Spdf blocks 1


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Spdf blocks 1

  1. 1. Periodic TablePeriodic Table s- p-d- f- Blockss- p-d- f- Blocks
  2. 2. The Periodic LawThe Periodic Law • The statement that there is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when they are arranged by increasing atomic number is called the PERIODIC LAW.
  3. 3. Dmitri Mendeleev produced the fistDmitri Mendeleev produced the fist useful and widely accepted periodic table.useful and widely accepted periodic table.
  4. 4. • Electron configuration determines the chemical properties of an element. • However, the process of writing out the electron configuration using the Aufbau principle can be tedious. Fortunately, by noting an atom’s position on the periodic table, you can determine its electron configuration and its number of valence electrons.
  5. 5. Periodic table.Periodic table.
  6. 6. • The reason behind the table’s odd shape, becomes clear if it is divided into sections, or blocks, representing the atom’s energy sublevel being filled with valence electrons. The s-, p-, d- and f- Block of Elements
  7. 7. s-block elementss-block elements • Groups 1A and 2A, and the elements hydrogen and helium • In this block valence electrons, occupy only s orbitals. • 1A elements have partially filled s orbitals ending in s1 . • Group 2A elements have completely filled s orbitals and ending configurations in s2 .
  8. 8. p- block elementsp- block elements • Comprised of groups 3A through 8A contains elements with filled or partially filled p orbitals. • The p block spans six groups (the three p orbitals can hold two electons each). • Together, the s- and the p- blocks comprise the representative, or group A, elements.
  9. 9. p- block elementsp- block elements
  10. 10. p- block elementsp- block elements • The group 8A, or noble gas, elements are unique members of the p-block because of their incredible stability. • Noble gas atoms are so stable that they undergo virtually no chemical reactions. • The reason for their stability lies in their electron configuration: Both s and p orbitals are completely filled.
  11. 11. p- block elementsp- block elements
  12. 12. • Contains the transitions metals and is the largest of the blocks. d- block
  13. 13. • Although there are number of exceptions, d- block elements are characterized by a filled outermost s orbital of energy level n, and a filled or partially filled d orbital of energy level n-1. d- block
  14. 14. • For example: • scandium (Sc) [Ar]4s23d1 • titanium (Ti) [Ar]4s23d2 • The five d- orbitals can hold a total of ten electrons; thus the d- block spans ten groups. d- block
  15. 15. f-block elementsf-block elements • Contains the inner transition metals
  16. 16. f-block elementsf-block elements • f- block elements are characterized by a filled, or partially filled outermost s orbitals, and partially filled 4f or 5f orbitals. • The electrons of the f sublevel do not fill their orbitals in a predictable manner.