Chapter 35Chapter 35Rebirth and RevolutionRebirth and RevolutionNation-Building in East Asia andNation-Building in East Asia andthe Pacific Rimthe Pacific Rim(1945 – present)(1945 – present)
Chinese Civil War EndsChinese Civil War Ends Mao’s China and Beyond --Mao’s China and Beyond -- By 1949 – Mao Zedong has millions of peasantsBy 1949 – Mao Zedong has millions of peasantsin N. Chinain N. China Mao’s forces head South, chasing theMao’s forces head South, chasing theGuomindangGuomindang Guomindang (Nationalists) flees to the island ofGuomindang (Nationalists) flees to the island ofTaiwan and establishes the Republic of ChinaTaiwan and establishes the Republic of China Communists and Mao take over mainland ChinaCommunists and Mao take over mainland Chinaand call it the People’s Republic of Chinaand call it the People’s Republic of China
Chinese RevolutionChinese Revolution Chiang Kai-Shek (Nationalist) v. MaoChiang Kai-Shek (Nationalist) v. MaoZedong (Comm.)Zedong (Comm.) China unites to fight Japan (1930s – 1945)China unites to fight Japan (1930s – 1945) During WW II, United States pumped $During WW II, United States pumped $into Guomindang partyinto Guomindang party WW II ends, Chinese Civil War for fourWW II ends, Chinese Civil War for fouryearyear
Which one is the “Real” China?Which one is the “Real” China? Both claim they are theBoth claim they are thetrue Chinatrue China Taiwan developsTaiwan developsindustrially, becomes anindustrially, becomes aneconomic powerhouseeconomic powerhouse Taiwan’s credibility takesTaiwan’s credibility takesa blow when the Uniteda blow when the UnitedNations and the UnitedNations and the UnitedStates recognize theStates recognize thePeople’s Republic ofPeople’s Republic ofChina as China in 1973China as China in 1973 Taiwan refuses to unifyTaiwan refuses to unifywith China todaywith China today
Mao’s ReformsMao’s Reforms Collectivization of agriculture andCollectivization of agriculture andindustryindustry– Increases productivity, especiallyIncreases productivity, especiallysteelsteel Late 1950’s – Great Leap ForwardLate 1950’s – Great Leap Forward– Huge communes created as a way ofHuge communes created as a way ofaccelerating the creation of a trueaccelerating the creation of a trueMarxist stateMarxist state Reality check – production quotas areReality check – production quotas areVERY highVERY high Local governments can’t produce theLocal governments can’t produce theridiculous quotas, so out of fear of beingridiculous quotas, so out of fear of beingpunished, they lie and say the quotas arepunished, they lie and say the quotas arebeing metbeing met– ~30 million Chinese people starve to~30 million Chinese people starve todeathdeath– Truly a Great Leap Backward.Truly a Great Leap Backward.
Great Leap BackwardGreat Leap Backward Mao’s previous success is erasedMao’s previous success is erased Soviet Union withdrew supportSoviet Union withdrew support– Soviets realize China isn’t following orders…Soviets realize China isn’t following orders… Mao turns focus to military (If Soviet’sMao turns focus to military (If Soviet’saren’t with China, they’re against China)aren’t with China, they’re against China)– Elements of capitalism introducedElements of capitalism introduced– 1964 – China tests its first atom bomb1964 – China tests its first atom bomb
Cultural Revolution - 1966Cultural Revolution - 1966 Mao – purist, upset his country is straying fromMao – purist, upset his country is straying fromcommunismcommunism Revolution discourages development of aRevolution discourages development of aprivileged classprivileged class– Erases all traces of Western-influenced knowledgeErases all traces of Western-influenced knowledge– Closes universities for four yearsCloses universities for four years– Sends students, professors, doctors, lawyers, andSends students, professors, doctors, lawyers, andclassical musicians to collective farms for “culturalclassical musicians to collective farms for “culturalretraining”retraining”– Political dissidents imprisoned or killedPolitical dissidents imprisoned or killed
New CurriculumNew Curriculum Once reopened, curriculum is adjusted toOnce reopened, curriculum is adjusted toinclude only communist studies and vocationalinclude only communist studies and vocationaltrainingtraining Little Red Book – Mao’s teachings onLittle Red Book – Mao’s teachings oncommunism – becomes popular symbol forcommunism – becomes popular symbol forforced egalitarianismforced egalitarianism Cultural Revolution prevents China fromCultural Revolution prevents China fromadvancing economically or sociallyadvancing economically or socially– By early 1970s, China opens back up to WesternBy early 1970s, China opens back up to Westernideasideas
1976 – Deng Xiaoping1976 – Deng Xiaoping Mao dies, Deng Xiaoping steps upMao dies, Deng Xiaoping steps up Changes education policyChanges education policy Changes Economic policies –Changes Economic policies –– From strict command economy to including elementsFrom strict command economy to including elementsof free-market capitalismof free-market capitalism– Allows limited business and property ownership toAllows limited business and property ownership toencourage hard workencourage hard work– Chinese gvt enters joint ventures with foreignChinese gvt enters joint ventures with foreigncompaniescompanies– Still strictly communist in political senseStill strictly communist in political sense
Tiananmen Square MassacreTiananmen Square Massacre June 1989 – about 1 million demonstratorsJune 1989 – about 1 million demonstratorsmet on Tiananmen Square calling formet on Tiananmen Square calling fordemocratic reform, bring in a statue – thedemocratic reform, bring in a statue – theGoddess of Democracy and FreedomGoddess of Democracy and Freedom Chinese government reacts violently –Chinese government reacts violently –sends troops into open fire, hundreds ofsends troops into open fire, hundreds ofpeople are killedpeople are killed
The bodies of dead civilians lie among mangled bicycles near Beijings Tiananmen Square early JuneThe bodies of dead civilians lie among mangled bicycles near Beijings Tiananmen Square early June4, 1989. Tanks and soldiers stormed the area overnight, bringing a violent end to student4, 1989. Tanks and soldiers stormed the area overnight, bringing a violent end to studentdemonstrations for democratic reform in Chinademonstrations for democratic reform in China
A rickshaw driver fiecely peddles the wounded people, with the help of bystanders, to aA rickshaw driver fiecely peddles the wounded people, with the help of bystanders, to anearby hospital Sunday, June 4, 1989. PLA soldiers again fired hundreds of roundsnearby hospital Sunday, June 4, 1989. PLA soldiers again fired hundreds of roundstowards angry crowds gathered outside Tiananmen Square at noontowards angry crowds gathered outside Tiananmen Square at noon
"Google Agrees to Censor Results in China,""Google Agrees to Censor Results in China,"Associated Press, January 24, 2006.Associated Press, January 24, 2006. Online search engine leader Google Inc. hasOnline search engine leader Google Inc. hasagreed to censor its results in China, adhering toagreed to censor its results in China, adhering tothe countrys free-speech restrictions in returnthe countrys free-speech restrictions in returnfor better access in the Internets fastest growingfor better access in the Internets fastest growingmarket. Although China has loosened some ofmarket. Although China has loosened some ofits controls in recent years, some topics, such asits controls in recent years, some topics, such asTaiwans independence and 1989s TiananmenTaiwans independence and 1989s TiananmenSquare massacre, remain forbidden subjects.Square massacre, remain forbidden subjects.
Challenges TodayChallenges Today PopulationPopulation Economic and Political IssuesEconomic and Political Issues– Deng Xiaoping died 1997Deng Xiaoping died 1997– Jiang Zemin new leaderJiang Zemin new leader Human Rights IssuesHuman Rights Issues– Communist party can stil jail criticsCommunist party can stil jail critics– Tibet – accused of imperialistic tyrannyTibet – accused of imperialistic tyranny Falun Gong sect, Chinese Buddhism sect discriminatedFalun Gong sect, Chinese Buddhism sect discriminatedagainstagainst Dalai LamaDalai Lama
In 1991 the Dalai Lama alleged that Chinese settlers inTibet were creating "Chinese Apartheid": The new Chinese settlers have created an alternatesociety: a Chinese apartheid which, denying Tibetansequal social and economic status in our own land,threatens to finally overwhelm and absorb us. The Central Tibetan Administration states that thenumber that have died in the Great Leap Forward, ofviolence, or other indirect causes since 1950 isapproximately 1.2 million, According to PatrickFrench, a supporter of the Tibetan cause who was ableto view the data and calculations, the estimate is notreliable because the Tibetans were not able to processthe data well enough to produce a credible total
The government of Tibet in Exile also saysThe government of Tibet in Exile also saysthat, fundamentally, the issue is that of thethat, fundamentally, the issue is that of theright to self-determination of the Tibetanright to self-determination of the Tibetanpeople. The Dalai Lama has stated hispeople. The Dalai Lama has stated hiswillingness to negotiate with China forwillingness to negotiate with China forgenuine autonomy.genuine autonomy.
Four TigersFour Tigers Or, according to your book – FourOr, according to your book – FourDragonsDragons Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and S.Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and S.KoreaKorea
Hong KongHong Kong Fell under British rule after Opium WarsFell under British rule after Opium Wars 1949, received many refugees from the Chinese1949, received many refugees from the ChineseRevolutionRevolution Functioned under British control until 1997Functioned under British control until 1997– HK prospers from tradeHK prospers from trade Especially textiles and electronicsEspecially textiles and electronics Britain turns Hong Kong over to ChinaBritain turns Hong Kong over to China– -Beijing agrees not to change HK’s social or economic-Beijing agrees not to change HK’s social or economicsystem for 50 yearssystem for 50 years– HK’s people have self-governmentHK’s people have self-government
SingaporeSingapore Only 200 sq miles and 2 million pop.Only 200 sq miles and 2 million pop. Singapore wins independence from Britain in 1959 and from MalayaSingapore wins independence from Britain in 1959 and from Malayain 1963in 1963 Lee Kwan Yew – autocratic PM for 30 yrsLee Kwan Yew – autocratic PM for 30 yrs– Supports free-market economySupports free-market economy– Keeps labor costs low (and attracted foreign capital)Keeps labor costs low (and attracted foreign capital)– Expands Singapore’s harbor, economy boomsExpands Singapore’s harbor, economy booms Government welcomed skilled immigrants, education for all peopleGovernment welcomed skilled immigrants, education for all peoplein Chinese and Englishin Chinese and English– Encouraged high tech industries, manufacturing, and tourismEncouraged high tech industries, manufacturing, and tourism– Economy flourishes, government sets up successful public housingEconomy flourishes, government sets up successful public housingprogram and most married couples became homeowners with the helpprogram and most married couples became homeowners with the helpof government loansof government loans Lee and his successors are criticized, claim order is more importantLee and his successors are criticized, claim order is more importantthan individual freedomthan individual freedom
KoreasKoreas At end of WWII US and Soviets divide Korea into N andAt end of WWII US and Soviets divide Korea into N andS with the 38S with the 38ththparallelparallel North Korea becomes ruled by Kim Il Sung and seesNorth Korea becomes ruled by Kim Il Sung and seesSoviets as communist allySoviets as communist ally Sout Korea – led by Syngman Rhee – has US supportSout Korea – led by Syngman Rhee – has US support Kim Il Sung wants to reunite Korea, US and UN getKim Il Sung wants to reunite Korea, US and UN getreadyready UN forces led by General McArthur nearly reachUN forces led by General McArthur nearly reachChinese-Korean borderChinese-Korean border China joins and sponsors N. KoreaChina joins and sponsors N. Korea Korean War 1950-1953Korean War 1950-1953 Armistice signed 1953 – StalemateArmistice signed 1953 – Stalemate US has strong military presence in S. KoreaUS has strong military presence in S. Korea
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