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SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
Instructor: Dr. Mazin Md. Alkathiri
Information technology Department
Faculty of Applied Sciences
Seiyun University – Yemen
Jan 2024
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
2
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• The term telecommunication means communication at
a distance.
• The word data refers to information presented in
whatever form is agreed upon by the parties creating
and using the data.
• Data communications are the exchange of data
between two devices via some form of transmission
medium such as a wire cable.
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
3
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
1.4
Figure 1.1 Components of a data communication system
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• A network is a set of devices (often referred to as
nodes) connected by communication links.
• A node can be a computer, printer, or any other device
capable of sending and/or receiving data generated by other
nodes on the network.
• A link can be a cable, air, optical fiber, or any medium
which can transport a signal carrying information.
NETWORKS
5
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• Computer systems and peripherals are connected to
form a network. They provide numerous advantages:
• Resource sharing such as printers and storage devices
• Exchange of information by means of e-Mails and FTP
• Information sharing by using Web or Internet
• Interaction with other users using dynamic web pages
• IP phones
• Video conferences
• Parallel computing
• Instant messaging
Applications
6
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
1.7
Network Criteria
• Performance
• Depends on Network Elements
• Measured in terms of Delay and Throughput
• Reliability
• Failure rate of network components
• Measured in terms of availability/robustness
• Security
• Data protection against corruption/loss of data due
to:
• Errors
• Malicious users
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• Type of Connection
• Point to Point - single transmitter and receiver
• Multipoint - multiple recipients of single transmission
• Physical Topology
• Connection of devices
• Type of transmission - unicast, mulitcast, broadcast
1.8
Physical Structures
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• is a unicast connection. There is a dedicated link between an
individual pair of sender and receiver.
• The capacity of the entire channel is reserved only for the
transmission of the packet between the sender and receiver.
Types of connections:(A) point-to-point
9
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• also called multidrop line configuration.
• a single link is shared by multiple devices.
• the channel capacity is shared temporarily by every
device connecting to the link.
Types of connections: (B) Multipoint
10
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• A Network Topology is the arrangement with which
computer systems or network devices are connected to each
other.
• Topologies may define both physical and logical aspect of the
network.
Categories of topology
1.11
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• In this type of topology, a host is connected to one or multiple
hosts.
• This topology has hosts in point-to-point connection with every
other host or may also have hosts which are in point-to-point
connection with few hosts only.
A fully connected mesh topology (five devices)
1.12
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• All hosts in Star topology are connected to a central device,
known as hub device, using a point-to-point connection.
• That is, there exists a point to point connection between hosts and hub.
A star topology connecting four stations
1.13
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• In case of Bus topology, all devices share single
communication line or cable.
• Bus topology may have problem while multiple hosts sending
data at the same time.
A bus topology connecting three stations
1.14
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• In ring topology, each host machine connects to exactly two
other machines, creating a circular network structure.
• When one host tries to communicate or send message to a host
which is not adjacent to it, the data travels through all
intermediate hosts
A ring topology connecting six stations
1.15
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• A network structure whose design contains more than one topology is said to
be hybrid topology.
A hybrid topology: a star backbone with three bus
networks
1.16
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
1.17
Categories of Networks
• Personal Area Network (PANs)
• Local Area Networks (LANs)
• Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs)
• Wide Area Networks (WANs)
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• A Personal Area Network (PAN) is smallest
network which is very personal to a user.
• This may include Bluetooth enabled devices or infra-
red enabled devices.
• PAN has connectivity range up to 10 meters.
• PAN may include wireless computer keyboard
and mouse, Bluetooth enabled headphones,
wireless printers and TV remotes.
Personal Area Network
1.18
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• A computer network spanned inside a building and
operated under single administrative system is generally
termed as Local Area Network (LAN).
• Usually, LAN covers an organization’ offices, schools,
colleges or universities.
• Number of systems connected in LAN may vary from as
least as two to as much as 16 million.
• LAN provides a useful way of sharing the resources
between end users.
• The resources such as printers, file servers, scanners, and
internet are easily sharable among computers.
• LAN can be wired, wireless, or in both forms at once.
Local Area Network
19
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
LAN
20
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• The Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) generally
expands throughout a city such as cable TV
network.
• Metro Ethernet is a service which is provided by
ISPs.
• This service enables its users to expand their Local
Area Networks. For example, MAN can help an
organization to connect all of its offices in a city.
• Backbone of MAN is high-capacity and high-
speed fiber optics.
Metropolitan Area Network
21
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
MAN
22
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
• As the name suggests, the Wide Area Network (WAN) covers a
wide area which may span across provinces and even a whole
country.
• Generally, telecommunication networks are Wide Area
Network.
• These networks provide connectivity to MANs and LANs.
• Since they are equipped with very high speed backbone, WANs use
very expensive network equipment.
Wide Area Network
23
SEIYUN UNIVERSITY
College of Applied Science – CS department
24

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ESSENTIAL of (CS/IT/IS) class 07 (Networks)

  • 1. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department Instructor: Dr. Mazin Md. Alkathiri Information technology Department Faculty of Applied Sciences Seiyun University – Yemen Jan 2024
  • 2. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department 2
  • 3. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • The term telecommunication means communication at a distance. • The word data refers to information presented in whatever form is agreed upon by the parties creating and using the data. • Data communications are the exchange of data between two devices via some form of transmission medium such as a wire cable. DATA COMMUNICATIONS 3
  • 4. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department 1.4 Figure 1.1 Components of a data communication system
  • 5. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • A network is a set of devices (often referred to as nodes) connected by communication links. • A node can be a computer, printer, or any other device capable of sending and/or receiving data generated by other nodes on the network. • A link can be a cable, air, optical fiber, or any medium which can transport a signal carrying information. NETWORKS 5
  • 6. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • Computer systems and peripherals are connected to form a network. They provide numerous advantages: • Resource sharing such as printers and storage devices • Exchange of information by means of e-Mails and FTP • Information sharing by using Web or Internet • Interaction with other users using dynamic web pages • IP phones • Video conferences • Parallel computing • Instant messaging Applications 6
  • 7. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department 1.7 Network Criteria • Performance • Depends on Network Elements • Measured in terms of Delay and Throughput • Reliability • Failure rate of network components • Measured in terms of availability/robustness • Security • Data protection against corruption/loss of data due to: • Errors • Malicious users
  • 8. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • Type of Connection • Point to Point - single transmitter and receiver • Multipoint - multiple recipients of single transmission • Physical Topology • Connection of devices • Type of transmission - unicast, mulitcast, broadcast 1.8 Physical Structures
  • 9. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • is a unicast connection. There is a dedicated link between an individual pair of sender and receiver. • The capacity of the entire channel is reserved only for the transmission of the packet between the sender and receiver. Types of connections:(A) point-to-point 9
  • 10. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • also called multidrop line configuration. • a single link is shared by multiple devices. • the channel capacity is shared temporarily by every device connecting to the link. Types of connections: (B) Multipoint 10
  • 11. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • A Network Topology is the arrangement with which computer systems or network devices are connected to each other. • Topologies may define both physical and logical aspect of the network. Categories of topology 1.11
  • 12. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • In this type of topology, a host is connected to one or multiple hosts. • This topology has hosts in point-to-point connection with every other host or may also have hosts which are in point-to-point connection with few hosts only. A fully connected mesh topology (five devices) 1.12
  • 13. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • All hosts in Star topology are connected to a central device, known as hub device, using a point-to-point connection. • That is, there exists a point to point connection between hosts and hub. A star topology connecting four stations 1.13
  • 14. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • In case of Bus topology, all devices share single communication line or cable. • Bus topology may have problem while multiple hosts sending data at the same time. A bus topology connecting three stations 1.14
  • 15. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • In ring topology, each host machine connects to exactly two other machines, creating a circular network structure. • When one host tries to communicate or send message to a host which is not adjacent to it, the data travels through all intermediate hosts A ring topology connecting six stations 1.15
  • 16. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • A network structure whose design contains more than one topology is said to be hybrid topology. A hybrid topology: a star backbone with three bus networks 1.16
  • 17. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department 1.17 Categories of Networks • Personal Area Network (PANs) • Local Area Networks (LANs) • Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) • Wide Area Networks (WANs)
  • 18. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • A Personal Area Network (PAN) is smallest network which is very personal to a user. • This may include Bluetooth enabled devices or infra- red enabled devices. • PAN has connectivity range up to 10 meters. • PAN may include wireless computer keyboard and mouse, Bluetooth enabled headphones, wireless printers and TV remotes. Personal Area Network 1.18
  • 19. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • A computer network spanned inside a building and operated under single administrative system is generally termed as Local Area Network (LAN). • Usually, LAN covers an organization’ offices, schools, colleges or universities. • Number of systems connected in LAN may vary from as least as two to as much as 16 million. • LAN provides a useful way of sharing the resources between end users. • The resources such as printers, file servers, scanners, and internet are easily sharable among computers. • LAN can be wired, wireless, or in both forms at once. Local Area Network 19
  • 20. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department LAN 20
  • 21. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • The Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) generally expands throughout a city such as cable TV network. • Metro Ethernet is a service which is provided by ISPs. • This service enables its users to expand their Local Area Networks. For example, MAN can help an organization to connect all of its offices in a city. • Backbone of MAN is high-capacity and high- speed fiber optics. Metropolitan Area Network 21
  • 22. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department MAN 22
  • 23. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department • As the name suggests, the Wide Area Network (WAN) covers a wide area which may span across provinces and even a whole country. • Generally, telecommunication networks are Wide Area Network. • These networks provide connectivity to MANs and LANs. • Since they are equipped with very high speed backbone, WANs use very expensive network equipment. Wide Area Network 23
  • 24. SEIYUN UNIVERSITY College of Applied Science – CS department 24