdm_n≥kv F∂ ]p{Xpw dq_n acnb F∂]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{X≥ dq_n≥kv F≥Pn-o-bdmWv.]p{Xn dq_n acnb -_n.Fkvkn gvkmWv. Nmt°m C¥y≥ anen-´dn k¿ho-kn¬n∂pwdn´-b¿sN-bvXbm-fmWv. t^m¨: 04862 255054, samss_¬: 9744277992. - Bdmw Xe-apd hmIm-n-bn¬ sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥C´n- s ®- d nb (dh. ^m. Xm¿kn€v knFwsF) I¿Ω- e oØmk`-bn¬ tN¿∂p sshZn-I-mbn. At±lw Ct∏mƒ C√.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  45. 45. 251
  46. 46. 252
  47. 47. 253
  48. 48. 254
  49. 49. 255 255
  50. 50. 256
  51. 51. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 257 hmIm-n-bn¬ Ipºp-°¬ imJ hmIm-n-bn¬ sNdn-bms‚ ZznXob ]p{X≥ C´n-s®-dnb s]mcp-t∂m-en¬ ]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬ Itcm´p adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXvZØ-h-Im-i-ambn Xma-kn®p. C´n-s®-dn-b-Xnp BKkvXn, aØmbnF∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠mbn. aqØ-]p-{X≥ BKkvXn `c-W-ßm-Øv Bcw-]p-fn-°-emb Ipf-∏p-c-bn¬ sNdn-b-Xns‚ aIƒ A∂sbhnhmlw sNbvXv Du∂p-I√pw-]p-cbn-SØn¬ Xma-kn®p. BK-kvXn°v - - -aØmbn, C´n-bbv]v F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw, adnbw, A∂, t{Xkym,Gen F∂o ]p{Xnamcpw Pn®p. aqØ-]p{Xn adn-b-Øns Ggm-t®-cn¬ thc-m-n-°¬ sNdn-bms‚ aI≥ Hutk∏v hnhmlw sNbvXp.c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂sb `c-W-ßm-Øp amdm-a-‰-Øn¬n∂pcn-b-ßm-Øp Xma-kn-°p∂ amWn-bpsS aI≥ Hutk∏v hnhmlwsNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn- t{X-kysb A¥o-m´v Im™n-c-Øp-¶¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aI≥ Hutk∏v hnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ]p{Xn Gen (knÿ tacn _o™m) am¿ØmWvUw tUmt´gvkvHm^v tacn hI aT-Øn¬t®¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn.aØmbn BK-kvXn-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ aØmbn {]hn-Øm-Øv Imcym-¶¬ {_nPo-Ømsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ Be-t°m´p Xma-kn-°p∂p. aØm-bn°v BKkvXn, Hutk∏v F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpwA∂, Nn∂ F∂ c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠v. ]p{Xn A∂sb ]mem]pØ≥]≈n CS-hI ]pXn-bm-]-d-ºn¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aI≥ Ip´-∏≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Nn∂sb ap´p-Nnd ocm-°¬ Nmt°m-bpsS aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp.BKkvXn aØm-bn-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ BKkvXn (]m∏-®≥) Cf-ßfØp- - -n∂p ae-_m-dn¬ sNtº-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ ISq°p-t∂¬ ho´n¬CØm-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. BKkvXn (]m∏-®≥) Imk¿tKmUp Xmeq-°n¬ _¥-Sp-°-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  52. 52. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 258°-SpØv ]Sp-∏n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. ]m∏-®p tUmfn, _om, _nµpF∂ aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw hntmZv F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. CXn¬_ombpw _nµphpw Cc-´-I-fmWv. aqØ-]p{Xn tUmfnsb Xma-c-t»cn ASpØv I´n-∏md C´n-tb-∏md {^m≥knkv, Gen Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ jmPp hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn _osbhb-mSv S-h-b-en¬ ]ncn-bw-am-°¬ ^nen∏v, Gen-°p´n aI≥Ip™p-tam≥ (amXyp) hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn _nµpsNdp-]pg ]pfntßmw sNm∆m-‰p-Ip-t∂¬ kvIdnb, AΩnWn aI≥_Pn hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]p{X≥ hntmZv tImf-bmSv IpS-°-®nd^nen∏v, tacn aIƒ kvanXsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXm-hns‚ IqsS]Sp-∏n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. hntm-Znp A£bv, A`n-bv, F∂o c≠p]p{X-∑mcpw B¬an F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ch¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv.tPmk^v (Hu-tk-∏-®≥) aØm-bn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v (Hutk-∏-®≥)ac-ßm-´p-]≈n-bn¬n∂pw Be-t°mSv s√n-∏m-dbn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ - -IpS-I-m-Sn-bn¬ tPmk^v ˛ A∂-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ Gen-bm-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Be-t°mSv aoº-‰n-bn-ep≈ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Hutk-∏-®≥ √ Hcp πm‚dpw Adn-b-s∏-Sp∂ Hcp kmaq-ly-{]-h¿Ø-I-p-amWv. Hutk-∏-®p atmPv F∂Hcp ]p{Xpw ann-sb∂ Hcp ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{X≥ atmPv Ad-°p-f-Øp-n∂pw Icp-h-©m-en¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ tahnS ]tc-X-mbtPm¨, t{Kkn-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ SnPnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv]nXm-hns‚ IqsS Xma-kn-°p∂p. atmPv sjb¿ _nkn--kn¬{]h¿Øn-°p∂p. atm-Pnp Fen-k-_Øv F∂ s]¨Ip-´nbpwtPmk^v (tPmjz) F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. Ch¿ Ip™p-ß-fmWvHutk-∏-®s‚ ]p{Xn annsb neq¿n∂pw ]pfntßmw tImgn-®m-en¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ Im≠m-h--Øn¬ ssa°nƒ, tamn°m aI≥km_p hnhmlw sNbvXp.C´n sF∏v Ipºp-°¬ BK-kvXn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ C´n-sF∏vD≈-m´v Acn-°m´p h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ A®m-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  53. 53. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 259]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. C´n-sF-∏np k¥m--ß-fn√.aØmbn BK- k v X n- b psS Ap- P ≥ aØmbn ]q™m¿ tXm´- ° camØ≥Ip-t∂¬ Ipcys‚ aIƒ A∂sb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-lØn¬ Xma-kn®p. At±-lØnp C´n-s®-dnb, aØmbn (sIm®v) - -sNdn-bm≥ F∂ aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw Gen, amΩn, A®mΩ, t{Xky,tdmk, {_nPoØv, tacn F∂o Ggp ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠mbn. ]nXm-hmb aØmbn acn®v Cfw-tXm´w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Gensb nc-b-ßm-Øv ss]I-S-bn¬sXmΩs‚ aI≥ h¿°n hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn acn-®p-t]mbn. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn A®m-Ωsb Icq¿ CS-hI abn-em-Sq¿sXmΩs‚ aI≥ sXmΩ≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xnt{Xkysb `c-W-ßm-Øv Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aI≥aØmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn tdmksb tacnem‚n¬ Imcym-¶¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aI≥ tPm¨ hnhmlw sNbvXp. Bdm-asØ ]p{Xn {_nPoØ (knÿ Atπm-nbm) tImX-aw-KeØv Bcm-[m-aTØn¬ tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. Ggm-asØ - - - -]p{Xn tacnsb `c-W-ßm-Øv Xmg-tج IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ hcn-°-bm-n-°¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ A{_mlw hnhmlw sNbvXp.C´n-s®-dnb aØm-bn-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ C´n-s®-dnb ]mem CS-hI aWn-ae am∏n-fbmb s]mSn-a‰Øn¬n∂pw Nn‰m-‰n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ sh´p- - - -I-t√¬ sNdn-bms‚ aIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXv Af-m-Sp-I-c-bn¬ hcn-°-am-°¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ At±-l-Ønp aØmbn(amØ≥) sNdn-bm≥ F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw A∂, Gen, adnbw,sIm®p-t{Xky F∂ mep ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂ en‰n¬ kntÃgvkv Hm^v Zn ]qh¿F∂ aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Gen○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  54. 54. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 260(eoemΩ)sb Acp-hn-Øpd ]≈n CS-hI BgmØv tXmakv aI≥tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨: 04822 272674. aq∂m-asØ]p{Xn adnb (knknen)Øns IS-mSv ]≈n CS-hI tX°pw-Im-´n¬ Cmkv aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ct∏mƒ sN∏p-Ip-fØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. t^m¨: 04862 ˛ 271812. mem-asØ ]p{Xn sIm®p-t{Xkym AtUm-td-j≥ aT-Øn¬tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. Ct∏mƒ I√p-]mew aT-Øn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. t^m¨: 9747395834. C´n-s®-dn-b-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ amØ≥ ]qh-tØmSv ]≈n CS-hI amS-∏≈n IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ InW-‰p-Ic ho´n¬ Hutk-∏ns‚aIƒ tacnsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. amØp tSmWn, sNdn-bm≥ F∂v c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw en€n,s‰kn F∂v c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥_me-m-bn-cns° ac-W-a-S™p. amØs‚ ]p{X≥ tSmWn (tPmk^v) cmPm-°mSv CS-hI ]me-°m-tXm-´-Øn¬ ]n.hn.tXma€v aIƒ BXn-csb hnhmlw sNbvXvsXmSp-]pg Be-t°mSv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tSmWn°p Ao‰ Fs∂mcp]p{Xn-bp≠v. inip-hmWv. amØs‚ aqØ-]p{Xn en€n (tacn)sb A©ncn ]≈n CS-hI sXt° aWm-¶-Ø-S-Øn¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ tdmbn hnhmlwsNbvXp. t^m¨: 9745807301. amØs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn s‰kn (A∂)sb Sp-°c ]≈nCS-hI Ipºm´v IWn-bm-]-d-ºn¬ tPmk^v aI≥ s_∂n hnhmlwsNbvXp. t^m¨: 04852 ˛ 261259. amØ≥ 2000 am¿®v 25˛mw XobXn ac-W-a-S™p. Cfw-tXm´w]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. C´n-s®-dn-b-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ Xd-hm-Smb]me-bn-ep≈ hcn-°-am-°¬ ]pc-bnSw hn‰v sXmSp-]pg Be-t°mSvXma-kn-°p∂p. sNdn-bm≥ Ahn-hm-ln-X-mWv.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  55. 55. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 261aØmbn Ipºp-°¬ aØm-bn-bpsS c≠m-asØ aI≥ aØmbn (sIm®v)πmi-m¬ ]pfn-°Ømsg Hutk-∏ns‚ aIƒ adn-bØns hnhmlw - -sNbvXp. Ct∏mƒ ae-_m-dn¬ sh≈-cn-°p≠v Xma-kn-°p∂p.aØmbn (sIm®v) 1997 G{]n¬ H∂np acWw {]m]n®p. Np≈n-]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvIcn®p. sIm®np aØmbn (aØ-®≥), -tPmkv, BKkvXn (kmPp) F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw A∂, Gen,{_nPnØ, tdmk, A¬t^m≥km, {_nPn‰v F∂o Bdp ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. sIm®ns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ aØmbn (aØ-®≥) tN∂mSv ]pfn-°¬ tXma€v A∂-°p´n aIƒ adn-bmΩ (tagvkn)sb hnhmlwsNbvXp. aØ-®p j¿an, jnPn F∂ c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw sjdn≥F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. ]p{Xn j¿ansb Im™-ßmSv Aojv hnhmlw sNbvXp.c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn jnPnsb hfm-∏mSn sIm®n-bn¬ kt¥mjvhnhmlw sNbvXp. ]p{X≥ sjdn≥ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. aØ-®≥ 2011 Pq¨ Bdmw XobXn ac-W-a-S™p. Imen-®m--Sp°w ]≈n-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. sIm®ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmkv IS-mSv X®p-Ip-t∂¬h’-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp ae-_m-dn¬ sh≈-cn-°p≠v Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmknp amXyp (Sn‚p) F∂ ]p{Xpw adnbw (aWn-°p´n),t{Xkym (kuay) F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. ]p{X≥ Sn‚p FIvkvtd tImgvkv ]mkmbn _mwKvfq-cn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. tPmkns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn adnbw (aWn-°p´n) `c-W-ßmwUnFkvSn k`-bn¬ tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. Cf-b-]p{Xn kuaygvknwKv ]mkmbn t_mws_-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. sIm®ns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ kmPp sIm∂-°mSv oew-]-d-ºn¬ ]t{Xmkv, tacn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ A∂Ω (_nµp)sbhnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. kmPp-hnv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  56. 56. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 262B‚Wn (B¬hn≥), amXyp (Ae≥) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp≠v.Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p∂p. aqØ-]p{Xn A∂ (en√n)sb Im°-S-hp-Nn-d-bn¬ A{_mlw,A∂Ω ˛ Zº-Xn-IfpsS aI≥ _m_p-hns hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m- -asØ ]p{Xn adnbw (kmen)sb ]p∂-°p∂v ]mº-°¬ Ip™q™v(Ipcp-hnf) hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk (sS€nsb)]pfn-¶p∂v (Nß-m-t»-cn¬) Ing-t°-°p‰v Ipcy-∏≥ aI≥ tPm€nhnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xn Pb ({_nPo‰v)sb `oa-Sn(Ip∂pwssI) ]®-∏Xn-bn¬ hn’≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. A©m-asØ -]p{Xn {_Po‰ (]pjv]-dmWn), `c-W-ßmw UnFkvSn k`-bn¬tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn U¬ln-bn¬ kvIqfn¬ ]Tn-∏n°p∂p.Bdm-asØ ]p{Xn A¬t^m≥km (Zo]vXn) IÆq¿ hna-em-eb k`-bn¬ tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. Ct∏mƒ sNtº-cn¬ kvIqfn¬ ]Tn-∏n-°p∂p.sNdn-bm≥ Ipºp-°¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ `c-W-ßm-Øv hmfn-πm-°¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ If-cn-°¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aIƒ Nn∂-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn®p. B hnhm-l-Øn¬ A∂ (B≥kΩ) F∂ ]p{Xnbpw amXypF∂ ]p{Xpw Pn®p. AXn-p-tijw B `mcy ac-W-a-S™p.]n∂oSv nc-t∏¬ ]≈n-bn-ShI Np¶-∏md ho´n¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aIƒ -{_nPo-Øsb ]p¿hn-hmlw sNbvXp. sNdn-bm≥ Ct∏mƒ CS-a-dp-In-emWv Xmakw. c≠mw hnhm-l-Øn¬ adnbw (Pn≥kn) F∂]p{Xnbpw Hutk∏v (tPmkv), tkmP≥ F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-amWv. ]p{Xn Pn≥knsb CS-a-dpIv ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Hutk∏v, tacn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tPmkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥tPmkv taep-Imhv hS-t°-ap-f-™-m¬ ]m∏-®s‚ aIƒ en‰nsbhnhmlw sNbvXv hmI-°mSv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmknp taL (A∂),acnb, A¬t^m≥km F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xnam-cp≠v. Ch¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tkmP≥ aqe-a‰w Iq-ºm-d-bn¬tPmk^v, tacn Zº-Xn-IfpsS aIƒ ann (tacn)sb hnhmlw sNbvXv -○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  57. 57. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 263]nXm-hns‚ IqsS CS-a-dp-In¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tkmPv A∂mΩF∂ Hcp ]p{Xn-bp≠v. BZy hnhm-lØnse ]p{Xn B≥k-Ωsb AXn-cºpg Im™n- - -c-°m-em-bn¬ Hutk∏v tacn aI≥ tPmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp.B≥kΩ anen-‰dn k¿ho-kn¬ tIW¬ Bbn KpP-dm-Øn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. ]p{X≥ amXyp (amØ-®≥) neq¿ s]m´w-πm-°¬ B¬k-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv hÆ-∏p-dØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v imcn,imanen F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp≠v. imcn _tbm-sS-Ivtm-fPnFw.Fkvkn°v Nß-m-ti-cn-bn¬ ]Tn-°p∂p. ]Sn-™msd Be-°¬ hmIm-n-bn¬ imJ hmIm-n-bn¬ sNdn-bms‚ XrXob ]p{X≥ h¿°n ]mem-bn¬hS-°≥ IpSpw-_-Øn¬ sXmΩs‚ aIƒ A∂sb hnhmlw sNbvXvhmIm-n-bn¬ ]Sn-™m-td-Xn¬ Xma-kn®p. Ah¿°v A∂ Fs∂mcp]p{Xn am{Xw Pn®p. ]p{Xn A∂sb Ing-t°-°c Xmg-Øp-n∂pwaq∂p-am-°¬ Xma-kam-°nb Nmt°m-bpsS aI≥ sNdn-bm≥ (Ips©- -dnb) hnhmlw sNbvXp. ZØm-h-Im-i-ambn Xma-kn®p. Sn sNdn-bmph¿°n (tN´mbn), Hutk∏v (A∏- ® ≥), Nmt°m, sNdn- b m≥,sXmΩ≥ F∂ A©p ]p{X≥amcpw, I{Xn, A∂, adnbw, Gen-°p´n F∂ mep ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. sNdn-bms‚ aqØ ]p{Xn I{Xo-sb Icq¿ ]-a‰Øn¬ h¿°n- - -bpsS aI≥ Hutk∏v hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠masØ ]p{Xn A∂sb]Sn-™m-sd-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ sISp-º≥]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ sXmΩs‚aI≥ Ipcp-hnf hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn adn-bsØ aptØm-en¬ mK-q-en¬ sImbn-∏p-dØv sXmΩs‚ aI≥ sI.Sn.tXmakv _nF._nF¬ hnhmlwsNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xn Gen-°p-´nsb Ipd-hn-e-ßmSv Imcmw-th-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  58. 58. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 264en¬ Nmt°m-bpsS aI≥ amWn hnhmlw sNbvXp. Gen-°p´n Kh.kvIqƒ A[ym-]n-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. sNdn-bms‚ ]p{X-∑m-cn¬ h¿°n, Nmt°m, sNdn-bm≥ F∂n-h¿ 1950 Ime-L-´Øn¬ ]mem-bn¬n∂pw ae-_m-dn¬ s]cp-h-Æm-aq-gn-bn¬ IpSn-tbdn tZl-WvU-߃ ]nSn-∏n®p. h¿°n (tN-´m-bn) sNdn-bms‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ h¿°n (tN´mbn) Ipdp-∏pw-Xd ]I-tem-a‰w IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ hgp-X--∏-≈n¬ sXmΩs‚ aIƒGensb hnhmlw sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ s]cp-h-Æm-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. h¿°n°v tPmk^v, sNdn-bm≥ (A∏-®≥) h¿°n(tPm¿÷v) F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw A∂, h’Ω, tacn F∂oaq∂p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. h¿°n-bpsS aqØ ]p{Xn A∂sb s]cp-am-en¬ A∏-®≥ hnhm-lw-sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn h’-Ωsb I√m-tmSv ISp-Ip-am-°¬ ]m∏-®≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xntacnsb ]Sp-Øp-I-Shv ]p√m´v Ipcym-®≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmk^v (Ip™v) s√-cn-ho-´n¬ s]Æ-Ωsbhnhmlw sNbvXv s]cp-h-Æm-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°vPbn≥, tPmbvkn, Pm≥kn, sP€n, tPm¬k (emen) F∂o A©p]p{Xn-amcpw tPm¨k¨ F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. Ip™ns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn Pbns ]me-°mSv I√-Sn-t°mSv ]pXp-th-en¬ Nmt°m tdmkΩ aI≥ h¿§okv (Ip™q™v) hnhmlwsNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn tPmbvknsb Iqcm-®p≠v ]¥-πm-°¬ kndn-b°v (t__n) hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m- a sØ ]p{Xn Pm≥knsb sNdp- ] pg Nn‰m- c n- ° m¬Ip∂Øv amXyp-hns‚ aI≥ tPm¿Pv hnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xn P€nsb sNtºcn Igp-∂-Sn-ho-´n¬ amXyp-hns‚ aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. A©m-asØ ]p{XntPm¬k-sb N°n-´-]md aqte-°m´v tImc ˛ tacn aI≥ tPm¨hnhmlw sNbvXp.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  59. 59. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 265 ]p{X≥ tPm¨k¨ ]me-°mSv s]m∂-t¶m´v am{]mWwtPm¨, tacn aIƒ {]n≥knsb hnhmlw sNbvXp Nh-dw-ap-gn-bn¬Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm¨kv tdmj≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw tdmkvan F∂]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fmWv. tPm¨k¨ Adn-b-s∏-Sp∂ Hcp Kmb-I-mWv. ]e {Sq∏p-I-fn¬ ]mSp-Ibpw Imk‰v Cd-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-´p≠v. tN´m-bn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ (A∏-®≥) awK-e-Øn¬ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXv Nh-dw-ap-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. A∏-®v (sNdn-bm≥) jmP≥, ssj≥ F∂o ]p{X-∑mcpwjnPn, {]n≥kn F∂o c≠p ]p{X-nam-cp-ap≠v. aqØ-]p-{X≥ jmP≥ B-°mw-s]m-bn¬ h´-∏md amXyp-hns‚aIƒ ]ufnsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. jmPv Aa¬, BZn≥ F∂oc≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp≠v. Ch¿ Ip™p-ß-fmWv. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ ssj≥ sNtºcn IpSn-bm-ae Im∏n¬tPmkns‚ aIƒ hno-Xsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿°v kn≤m¿Yv,dn®m¿Uv F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp≠v. Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fmWv. aqØ-]p{Xn jnPnsb ]ip-°-Shv s√-cn-bn¬ amΩ-®≥,t{Xkym aI≥ _ntmbv hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnjn≥knsb IqS-c™n Xd-∏n¬ B‚Wn˛tamfn aI≥ kPn hnhmlwsNbvXp. h¿°n-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿÷v Iqcm-®p≠v sIm√w-Ip-t∂¬ tZhkym tacn aIƒ F¬k-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Nh-dw-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm¿Pv (Ip™p)p tPm_n≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw Sn‚p F∂]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{X≥ tPm_n≥ ss]k-°cn N°m-Wn-Ip-t∂¬ Hm-®≥, s]ÆΩ aIƒ kn‘p-hns hnhm-lw-sNbvXp. Nh-dw-ap-gn-bn¬Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm_nv A¬° F∂ ]p{Xnbpw AtUm¨ F∂]p{X-p-ap≠v.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  60. 60. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 266 tPm¿Pns‚ ]p{Xn Sn‚p-hns Iqcm-®p≠v sSn-b-]me Ah-dm-®≥ tdmkΩ aI≥ jntPm hnhm-lw-sNbvXp.Hutk∏v (A-∏-®≥) sNdn-bms‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Hutk∏v (A∏-®≥) ]mem]pØ≥]-≈n-bn-S-hI ]pXn-bm-]-d-ºn¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ Be-t°mSv Xma-kn-°p∂p.Ch¿°v tPmk^v (t__n), sNdn-bm≥ (kÆn), amXyp (X¶-®≥),h¿°n (tPmjn) F∂o mep ]p{X-∑mcpw tacn A∂ (eoe), Gen(Pb) F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. A∏-®s‚ aqØ ]p{Xn tacnsb hmbm-´p-]-dºv ssItØm-´p-¶¬ tPmk^v (HuX) hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn eoem-Ωsb Icp-h≥Nm¬ Is√m-Sn-bn¬IÆmw-]-S-Øn¬ amXyp (Ip´n-b-®≥) hnhmlw sNbvXp. eoemΩdn´. Kh. gvkmWv. amXyp kn_nsF Hm^o-k¿ Bbn IÆqcvtPmen sNøp∂p. A∏-®s‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Pbsb {ioI-WvTm-]pcw aS-ºØv IWn-bmw-]-d-ºn¬ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp. amXyp Fkv_n-sF-bn¬ amt-P-cmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. Pb Xfn-∏-d-ºn¬ Kh.FbvUUv kvIqƒ So®-dmWv. A∏-®s‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmk^v (t__n) ]q™m-‰n¬n∂pwae-_m¿ Be-t°mSv XSn-°-S-hn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ taeq-°p-t∂¬tPmk^v, A∂Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tacnsb hnhmlw sNbvXp.Be-t°mSv s√n-∏md Xma-kn-°p∂p. t__n°p tPmk^v (PnØp),sk_m-Ãy≥ F∂o c≠m¨a-°-fmWv. aqØ ]p{X≥ PnØpkpPsb hnhmlw Ign®p. PnØp Xfn-∏-d-ºn¬ sdUn-sabvUv _nkn-kv S-Øp∂p. c≠m-a≥ sk_m-Ãy≥ Xfn-∏-d-ºn¬ Hcp ÿm]--Øn¬ A°u-≠‚mbn tPmen sNøp∂p. A∏-®s‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ kÆn Xriq¿ Aø-t¥mƒ{_lva-Ipfw Hutk∏v adnbw aIƒ A∂ (tdmkn)sb hnhmlw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  61. 61. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 267sNbvXv Be-t°mSv Ac-ßØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. kÆn°v tdmjv F∂]p{Xpw tdmjvn F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. tdmjv Im∏n-ae ]pc-∏p-g-°¬ tPmkv, Pbn-kΩ aIƒ kuaysb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXrKr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tdmjvnsb ]ø-∂q¿ hb-en¬ tPm¿Pvh’Ω aI≥ APn-k¨ hnhmlw sNbvXp. A∏-®s‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ X¶-®≥ ]øm-hq¿ the-mØvNmt°m, adnbw aIƒ B≥knsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Be-t°mSvs√n-∏md Xma-kn-°p∂p. X¶-®v Inc¨, Acp¨ F∂o c≠p]p{X-∑m-cmWv. Inc¨ F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv ]mkmbn _mwKvfq-cn¬tPmen sNøp∂p. Acp¨ F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv hnZym¿Yn-bmWv. A∏-®s‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmjn aW-°-Shv ]pen-bp-dp-ºn¬ A{_mlw, tacn aIƒ tkm^n-bm-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXvBe-t°mSv Ac-ßØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmjn°v B{Unb, A¿jF∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw AeIvkv F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. Ip´n-Iƒaq∂p-t]cpw ]Tn-°p-∂p. tkm^n-bmΩ Kh. bp.]n.kvIqƒ sdbtdmw-an¬ A[ym-]n-I-bmWv. tPmjn sIF-kv-C_n Be-t°mSv Hmh¿ko-b-dmbn tPmen sNøp∂p.Nmt°m Ips©-dn-bm-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ Nmt°m ]mem-bn¬I´-°bw IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ Ce-™n-°p-t∂¬ sXmΩs‚ aIƒtacnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ s]cp-h-Æm-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Nmt°mbv°v sNdn-bm≥, tXmakv, tPmkv, Nmt°m,h¿°n, t]mƒk¨, kPn, km_p, tkmP≥ F∂o HºXv]p{X≥amcpw A∂, tacn F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. Nmt°m-bpsS H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ (tPmbn) s]cp-h-Æm-aqgn Xq¶p-gnbn¬ ]m∏®≥, tacn aIƒ A∂ (AΩnWn)sbhnhmlw sNbvXv s]cp-h-Æm-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmbn°vNmt°m ({]n≥kv), sNdn-bm≥ ({]ho¨) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpwtdmk ({]nb) F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. tPmbn-bpsS aqØ ]p{X≥ {]n≥kv IqS-c™n s]Æmw-]-d-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  62. 62. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 268ºn¬ nj (t{_mWnb)sb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw _l-dn-n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. tPmbn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ {]ho¨Ahn-hm-ln-X-mWv. ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. aqØ-]p{Xn{]nbsb tImgn-t°m´v Ipcn-ip-¶¬ tPmkns‚ aI≥ ssjPphnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw kuZn-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. Nmt°m-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (kÆn) ]Sp-Ø-I-Shv Cf-∏p-¶¬ amXyp, t{XkymΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ euensbhnhmlw sNbvXv ]S-Øp-I-Shv Xma-kn-°p∂p. kÆn°p AarXF∂ aIfpw tSman≥ F∂ aI-p-ap≠v. AarX t_mws_-bn¬gvkmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. tSman≥ hnZym¿Yn-bmWv. Nmt°m-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmkv Iqcm-®p≠v XI-Sn-∏p-dØv tPmk^v, Gen aIƒ tacnsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. s]cp-h-Æm- a qgn Iqh- s ∏m- ø n¬ Xma- k n- ° p∂p. tPmknp Pn¬k¨,tPm^n≥ F∂o c≠m¨a-°-fp≠v. Ccp-hcpw hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. Nmt°m-bpsS mem-asØ ]p{X≥ Nmt°m (s_∂n) N°n-´-]md ap≈-¶p-gn-bn¬ tPmk^v, Za-b¥n aIƒ kn¬hn (ann)sbhnhmlw sNbvXv N°n-´]mdbn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. s_∂n°p Aho‰ -F∂ s]¨Ip-´nbpw Ae≥ F∂ B¨Ip-´n-bp-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpwhnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. s_∂n ]´m-f-Øn¬ tPmen sNøp-Ibpw Ct∏mƒtPmen-bn¬n∂pw hnc-an-®v _nkn-kv sNøp∂p. ann Ipf-Øp-h-b¬ kvIqfn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. Nmt°m-bpsS A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿Pv (Xºn) ]p√q-cmw-]md apcn-ß-bn¬ tPmk^v, {_nPn‰v, aIƒ ann (A∂Ω)sbhnhmlw sNbvXv Nh-dw-aq-gn-bn¬ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Xºn°v APnØv F∂ ]p{Xpw Ap F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v.Ccp-hcpw hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. Nmt°m-bpsS Bdm-asØ ]p{X≥ t]mƒ ]qgn-tØmSv ]pI-ae tXmakv ˛ Gen aIƒ tamfnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Nh-dw-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. t]mfnv sPdn≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw Pnp acnb,Pnkv acnb F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. aqhcpw hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  63. 63. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 269 Nmt°m-bpsS Ggm-asØ ]p{X≥ amXyp (kPn) U¬ln-bn¬Nnd-bØv AØm-Wn-°¬ tP°_v, Nn∂Ω aIƒ Smnsb hnhmlwsNbvXv OmWvUn-K-Un¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. kPn OWvUn-K-Un¬kvIqfns‚ {]n≥kn-∏¬ Bbn tPmen tm°p∂p. Smn AUz-t°‰vBbn tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v Bcy≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw tacn-bm≥F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fmWv. Nmt°m-bpsS F´m-asØ ]p{X≥ sk_m-Ãy≥ (km_p) hne-ßm´v Nqc-s∏m-bvI-bn¬ skens hnhmlw sNbvXp. km_p amen-Zzo-]n¬ A[ym-]-I-mbn tPmen sNøp∂p. sken≥ ]©m-_n¬kvIqƒ So®-dmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v Alm≥j F∂s]¨Ip-´n-bp≠v. Nmt°m-bpsS Hº-Xm-asØ ]p{X≥ tkmP≥ tImS-t©-cn-bn¬I∏-ep-am-°¬ tZhky, tacn aIƒ ann-tamsf hnhmlw sNbvXp.Ch¿ ]©m-_n¬ OWvUn-K-Un¬ kvIqfn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p.tkmP≥ kvIqƒ {]n≥kn-∏emWv. ann-tamƒ AtX kvIqfn¬ A[ym- -]n-IbmWv. tkmPp ktemWn, Aoj F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp≠v. -Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fmWv. Nmt°m-bpsS H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn tPmfnsb hb-mSv hmfm-´n¬ shºm-e-bn¬ tPmk^v A∂Ω aI≥ sk_m-Ãy≥ (Ip´∏n)hnhmlw sNbvXp. Nmt°m-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Pm≥knsb s]cp-h-Æm-aqgnapXp-Im´v Ioc-©nd tXmakv A∂Ω aI≥ tPmkv hnhmlwsNbvXp.sNdn-bm≥ Ips©-dn-b-bpsS mem-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ `c-W-ßm-Øv tX°n≥Im-´n¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ ]p∂-a-‰-Øn¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhm-lw-sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ s]cp-h-Æm-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v X¶-®≥, amXyp, tPmk^v F∂oaq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw Nn∂Ω, tacn-°p´n, jm‚n, ssjn, ann F∂A©v ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠mbn. sNdn-bm≥ 2010 sk]vXw-_¿ A©mw-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  64. 64. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 270Xo-bXn acWw {]m]n®v ]S-Øp-°-Shv Xncp-Ip-Spw_ tZhm-eb skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. sNdn-bms‚ a°-fn¬ X¶-®≥, tPmk^v,ssjn F∂o a°ƒ acn®p t]mbn. aqØ aIƒ Nn∂-Ωsb Iqcm-®p≠v Im‰p-≈-ae aW-te¬tPmk^v, adn-bmΩ aI≥ sk_m-Ãy≥ F∂ A∏-®≥ hnhmlwsNbvXv Nn∂-Ω-bpsS ]nXmhv sNdn-bms‚ IqsS Xma-kn-°p∂p.Ch¿°v Zo]m F∂ ]p{Xnbpw Zneo]v F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. ]p{XnZo]sb Ip∏m-b-t°mSv sagp-I-m¬ tPm¿Pv Nn∂Ω aI≥ jntPmhnhmlw sNbvXp. sNdn-bms‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn tacn-°p-´nsbhne-ßmSv ]qh-Øpw-aq-´n¬ tXmakv, X¶Ω Zº-Xn-IfpsS aI≥ tSman -hnhmlw sNbvXp. sNdn-bms‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn jm‚nsbt]cm{º aW-∏m´v a[p hnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xnannsb ne- º q¿ hmg- ∏ - ≈ n¬ sFk- ° ns‚ aI≥ h¿Kokvhnhmlw sNbvXp. sNdn-bms‚ ]p{X≥ amXyp KqV-√q¿ aqtØ-SØv d∏m-bn-tb¬aIƒ t__nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Nh-dw-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.Ch¿°v _n≥kn F∂ ]p{Xnbpw _nt‚m F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p∂p.tXmakv (-sXm-Ω-®≥) Ips©-dn-b-bpsS A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (sXmΩ-®≥)Xot°m-bn¬ ]tc-cmØv IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ Aßm-Sn-bn¬ho-´n¬h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ {_nPn-Ømsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿ Ct∏mƒ]nXr-kz-Ømb hmIm-n-]-dºv hn‰v ]mem-bn¬ ap≠p-]m-eØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tXma-knp ]mem SuWn¬ Ão¬, sNºv _nkn--kp-≠m-bn-cp∂p. tXma-knv tamfn, _o, joe, P€n, kqk≥ F∂oA©p ]p{Xn-amcpw kn_n F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. sXmΩ-®s‚ aqØ-a-Iƒ tamfnsb aqhm-‰p-]pg tXm´-Øn¬tUman-n-°ns‚ aI≥ tPmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨: 04852834471. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn _omsb aptØm-e-]p-cØv sIm‰-m´v○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  65. 65. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 271t]mƒ aI≥ FΩm-p-h¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨: 0485 2257369.aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn joesb CS-∏mSn Xpcp-Øn-°m´v aØmbn aI≥tPm¿Pp-Ip´n hnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨ 04822 237004. mem-asØ]p{Xn sP€nsb tImX-aw-Kew sNdm-bn¬ tPmk^v aI≥ B‚Wnhnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨: 0485 2570647. A©m-asØ ]p{Xnkqks Beph Ce- ™ n- a - ‰ - Ø n¬ tPmk^v aI≥ am¿´n≥hnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨: 9447006696. sXmΩ-®s‚ ]p{X≥ kn_n thg-º-t»-cn¬ tPmk^v aIƒtPmtamsf hnhmlw Ign-®n-cn-°p∂p. sU∂n, tUmW F∂o c≠pa°-fp≠v. Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p∂p. t^m¨: 9447313049. hmIm-n-bn¬ s√n-ae imJ s√n-ae C´n-b-bn∏v (Bdmw Xe-apd) A©mw Xe-apd hmIm-n-bn¬ sNdn-bms‚ mem-asØ]p{X≥ Bdmw Xe-apd C´n-b-b∏v CS-∏m-Sn-bn¬ hmfn-πm-°¬ A∂-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ZØ-h-Im-i-ambn Xma-kn®p. Hcp ]p{Xpw,amΩn, adnbw, Gen F∂ aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. ]p{X≥ acn-®p-t]mbn. At±lw ]p{Xn-am-tcm-sSm-∂n®v Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ s√n-a-e-∏p-c-bn-SØn¬ Xma-kam°n. aqØ ]p{Xn amΩnsb ]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ- - -bn¬s∏´ Nocmw-Ip-gn-bn¬ sXmΩs‚ aI≥ Abv]v hnhmlwsNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnsb `c-W-ßm-Øv πmtØm´w IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ tXm´-Øn¬ aØmbn hnhmlw sNbvXv ZØ-h-Im-i-ambn Xma-kn®p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Gensb `c-W-ßm-Øv]d-ap-≠-bn¬ tZh-kym-bpsS aI≥ aØmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp. ZØ-hIm-in-bmb aØmbn, C´n-bbv]ns‚ ac-Wtijw hkvXp- - - -h-I-Iƒ hn‰v ae-_m-dn¬ t]mbn Xma-k-am°n. A[nIw Xma-kn-bmsX aØm-bnbpw adn-bhpw acn®p. Ah¿°v ]m∏-®≥, Hutk∏v,sNdn-bm≥, C´n-bbv]v F∂o mep ]p{X-∑mcpw D≠m-bn-cp∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  66. 66. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 272]m∏-®≥ aqØ-]p-{X≥ ]m∏-®≥ oeq¿ ]Sn-™m-td¬ Ip™ns‚ aIsfhnhmlw sNbvXp. Hcp s]¨Ip´n Pn-®p-I-gn™v AΩ acn-°-bm¬]mem-bn¬ Ce-™n-bn¬ tdmk-Ωsb ]p¿hn-hmlw sNbvXp. ae-_m-dn¬ Nn‰m-cn-°m-en--SpØv Imhpw-Xe Xma-kn-°p∂p.BZy hnhm-lØnse ]p{Xn tacn UnFkvSn k`-bn¬ tN¿∂p. Iym- -kv{Xo-bmbn Ct∏mƒ ]q™m-dn--SpØv tNme-ØSw aT-Øn¬ Ign-bp∂p. c≠mw hnhm-l-Øn¬ t__n, kÆn, s_∂n F∂o aq∂p]p{X∑mcpw tPmbnΩ, h’ F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. aqØ-]p-{X≥ t__n ISp-ta-n-bn¬ ]≈n-tbm-´n¬ F’-Ωsb hnhmlwsNbvXv Imhpw-Xe Xma-kn-°p∂p. t__n°v Ap F∂ ]p{XnbpwAq]v F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. Ch¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. c≠m-asØ]p{X≥ kÆn sNdp-]pg ]pd-∏q-°-c-ho-´n¬ ^nen-t∏mkv Gen-bmΩZº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tdmk-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Imhpw-Xe Xma-kn-°p∂p. kÆn°v k¬ F∂ ]p{Xpw km{µ F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpw hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ s_∂namtemw ]gp-°m-°pfw ho´n¬ Nmt°m, eoemΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒsP€nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Imhpw-Xe Irjnbpw ]e-N-c°v _nkn--kp-ambn Ign-bp∂ s_∂n°v Pqh¬ Fs∂mcp s]¨Ip-´n-bp≠v.Chƒ hnZym¿Yn-bmWv. ]m∏- ® s‚ c≠m- a sØ ]p{Xn tPmb- Ω sb ]mem- h - b ¬sR´≥ Hgp-I-bn¬ A∏-®≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xnh’sb ISp-tan Bep-¶¬ tPmkp-Ip´n hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]m∏-®≥ 2006 HIvtSm-_-dn¬ F´mw XobXn acWw {]m]n®v Imhpw-Xe]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.Hutk-∏-®≥ aØm-bn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Hutk-∏-®≥ IS-mSv]m≠n-bmw-am-°¬ h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ Gen-bm-Ωsb hnhmlwsNbvXv IpSIp kn≤m-]p-cØv AΩØn F∂ ÿeØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Hutk-∏®p tacn, t{Kkn F∂o c≠p s]¨a-°fpw amXyp -○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  67. 67. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 273(Ip´n-®≥), tPm¿÷v (h°-®≥), tPmkv, B‚Wn (tSman) F∂mep ]p{X-∑m-cp-ap-≠mbn. aqØ- ] p{Xn tacn (h’Ω)sb Ccn- ´ n- b n¬ Xma- c - ° m´ptPmk^v aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnt{Kknsb Ccn´n ]me-Øpw-I-Shv N°mw-Ip-t∂¬ ]m∏-®≥ aI≥tPmkv hnhmlw Ign®p. Hutk-∏-®s‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ amXyp (Ip´n-®≥) ap°Øv Nnd-∏m´v h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ A®m-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv kn≤m-]p-cØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. amXyp-hnp c≠p s]¨a-°fpw tPmk^v F∂]p{X-p-ap≠v. aqØ-]p{Xn tkmWnsb t]cm-hq¿ sXt°-ae ]m∏-®≥ aI≥kPn hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Pq_nensb It®-cn-°Shv C√n-°°p-t∂¬ - -amXyp-hns‚ aI≥ kp[ojv hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]p{X≥ tPmk^vJØ-dn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. Hutk-∏-®s‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿÷v (h°-®≥) Nn‰m-cn-°m¬ sIm´m-c-Øn¬ tPmk^v aIƒ t{Xkym-Ωsb hnhmlwsNbvXv AΩ-Øn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm¿÷np tJ tPm¿÷vF∂ Hcp ]p{Xn-bp≠v. Chƒ ]Tn-°p∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmkv ap´p-Nn-dbn¬n∂pw IpS-In¬ Xma- -kn-°p∂ aT-Øn¬ tPmk^v aIƒ Pqen-b‰v Fen-k-_-Ønshnhmlw sNbvXv IpSIv AΩ-Øn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmkvtdj≥ hym]mcw S-Øp∂p. tPmknp taL F∂ aIfpwnJn¬ tPmkv F∂ aI-p-ap≠v. Ch¿ Cc´ k¥m--ß-emWv.c≠p-t]cpw ]Tn-°p∂p. mem-asØ ]p{X≥ B‚Wn (tSman) CSp°n sSp-¶≠w ]pfn-°-sØm-≠n¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ annsb hnhmlw Ign®p.B‚Wn IpSIv Pn√m kl-I-cW _m¶n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. B‚-Wn°p Aa¬ tPmk^v, Ae≥ tPmk^v F∂o c≠m¨a-°-fmWv.sIm®p-Ip-´n-I-fmWv.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  68. 68. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 274-sNdn-bm≥ aØm-bn-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ Im™n-c-∏≈nCe-hp-¶¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aIƒ sUbvknsb hnhmlw sNbvXvIm™n-c∏pg s]m‰-t»cn Xma-kn-°p-∂p. sNdn-bmv c≠m¨ a°fpw -c≠v s]¨a-°-fp-am-Wv. tPmkv, tPmbn F∂o B¨a-°fpw Dj,enj F∂o s]¨a-°-fp-am-Wv. tPmkv Xriq¿ ]pXp-°m´v amS-ºn-tZ-h-€n-˛-tdm-kΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tagvknsb hnhmlw sNbvXvaÆm¿Im´v Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmknv HcmWpw Hcp s]Æpw a°fp-≠v. jmtcm¨ F∂ B¨Ip-´nbpw kndn≥ F∂ s]¨Ip-´n-bp-am-Wv. c≠p a°fpw F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv Ign-™p. tPmkv F¬.-sF.-kn.GP‚mbn h¿°v sNøp-∂p. c≠masØ ]p{X≥ tPmbn Xriq¿Nnd-tΩ¬ dmt^¬˛tacn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tkm^nsb hnhmlwsNbvXv Im™n-c-∏pg ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmbn°vc≠v s]¨Ip-´n-Ifm-Wv. tPm^n, sP^n F∂o s]¨a-°fm-Wv. Ch¿ - -hnZym¿∞n-I-fm-Wv. aqØ ]p{Xn Djsb aÆm¿°m´v Cc-´-∏-d-ºn¬sIm®v-˛-tdm-kΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tPm¿÷v hnhmlw sNbvXvaÆm¿°m´p Xma-kn-°p-∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn enjsb aÆm¿°mSv Xe-®n-d-°p-gn-bn¬t]mƒ ˛ Gen-bmΩ Zº-Xn-IfpsS aI≥ sNdn-bm≥ hnhmlw sNbvXv -aÆm¿°mSv Xma-kn-°p∂p.C´n- sF∏v aØm-bn-bpsS mem-asØ ]p{X≥ C´n sF∏v ae-_m-dn¬Ccn-´n-b-SpØv ]me-Øn≥I-S-hn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p.sI.Sn.tPmk^v sXmΩs‚ A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v sshZn-I-hrØnDt]-£n®v tN¿∏p-¶¬ ]d-tIm´n-bn¬ tPmk^v ˛ Gen-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tacnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Ccn-´n-b-SpØv B-∏m-d-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
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