SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Diagnosting testing
IN NURSING FOUNDATION
(as per new syllabus bsc nursing
2nd sem)
Mrs. Ritu prajapati
Assistant professor
content
• Introduction
• Definition
• Phases of diagnostic testing
• Complete blood count
• Serum electrolyte
• Liver function test
• Serum glucose-AC,PC,HbA1c
• Monitoring capillary blood glucose
(glucometer random blood sugar )
• Stool routine examination
• Urine testing – albumin, acetone, pH, specific
gravity
• Urine culture, routine timed urine specimen
• Sputum culture
• Overview of radiological & endoscopic
procedure
Introduction
A diagnostic test is designed to investigate or diagnose and monitor the
disease, interventions and the multifactor that could affect the normal
individual profile.
It helps the physician in understanding the status of the
patient and help him in preparing treatment outline or the interventional
therapy according to patient condition of the patient.
Definition
• A diagnostic test is the test which helps in locating and identifying the
abnormality, deficiency or deviation from the normal in different
organs or parts of body.
Pretest phase
• First phase in the laboratory process.
• This includes the collection of specimen, transporting and processing of sample.
• this phase also includes the issues regarding the handling and collection of the
specimen.
• During the pretesting phase, which is also known as the preanalytic phase, there
are chances of errors while handling the specimen and processing the specimen.
• Therefore, the preanalytical phase should have rigorous control measures to avoid
any unnecessary hindrances or errors.
Intra-test phases
• The second phase is also known as the analytic phase.
•This phase is usually considered as the ‘actual’ phase of the diagnostic
testing or laboratory testing and the ultimate results of the diagnostic
test.
Post test phases
• The post-analytic phase is the final phase of the laboratory process.
• This phase culminates in the production of a final value, result, or the
case of histology, a diagnostic pathology report.
• The testing results in transmission detection, interpretation by doctor
and treatment, follow-up and retesting to evaluate the outcome of the
condition.
Complete blood
count
Complete blood test
This is the process of collecting or withdrawing blood samples through
Venepuncture for routine lab investigation to measure the various
components of blood which includes the red blood cells, white blood
cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets.
• To evaluate any abnormality in the blood profile.
• To supplement the diagnosis and treatment related to a specific
condition.
• To monitor variation in the blood.
Purpose
Various component of blood measured under complete blood
count
Red blood cell( that carry the oxygen in blood)
• WBC ( WHITE BLLOD CELL)
• HEMOGLOBIN
• PLATELATE
Equipment
• Alcohol swab
• Purple vial
• Needle
• Syringe and vacutainer
• Tourniquet
TECHNIQUES-
• Label the test tube
• Identify the client
• Collect 1ml -5ml of sample of blood depending on the test
• Gently shake the tube
• Deliver the tube to the lab
CBC Normal range
SERUM
ELECTROLYTE
vial USED FOR SERUM ELECTROLYTE
Serum electrolytes
• Electrolytes are involved in many essential processes in the body.
• They play a vital role in conducting nerve impulses, contracting
muscles, keeping body hydrated and regulating the pH levels.
it is a blood test that measures the levels
of the body’s means electrolyte
Vial used of liver function test
LIVER
FUNCTION
TEST
Liver function test
Liver function test also known as a liver panel are blood tests that
measure different enzymes, proteins, and other substances made by
liver.
liver function test helps to monitor
liver disease or liver damage
1. ASPIRATE TRANSMINASE test (AST):-
Aspirate transaminase test is an enzyme that found in liver, heart,
muscles. It helps to metabolize amino acids like ALS, AST is normally found in
blood at low levels. If increase in AST levels may indicate liver damage.
NORMAL VALUE 29 TO 33 UNITS PER LITER
2. Alanine TRANSMINASE test (AST):-
Alanine Transaminase test is enzyme found in the liver
that helps convert protein in to energy for the liver cells
NORMAL VALUE 7 TO 55 UNITS PER LITER
3. ALKALINE PHOSPHATES TEST:-
Alkaline phosphates is an enzyme found in the bones, liver, bile
ducts. High level of ALP may indicate liver inflammation, blockage of bile ducts, or
bone disease.
NORMAL VALUE :- 40 TO 129 U/L
4. ALBUMIN TEST:-
Albumin is the main protein made by liver. That fight against
infections. Lower than normal levels may indicate liver damage.
Normal value 3.5 to 5.0 gm/ deciliter
5. Bilirubin test :-
Bilirubin is the waste of product from the breakdown of red
blood cells. Elevated levels indicate liver damage.
Normal value- 0.1 to 1.2mg/dl
Purpose:
• To diagnose liver diseases, such as hepatitis.
• To monitor treatment of liver disease. These tests can
• show how well the treatment is working.
• To check how badly a liver has been damaged or scarred
• by disease, such as cirrhosis.
• To monitor side effects of certain medicines.
• For any symptoms of any liver problems or liver disease
such as:
• - Jaundice fever – skin and eyes turn yellowish
• - Swelling and pain of the abdominal
• - Swelling of legs and ankles
• - Itching of the skin
• - Dark color Urine
• - Stool is either bloody, tar- coloured or pale
• - Fatigue
Lipid /lipid
protein
Vial use for lip profile
Lipid /lipid protein
Lipid profile (or lipid panel) is a blood test that measures the
concentrations of fats and cholesterol in the blood, and can be
used to assess ‘good cholesterol’ versus ‘bad cholesterol’ levels
Serum glucose-AC,PC,HbA1c
Monitoring capillary blood glucose
(glucometer random blood sugar )
Serum glucose –AC, PC, HbA1c
• Hemoglobin A1c is a measure of the degree to which hemoglobin is
glycosylated in erythrocytes and is expressed as a percentage of total
hemoglobin concentration.
• HbA1c levels provide an indication of the average blood glucose
concentration during the preceding 2–3 months, including both pre-and
postprandial glycemia.
Monitoring capillary blood glucose
(glucometer random blood sugar)
Monitoring of the blood glucose level of the patient, who is at risk of
hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, using a portable glucometer by putting
the drop of blood on the glucometer strip using the needle or lancet.
PURPOSE
•To monitor the blood glucose level of the patient.
•To educate the patient regarding diet management and medication.
•To encourage the patient about compliance with the treatment regimen.
Article
• Clean tray containing
• Glucometer
• Testing strips
• Sterile lancet or 26FG sterile needle
• Dry cotton swab and alcohol swab
• Clean gloves
• Hand rub
procedure
• Collect the article at the bedside and check physician order.
• doctor can prescribe random blood sugar, fasting blood sugar, postprandial
blood sugar, and also check confirm the frequency of testing.
• Before using the glucometer check the details on how to use this.
• Explain the procedure.
• Assess the patient for nil per oral for fasting blood sugar and also asked
about the meal for postprandial blood sugar.
• Check the hands of patient for cleanliness.
• Wash hands and wear gloves.
• Turn the glucometer on.
• Adjust the gluco-strip in to the glucometer.
• For puncturing the finger of the patient use the sterile lancet or needle and also
select appropriate site.
• Clean the site of finger with 70% alcohol swab in circulatory motion from central
to peripheral.
• Let the finger dry.
• Hold the lancet or needle in perpendicular way to the skin and prick the finger.
• Take the drop of blood on the strip. Squeeze the finger to from the complete blood
drop.
• After this apply the dry cotton swab on the puncture site.
• Read the results of blood sugar on the monitor of glucometer.
• Turn off the glucometer.
• Dispose of article.
• Remove gloves and discard them
• Wash hand
• Record the sugar level.
FASTING BLOOD SUGAR
• This is a test that helps in determining the amount of glucose (sugar)
in a blood sample after an overnight fast.
• The fasting blood glucose test is commonly used to detect diabetes
mellitus.
The normal range for blood glucose is 70–100 mg/dL.
• A blood sample can be taken in a lab, physician’s office, or the
hospital.
• The test is done in the morning, before the person has taken breakfast.
Random blood sugar
A random blood sugar (RBS) test is the testing of the blood sugar level
at any time or random time of the day.
According to American Diabetes Association:
➢The RBS test is done within 1 or 2 hours of eating then the RBS
normal value should be 180 mg/dL.
➢The RBS normal range should be anywhere between 80 and 130
mg/dL prior to eating for healthy blood sugar levels in the body.
Stool
examination
Stool examination
Definition:
It is a method of obtaining stool specimen from the patient.
Purpose:
• To check the stool for the presence of specific material (blood, ova,
parasite or bacteria like Salmonella and Shigella, etc.)
Article :-
• A clean specimen container (routine examination), Sterile specimen
container (culture)
• A spatula/sterile swab stick for stool culture
• Dry bedpan
• Clean gloves
• Disposable mask
• Tissue paper
• Laboratory requisition forms
procedure
• Check the physician order and identify the patient.
• Explain the patient to defecate into clean, dry bedpan and instruct
not to contaminate specimen with urine.
• Wear gloves and with help of spatula collect the freshly defecated
sample in a clean/ sterile wide mouth container.
• For fecal or rectal swab, a small amount of stool is collected by
inserting the sterile cotton swab into the stool and rotating it.
• Collect the sample and send laboratory.
• Wrap spa
Physical analysis
Analysis of the quantity, colour, consistency,
odour and shape of the stool, also parasites if
found
Culturing stool
• The stool can be cultured for disease-causing bacteria.
• A stool sample is placed in an incubator for at least 48–72 hours and any disease-causing
bacteria are identified and isolated.
• Not all bacteria in the stool cause problems; in fact, about half of stool is bacteria, most of
which live there normally and are necessary for digestion. For a stool culture, the lab will need
a fresh or refrigerated sample of stool.
• The best samples are of loose, fresh stool; well-formed stool is rarely positive for disease-
causing bacteria. Sometimes, more than one stool will be collected for a culture.
• Culture is then tested for the presence of microorganisms (gram-positive/ negative or virus or
bacteria). Stool culture
• After identification of the organism, culture is then tested for antibiotics, that are effective to
kill the grown microorganism. Based on the results antibiotics are added to the treatment.
URINE
TESTING –
ALBUMIN,
ACETONE,
PH, SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
Collection urine specimen and urine testing
For detecting the presence and growth of microorganisms in the urine
sample, a small amount (30–60 mL) of urine is collected.
Purposes
• To identify the antibiotic sensitivity of the pathogen in the urine
sample.
• Culture pathogenic microorganisms are present in the urine.
Articles
• Sterile container
• Sterile needle if required in case of catheterized
client
• Soap and water
• Bedpan
• Laboratory form Procedure
• Procedure
• Assemble all the article and explain the procedure to the patient about the
collection of specimen.
• Provide privacy of patient
• Wash hand and wear gloves.
• Give bedpan to the bedridden patient.
• Instruct the patient to direct the first and last part of urine stream into the toilet or
bed pan, collect the middle part of stream into container.
• Remove the specimen container after collecting the required amount of specimen.
• Remove the bed pan and make patient comfortable.
• Label the specimen and send laboratory.
• Remove gloves and wash hand
Urine testing- albumin, acetone
Test urine ph
purpose
• To determine the concentration level of the urine.
• To measure the specific gravity of urine.
Specific gravity
Procedure
• Explain the complete procedure of patient.
• Give the container to the patient and instruct the patient to collect the urine.
• Wear gloves
• Fill 3/4th of glass jar with urine.
• Keep urinometer inside the jar.
• Urinometer should not touch the bottom and the side of jar and should float
freely in the jar.
• When the urinometer sets the jar read the specific gravity directly from the
scale marked on the calibration scale.
• Ensure reading at the eye level.
• Read at the lowest point of the meniscus for an accurate reading.
After the procedure
• Discard the urine and rinse jar, urinometer under running water.
• Replace the article after washing.
• Complete the documentation procedure.
Test for albumin in urine
This test (hot and cold test) used to find out the presence of albumin in the urine.
Procedure:-(cold method)
• Explain the procedure to the patient and provide the container to the patient and
ask the patient to collect urine the container.
• Take 2ml of the nitric acid in the dry clean test tube.
• Pour same amount of the urine in the dropper from the side of the tube.
• Presence of the white ring on the junction of urine and acid shows the presence of
albumin.
• Discard the collected material and rinse off the articles.
• Replace the articles after the proper washing of article.
• Documents the finding.
Albumin hot test procedure
• Explain the whole procedure to the patient and provide instructions
regarding the collection of urine.
• Fill the test tube with 3/4th part with urine. Check paper.
• If alkaline add one drop of acetic acid to make it acidic.
• Light the sprit lamp and boil the top 1/3rd of the urine. Keep the mouth
of test tube away from the face.
• Observe the tube for cloudy appearance, if the urine becomes cloudy,
this indicate presence of albumin.
• Add 5 drops of 2% of acetic acid and look for the appearance.
• If the urine become clear then it indicates presence of phosphates, and
if the cloudy persists then it confirm the presence of albumin.
• Normal urine has no albumin present, after the whole process, discard the urine
and rinse the jar and urinometer
• Replace articles.
• Documents the finding.
Test for acetone in urine
Testing of the urine specimen for identifying the presence of acetone.
procedure:-
• Explain the whole procedure to the patient and provide the labeled container to the
patient.
• In a clean and dry tube keep 2cm of ammonium sulfate crystals.
• Pour 5ml of urine into the tube and shake till it gets dissolved in to each other.
• Add1-2 crystals of sodium nitroprusside and shake it
• Pour 2ml of concentrated liquor ammonia from the side of tube to from a layer.
• A purple ring is formed at the junction of urine indicates the presence of acetone in
the urine.
• Discard the urine and rinse the article.
• Document the finding.
Sputum
culture
Sputum culture
Sputum culture is the test that checks for bacteria or another type of
organism that may be causing an infection in lungs or the airways
leading to the lungs.
Sputum also known as phlegm, is thick type of mucus made in the lung.
Indication
• Detect the etiology of respiratory infection.
• Confirmatory diagnosis of tuberculosis.
• Monitoring the response to therapy for respiratory infection.
Collection of sputum for culture
Collection of coughed out sputum for culture to identify respiratory
pathogens (acid-fast bacillus, streptococci, pneumococci, diphtheria
bacilli).
Purposes
• Identify respiratory pathogens.
• Look for the color of sputum like hemoptysis, greenish color in
bronchitis, rusty color in pneumonia.
Article.
• Sterile specimen container
• Tissue paper
• Sputum mug with disinfectant
• Sterile gloves
• Disposable mask
procedure
• Check the physician orders.
• Explain the procedure to the patient .
• Explain the patient that he has expectorate the sputum into the sterile
labeled container, without disinfecting it.
• Ask the patient to sit erect in bed.
• Wash the hand and put on gloves.
• Ask the patient to rinse the mouth with plain water in the morning.
• Keep a sterile specimen container ready for sample and take a tissue paper
in hand.
• Remove the lid of container and place with inner side facing upward.
• instruct the patient to take deep breath and then cough out yin to container.
Cont….
• The specimen should be at least 5 ml.
• Assess the sputum specimen to ensure it is sputum and not saliva. Sputum
appears thick and opaque, whereas saliva appears thin, clear and watery.
• If a patient unable to expectorate a sputum sample, interventions may include
nebulizer, deep breathing exercises, chest percussion, postural drainage.
• If the intervention are not successfully a sputum sample may be obtained via
oropharyngeal or endotracheal suction.
• Mouth should be rinsed with plain water and not with antiseptic mouth wash.
• Close the container without touching inside of the lid.
• Provide tissue paper to the patient.
• Replace the articles and discard the waste and rinse the article.
• Document the finding related to specimen.
Radiological procedure
Radiology is a branch of medicine that uses imaging technology to
diagnose and treat disease. Radiology Diagnostic Interventional.
Diagnostic radiology
This branch helps in visualizing the structures inside the body and helps
the physician in identifying certain medical conditions. Using these
diagnostic procedures doctors can monitor the progression of the disease
and the way how the body responds to the treatment received.
Radiological studies
Endoscopic procedure
An endoscopy procedure involves inserting a long, flexible tube
(endoscope) down the throat and into the esophagus to visualize the
gastrointestinal system.
There are several types of endoscopy like those using natural body
opening including esophago gasro duodenoscopy which is often called
upper endoscopy, gastroscopy and entercopy.
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....

More Related Content

What's hot

Caring For A Conscious Choking Infant
Caring For A Conscious Choking  InfantCaring For A Conscious Choking  Infant
Caring For A Conscious Choking Infant
Glenda Shaw
 
Nutritional Assessment
Nutritional AssessmentNutritional Assessment
Nutritional Assessment
mohammead osman
 
Wound dressing
Wound dressingWound dressing
Wound dressing
Nelson Munthali
 
ASSISTING IN BLOOD TRANSFUSION Bloo.pptx
ASSISTING IN BLOOD TRANSFUSION Bloo.pptxASSISTING IN BLOOD TRANSFUSION Bloo.pptx
ASSISTING IN BLOOD TRANSFUSION Bloo.pptx
Zellanienhd
 
Care of Eyes
Care of EyesCare of Eyes
Care of Eyes
Leena Ghag-Sakpal
 
Ppt.removing an indwelling ursinary catheter
Ppt.removing an indwelling ursinary catheterPpt.removing an indwelling ursinary catheter
Ppt.removing an indwelling ursinary catheter
Nursing Path
 
Liver biopsy and procedure
Liver biopsy and procedureLiver biopsy and procedure
Liver biopsy and procedure
Ashiqur Papel
 
Oral medications Procedures of Administering Oral Medicines
Oral medications  Procedures of Administering Oral Medicines Oral medications  Procedures of Administering Oral Medicines
Oral medications Procedures of Administering Oral Medicines
Ganga Tiwari
 
Glucose meter
Glucose meterGlucose meter
Glucose meter
iqbalahimsa11
 
Comfort devices
Comfort devices Comfort devices
Comfort devices
Atul Yadav
 
Oral medication administration
Oral medication administrationOral medication administration
Oral medication administration
ans0111
 
Pain assessment
    Pain assessment    Pain assessment
Pain assessment
MEEQAT HOSPITAL
 
Bowel Wash
Bowel WashBowel Wash
Bowel washing
Bowel washingBowel washing
Bowel washing
Atul Yadav
 
Bed making
Bed makingBed making
First Aid Nursing
First Aid NursingFirst Aid Nursing
First Aid Nursing
Sharon Treesa Antony
 
Ambulation devices final
Ambulation devices finalAmbulation devices final
Ambulation devices final
aktaorg
 
Glasgow Coma Scale
Glasgow Coma ScaleGlasgow Coma Scale
Glasgow Coma Scale
Md. Redwan Jannah
 
Sensory deprivation
Sensory deprivationSensory deprivation
Sensory deprivation
chettinad college of nursing
 
Lumbar Puncture
 Lumbar Puncture Lumbar Puncture
Lumbar Puncture
theerthapk
 

What's hot (20)

Caring For A Conscious Choking Infant
Caring For A Conscious Choking  InfantCaring For A Conscious Choking  Infant
Caring For A Conscious Choking Infant
 
Nutritional Assessment
Nutritional AssessmentNutritional Assessment
Nutritional Assessment
 
Wound dressing
Wound dressingWound dressing
Wound dressing
 
ASSISTING IN BLOOD TRANSFUSION Bloo.pptx
ASSISTING IN BLOOD TRANSFUSION Bloo.pptxASSISTING IN BLOOD TRANSFUSION Bloo.pptx
ASSISTING IN BLOOD TRANSFUSION Bloo.pptx
 
Care of Eyes
Care of EyesCare of Eyes
Care of Eyes
 
Ppt.removing an indwelling ursinary catheter
Ppt.removing an indwelling ursinary catheterPpt.removing an indwelling ursinary catheter
Ppt.removing an indwelling ursinary catheter
 
Liver biopsy and procedure
Liver biopsy and procedureLiver biopsy and procedure
Liver biopsy and procedure
 
Oral medications Procedures of Administering Oral Medicines
Oral medications  Procedures of Administering Oral Medicines Oral medications  Procedures of Administering Oral Medicines
Oral medications Procedures of Administering Oral Medicines
 
Glucose meter
Glucose meterGlucose meter
Glucose meter
 
Comfort devices
Comfort devices Comfort devices
Comfort devices
 
Oral medication administration
Oral medication administrationOral medication administration
Oral medication administration
 
Pain assessment
    Pain assessment    Pain assessment
Pain assessment
 
Bowel Wash
Bowel WashBowel Wash
Bowel Wash
 
Bowel washing
Bowel washingBowel washing
Bowel washing
 
Bed making
Bed makingBed making
Bed making
 
First Aid Nursing
First Aid NursingFirst Aid Nursing
First Aid Nursing
 
Ambulation devices final
Ambulation devices finalAmbulation devices final
Ambulation devices final
 
Glasgow Coma Scale
Glasgow Coma ScaleGlasgow Coma Scale
Glasgow Coma Scale
 
Sensory deprivation
Sensory deprivationSensory deprivation
Sensory deprivation
 
Lumbar Puncture
 Lumbar Puncture Lumbar Puncture
Lumbar Puncture
 

Similar to diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....

Shk biochemical tests
Shk   biochemical testsShk   biochemical tests
Shk biochemical tests
S H Murali Karthick
 
Diagnostic testing unit 6
 Diagnostic testing unit 6 Diagnostic testing unit 6
Diagnostic testing unit 6
ThamaraiSelvi50348
 
IT DEFENSE.pptx
IT DEFENSE.pptxIT DEFENSE.pptx
IT DEFENSE.pptx
OsinachiWilson
 
a case of DM and its evaluation
 a case of DM and its evaluation a case of DM and its evaluation
a case of DM and its evaluation
lokesh fegade
 
Renal Function Tests (RFT)
Renal Function Tests (RFT)Renal Function Tests (RFT)
Renal Function Tests (RFT)
Md Altamash Ahmad
 
Glucose_monitoring.pptx
Glucose_monitoring.pptxGlucose_monitoring.pptx
Glucose_monitoring.pptx
MichelleErikaMejia
 
Basic concepts of clinical biochemistry
Basic concepts of clinical biochemistryBasic concepts of clinical biochemistry
Basic concepts of clinical biochemistry
Farhana Atia
 
New slide.pptx
New slide.pptxNew slide.pptx
New slide.pptx
Danchadi
 
urine analysis labortory diagnosisn work ppt
urine analysis labortory diagnosisn work ppturine analysis labortory diagnosisn work ppt
urine analysis labortory diagnosisn work ppt
moltanus
 
UNDERSTANDING URINALYSIS.pptx
UNDERSTANDING URINALYSIS.pptxUNDERSTANDING URINALYSIS.pptx
UNDERSTANDING URINALYSIS.pptx
NicholasQuaysie1
 
Ward 18 - Renal & liver profile.pptx
Ward 18 - Renal  & liver profile.pptxWard 18 - Renal  & liver profile.pptx
Ward 18 - Renal & liver profile.pptx
chamodyaprashani
 
Urine analysis
Urine analysisUrine analysis
Urine analysis
Krishna Gharti
 
Carbohydrates to Medical Technology
Carbohydrates to Medical TechnologyCarbohydrates to Medical Technology
Carbohydrates to Medical Technology
Princess Cate Mercado
 
Sample Collection
Sample CollectionSample Collection
Sample Collection
YESANNA
 
Analysis of Normal Urine.pptx
Analysis of Normal Urine.pptxAnalysis of Normal Urine.pptx
Analysis of Normal Urine.pptx
VivekRathi30
 
internship report 2022.pptx
internship report 2022.pptxinternship report 2022.pptx
internship report 2022.pptx
schoolboy2
 
Gastric and Pancreatic function tests
Gastric  and Pancreatic function testsGastric  and Pancreatic function tests
Gastric and Pancreatic function tests
Mohit Adhikary
 
Glucose Tolerance Test.ppt
Glucose  Tolerance Test.pptGlucose  Tolerance Test.ppt
Glucose Tolerance Test.ppt
Amit kumar Singh
 
NurseReview.Org Common Laboratory Procedures
NurseReview.Org Common Laboratory ProceduresNurseReview.Org Common Laboratory Procedures
NurseReview.Org Common Laboratory Procedures
Nurse ReviewDotOrg
 
GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY-SPECIMENS COLLECTION BY DR ABUDU...
GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY-SPECIMENS   COLLECTION BY DR ABUDU...GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY-SPECIMENS   COLLECTION BY DR ABUDU...
GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY-SPECIMENS COLLECTION BY DR ABUDU...
Xavier875943
 

Similar to diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx.... (20)

Shk biochemical tests
Shk   biochemical testsShk   biochemical tests
Shk biochemical tests
 
Diagnostic testing unit 6
 Diagnostic testing unit 6 Diagnostic testing unit 6
Diagnostic testing unit 6
 
IT DEFENSE.pptx
IT DEFENSE.pptxIT DEFENSE.pptx
IT DEFENSE.pptx
 
a case of DM and its evaluation
 a case of DM and its evaluation a case of DM and its evaluation
a case of DM and its evaluation
 
Renal Function Tests (RFT)
Renal Function Tests (RFT)Renal Function Tests (RFT)
Renal Function Tests (RFT)
 
Glucose_monitoring.pptx
Glucose_monitoring.pptxGlucose_monitoring.pptx
Glucose_monitoring.pptx
 
Basic concepts of clinical biochemistry
Basic concepts of clinical biochemistryBasic concepts of clinical biochemistry
Basic concepts of clinical biochemistry
 
New slide.pptx
New slide.pptxNew slide.pptx
New slide.pptx
 
urine analysis labortory diagnosisn work ppt
urine analysis labortory diagnosisn work ppturine analysis labortory diagnosisn work ppt
urine analysis labortory diagnosisn work ppt
 
UNDERSTANDING URINALYSIS.pptx
UNDERSTANDING URINALYSIS.pptxUNDERSTANDING URINALYSIS.pptx
UNDERSTANDING URINALYSIS.pptx
 
Ward 18 - Renal & liver profile.pptx
Ward 18 - Renal  & liver profile.pptxWard 18 - Renal  & liver profile.pptx
Ward 18 - Renal & liver profile.pptx
 
Urine analysis
Urine analysisUrine analysis
Urine analysis
 
Carbohydrates to Medical Technology
Carbohydrates to Medical TechnologyCarbohydrates to Medical Technology
Carbohydrates to Medical Technology
 
Sample Collection
Sample CollectionSample Collection
Sample Collection
 
Analysis of Normal Urine.pptx
Analysis of Normal Urine.pptxAnalysis of Normal Urine.pptx
Analysis of Normal Urine.pptx
 
internship report 2022.pptx
internship report 2022.pptxinternship report 2022.pptx
internship report 2022.pptx
 
Gastric and Pancreatic function tests
Gastric  and Pancreatic function testsGastric  and Pancreatic function tests
Gastric and Pancreatic function tests
 
Glucose Tolerance Test.ppt
Glucose  Tolerance Test.pptGlucose  Tolerance Test.ppt
Glucose Tolerance Test.ppt
 
NurseReview.Org Common Laboratory Procedures
NurseReview.Org Common Laboratory ProceduresNurseReview.Org Common Laboratory Procedures
NurseReview.Org Common Laboratory Procedures
 
GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY-SPECIMENS COLLECTION BY DR ABUDU...
GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY-SPECIMENS   COLLECTION BY DR ABUDU...GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY-SPECIMENS   COLLECTION BY DR ABUDU...
GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY-SPECIMENS COLLECTION BY DR ABUDU...
 

Recently uploaded

HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
deepaannamalai16
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
EduSkills OECD
 
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
PsychoTech Services
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
Mohammad Al-Dhahabi
 
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School DistrictJuneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
David Douglas School District
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
Jyoti Chand
 
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptxHow to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
HajraNaeem15
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
nitinpv4ai
 
math operations ued in python and all used
math operations ued in python and all usedmath operations ued in python and all used
math operations ued in python and all used
ssuser13ffe4
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health SciencesEducational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Iris Thiele Isip-Tan
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
TechSoup
 
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two HeartsA Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
Steve Thomason
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
nitinpv4ai
 
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
TechSoup
 
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDFLifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Vivekanand Anglo Vedic Academy
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
haiqairshad
 
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brubPharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
danielkiash986
 

Recently uploaded (20)

HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
 
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
 
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
 
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School DistrictJuneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
 
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptxHow to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
 
math operations ued in python and all used
math operations ued in python and all usedmath operations ued in python and all used
math operations ued in python and all used
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
 
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health SciencesEducational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
 
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two HeartsA Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
 
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
 
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDFLifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
 
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brubPharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
 

diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....

  • 1. Diagnosting testing IN NURSING FOUNDATION (as per new syllabus bsc nursing 2nd sem) Mrs. Ritu prajapati Assistant professor
  • 2. content • Introduction • Definition • Phases of diagnostic testing • Complete blood count • Serum electrolyte • Liver function test • Serum glucose-AC,PC,HbA1c • Monitoring capillary blood glucose (glucometer random blood sugar )
  • 3. • Stool routine examination • Urine testing – albumin, acetone, pH, specific gravity • Urine culture, routine timed urine specimen • Sputum culture • Overview of radiological & endoscopic procedure
  • 4. Introduction A diagnostic test is designed to investigate or diagnose and monitor the disease, interventions and the multifactor that could affect the normal individual profile. It helps the physician in understanding the status of the patient and help him in preparing treatment outline or the interventional therapy according to patient condition of the patient.
  • 5. Definition • A diagnostic test is the test which helps in locating and identifying the abnormality, deficiency or deviation from the normal in different organs or parts of body.
  • 6.
  • 7. Pretest phase • First phase in the laboratory process. • This includes the collection of specimen, transporting and processing of sample. • this phase also includes the issues regarding the handling and collection of the specimen. • During the pretesting phase, which is also known as the preanalytic phase, there are chances of errors while handling the specimen and processing the specimen. • Therefore, the preanalytical phase should have rigorous control measures to avoid any unnecessary hindrances or errors.
  • 8. Intra-test phases • The second phase is also known as the analytic phase. •This phase is usually considered as the ‘actual’ phase of the diagnostic testing or laboratory testing and the ultimate results of the diagnostic test.
  • 9. Post test phases • The post-analytic phase is the final phase of the laboratory process. • This phase culminates in the production of a final value, result, or the case of histology, a diagnostic pathology report. • The testing results in transmission detection, interpretation by doctor and treatment, follow-up and retesting to evaluate the outcome of the condition.
  • 11. Complete blood test This is the process of collecting or withdrawing blood samples through Venepuncture for routine lab investigation to measure the various components of blood which includes the red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets.
  • 12. • To evaluate any abnormality in the blood profile. • To supplement the diagnosis and treatment related to a specific condition. • To monitor variation in the blood. Purpose
  • 13. Various component of blood measured under complete blood count Red blood cell( that carry the oxygen in blood)
  • 14. • WBC ( WHITE BLLOD CELL) • HEMOGLOBIN • PLATELATE
  • 15. Equipment • Alcohol swab • Purple vial • Needle • Syringe and vacutainer • Tourniquet TECHNIQUES- • Label the test tube • Identify the client • Collect 1ml -5ml of sample of blood depending on the test • Gently shake the tube • Deliver the tube to the lab
  • 17. SERUM ELECTROLYTE vial USED FOR SERUM ELECTROLYTE
  • 18. Serum electrolytes • Electrolytes are involved in many essential processes in the body. • They play a vital role in conducting nerve impulses, contracting muscles, keeping body hydrated and regulating the pH levels. it is a blood test that measures the levels of the body’s means electrolyte
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. Vial used of liver function test LIVER FUNCTION TEST
  • 22. Liver function test Liver function test also known as a liver panel are blood tests that measure different enzymes, proteins, and other substances made by liver. liver function test helps to monitor liver disease or liver damage
  • 23. 1. ASPIRATE TRANSMINASE test (AST):- Aspirate transaminase test is an enzyme that found in liver, heart, muscles. It helps to metabolize amino acids like ALS, AST is normally found in blood at low levels. If increase in AST levels may indicate liver damage. NORMAL VALUE 29 TO 33 UNITS PER LITER 2. Alanine TRANSMINASE test (AST):- Alanine Transaminase test is enzyme found in the liver that helps convert protein in to energy for the liver cells NORMAL VALUE 7 TO 55 UNITS PER LITER 3. ALKALINE PHOSPHATES TEST:- Alkaline phosphates is an enzyme found in the bones, liver, bile ducts. High level of ALP may indicate liver inflammation, blockage of bile ducts, or bone disease. NORMAL VALUE :- 40 TO 129 U/L
  • 24. 4. ALBUMIN TEST:- Albumin is the main protein made by liver. That fight against infections. Lower than normal levels may indicate liver damage. Normal value 3.5 to 5.0 gm/ deciliter 5. Bilirubin test :- Bilirubin is the waste of product from the breakdown of red blood cells. Elevated levels indicate liver damage. Normal value- 0.1 to 1.2mg/dl
  • 25. Purpose: • To diagnose liver diseases, such as hepatitis. • To monitor treatment of liver disease. These tests can • show how well the treatment is working. • To check how badly a liver has been damaged or scarred • by disease, such as cirrhosis. • To monitor side effects of certain medicines. • For any symptoms of any liver problems or liver disease such as: • - Jaundice fever – skin and eyes turn yellowish • - Swelling and pain of the abdominal • - Swelling of legs and ankles • - Itching of the skin • - Dark color Urine • - Stool is either bloody, tar- coloured or pale • - Fatigue
  • 26.
  • 27. Lipid /lipid protein Vial use for lip profile
  • 28. Lipid /lipid protein Lipid profile (or lipid panel) is a blood test that measures the concentrations of fats and cholesterol in the blood, and can be used to assess ‘good cholesterol’ versus ‘bad cholesterol’ levels
  • 29.
  • 30. Serum glucose-AC,PC,HbA1c Monitoring capillary blood glucose (glucometer random blood sugar )
  • 31. Serum glucose –AC, PC, HbA1c • Hemoglobin A1c is a measure of the degree to which hemoglobin is glycosylated in erythrocytes and is expressed as a percentage of total hemoglobin concentration. • HbA1c levels provide an indication of the average blood glucose concentration during the preceding 2–3 months, including both pre-and postprandial glycemia.
  • 32.
  • 33. Monitoring capillary blood glucose (glucometer random blood sugar) Monitoring of the blood glucose level of the patient, who is at risk of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, using a portable glucometer by putting the drop of blood on the glucometer strip using the needle or lancet. PURPOSE •To monitor the blood glucose level of the patient. •To educate the patient regarding diet management and medication. •To encourage the patient about compliance with the treatment regimen.
  • 34. Article • Clean tray containing • Glucometer • Testing strips • Sterile lancet or 26FG sterile needle • Dry cotton swab and alcohol swab • Clean gloves • Hand rub
  • 35. procedure • Collect the article at the bedside and check physician order. • doctor can prescribe random blood sugar, fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, and also check confirm the frequency of testing. • Before using the glucometer check the details on how to use this. • Explain the procedure. • Assess the patient for nil per oral for fasting blood sugar and also asked about the meal for postprandial blood sugar. • Check the hands of patient for cleanliness. • Wash hands and wear gloves. • Turn the glucometer on. • Adjust the gluco-strip in to the glucometer.
  • 36. • For puncturing the finger of the patient use the sterile lancet or needle and also select appropriate site. • Clean the site of finger with 70% alcohol swab in circulatory motion from central to peripheral. • Let the finger dry. • Hold the lancet or needle in perpendicular way to the skin and prick the finger. • Take the drop of blood on the strip. Squeeze the finger to from the complete blood drop. • After this apply the dry cotton swab on the puncture site. • Read the results of blood sugar on the monitor of glucometer. • Turn off the glucometer. • Dispose of article. • Remove gloves and discard them • Wash hand • Record the sugar level.
  • 37. FASTING BLOOD SUGAR • This is a test that helps in determining the amount of glucose (sugar) in a blood sample after an overnight fast. • The fasting blood glucose test is commonly used to detect diabetes mellitus. The normal range for blood glucose is 70–100 mg/dL. • A blood sample can be taken in a lab, physician’s office, or the hospital. • The test is done in the morning, before the person has taken breakfast.
  • 38. Random blood sugar A random blood sugar (RBS) test is the testing of the blood sugar level at any time or random time of the day. According to American Diabetes Association: ➢The RBS test is done within 1 or 2 hours of eating then the RBS normal value should be 180 mg/dL. ➢The RBS normal range should be anywhere between 80 and 130 mg/dL prior to eating for healthy blood sugar levels in the body.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 42. Stool examination Definition: It is a method of obtaining stool specimen from the patient. Purpose: • To check the stool for the presence of specific material (blood, ova, parasite or bacteria like Salmonella and Shigella, etc.)
  • 43. Article :- • A clean specimen container (routine examination), Sterile specimen container (culture) • A spatula/sterile swab stick for stool culture • Dry bedpan • Clean gloves • Disposable mask • Tissue paper • Laboratory requisition forms
  • 44. procedure • Check the physician order and identify the patient. • Explain the patient to defecate into clean, dry bedpan and instruct not to contaminate specimen with urine. • Wear gloves and with help of spatula collect the freshly defecated sample in a clean/ sterile wide mouth container. • For fecal or rectal swab, a small amount of stool is collected by inserting the sterile cotton swab into the stool and rotating it. • Collect the sample and send laboratory. • Wrap spa
  • 45.
  • 46. Physical analysis Analysis of the quantity, colour, consistency, odour and shape of the stool, also parasites if found
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50. Culturing stool • The stool can be cultured for disease-causing bacteria. • A stool sample is placed in an incubator for at least 48–72 hours and any disease-causing bacteria are identified and isolated. • Not all bacteria in the stool cause problems; in fact, about half of stool is bacteria, most of which live there normally and are necessary for digestion. For a stool culture, the lab will need a fresh or refrigerated sample of stool. • The best samples are of loose, fresh stool; well-formed stool is rarely positive for disease- causing bacteria. Sometimes, more than one stool will be collected for a culture. • Culture is then tested for the presence of microorganisms (gram-positive/ negative or virus or bacteria). Stool culture • After identification of the organism, culture is then tested for antibiotics, that are effective to kill the grown microorganism. Based on the results antibiotics are added to the treatment.
  • 52. Collection urine specimen and urine testing For detecting the presence and growth of microorganisms in the urine sample, a small amount (30–60 mL) of urine is collected. Purposes • To identify the antibiotic sensitivity of the pathogen in the urine sample. • Culture pathogenic microorganisms are present in the urine.
  • 53. Articles • Sterile container • Sterile needle if required in case of catheterized client • Soap and water • Bedpan • Laboratory form Procedure
  • 54. • Procedure • Assemble all the article and explain the procedure to the patient about the collection of specimen. • Provide privacy of patient • Wash hand and wear gloves. • Give bedpan to the bedridden patient. • Instruct the patient to direct the first and last part of urine stream into the toilet or bed pan, collect the middle part of stream into container. • Remove the specimen container after collecting the required amount of specimen. • Remove the bed pan and make patient comfortable. • Label the specimen and send laboratory. • Remove gloves and wash hand
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59.
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65. purpose • To determine the concentration level of the urine. • To measure the specific gravity of urine.
  • 66.
  • 68. Procedure • Explain the complete procedure of patient. • Give the container to the patient and instruct the patient to collect the urine. • Wear gloves • Fill 3/4th of glass jar with urine. • Keep urinometer inside the jar. • Urinometer should not touch the bottom and the side of jar and should float freely in the jar. • When the urinometer sets the jar read the specific gravity directly from the scale marked on the calibration scale. • Ensure reading at the eye level. • Read at the lowest point of the meniscus for an accurate reading.
  • 69. After the procedure • Discard the urine and rinse jar, urinometer under running water. • Replace the article after washing. • Complete the documentation procedure.
  • 70.
  • 71.
  • 72. Test for albumin in urine This test (hot and cold test) used to find out the presence of albumin in the urine. Procedure:-(cold method) • Explain the procedure to the patient and provide the container to the patient and ask the patient to collect urine the container. • Take 2ml of the nitric acid in the dry clean test tube. • Pour same amount of the urine in the dropper from the side of the tube. • Presence of the white ring on the junction of urine and acid shows the presence of albumin. • Discard the collected material and rinse off the articles. • Replace the articles after the proper washing of article. • Documents the finding.
  • 73. Albumin hot test procedure • Explain the whole procedure to the patient and provide instructions regarding the collection of urine. • Fill the test tube with 3/4th part with urine. Check paper. • If alkaline add one drop of acetic acid to make it acidic. • Light the sprit lamp and boil the top 1/3rd of the urine. Keep the mouth of test tube away from the face. • Observe the tube for cloudy appearance, if the urine becomes cloudy, this indicate presence of albumin. • Add 5 drops of 2% of acetic acid and look for the appearance. • If the urine become clear then it indicates presence of phosphates, and if the cloudy persists then it confirm the presence of albumin.
  • 74. • Normal urine has no albumin present, after the whole process, discard the urine and rinse the jar and urinometer • Replace articles. • Documents the finding.
  • 75. Test for acetone in urine Testing of the urine specimen for identifying the presence of acetone. procedure:- • Explain the whole procedure to the patient and provide the labeled container to the patient. • In a clean and dry tube keep 2cm of ammonium sulfate crystals. • Pour 5ml of urine into the tube and shake till it gets dissolved in to each other. • Add1-2 crystals of sodium nitroprusside and shake it • Pour 2ml of concentrated liquor ammonia from the side of tube to from a layer. • A purple ring is formed at the junction of urine indicates the presence of acetone in the urine. • Discard the urine and rinse the article. • Document the finding.
  • 77. Sputum culture Sputum culture is the test that checks for bacteria or another type of organism that may be causing an infection in lungs or the airways leading to the lungs. Sputum also known as phlegm, is thick type of mucus made in the lung. Indication • Detect the etiology of respiratory infection. • Confirmatory diagnosis of tuberculosis. • Monitoring the response to therapy for respiratory infection.
  • 78. Collection of sputum for culture Collection of coughed out sputum for culture to identify respiratory pathogens (acid-fast bacillus, streptococci, pneumococci, diphtheria bacilli). Purposes • Identify respiratory pathogens. • Look for the color of sputum like hemoptysis, greenish color in bronchitis, rusty color in pneumonia.
  • 79. Article. • Sterile specimen container • Tissue paper • Sputum mug with disinfectant • Sterile gloves • Disposable mask
  • 80. procedure • Check the physician orders. • Explain the procedure to the patient . • Explain the patient that he has expectorate the sputum into the sterile labeled container, without disinfecting it. • Ask the patient to sit erect in bed. • Wash the hand and put on gloves. • Ask the patient to rinse the mouth with plain water in the morning. • Keep a sterile specimen container ready for sample and take a tissue paper in hand. • Remove the lid of container and place with inner side facing upward. • instruct the patient to take deep breath and then cough out yin to container.
  • 81. Cont…. • The specimen should be at least 5 ml. • Assess the sputum specimen to ensure it is sputum and not saliva. Sputum appears thick and opaque, whereas saliva appears thin, clear and watery. • If a patient unable to expectorate a sputum sample, interventions may include nebulizer, deep breathing exercises, chest percussion, postural drainage. • If the intervention are not successfully a sputum sample may be obtained via oropharyngeal or endotracheal suction. • Mouth should be rinsed with plain water and not with antiseptic mouth wash. • Close the container without touching inside of the lid. • Provide tissue paper to the patient. • Replace the articles and discard the waste and rinse the article. • Document the finding related to specimen.
  • 82.
  • 83. Radiological procedure Radiology is a branch of medicine that uses imaging technology to diagnose and treat disease. Radiology Diagnostic Interventional. Diagnostic radiology This branch helps in visualizing the structures inside the body and helps the physician in identifying certain medical conditions. Using these diagnostic procedures doctors can monitor the progression of the disease and the way how the body responds to the treatment received.
  • 85.
  • 86. Endoscopic procedure An endoscopy procedure involves inserting a long, flexible tube (endoscope) down the throat and into the esophagus to visualize the gastrointestinal system. There are several types of endoscopy like those using natural body opening including esophago gasro duodenoscopy which is often called upper endoscopy, gastroscopy and entercopy.