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Rise of Mao to Modern China

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Mao's Rise to Power to Modern China

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Rise of Mao to Modern China

  1. 1. Communist China:Communist China: Rise of Mao to Modern DayRise of Mao to Modern Day
  2. 2. The Rise of Mao ZedongThe Rise of Mao Zedong • In the 1920s, theIn the 1920s, the People’s LiberationPeople’s Liberation Army (PLA) wasArmy (PLA) was formed:formed: – Wanted to end social &Wanted to end social & economic inequality,economic inequality, especially for the peasantsespecially for the peasants (90% of the population).(90% of the population).
  3. 3. • 1920s-1930s, millions of1920s-1930s, millions of peasants starved due topeasants starved due to unequal land distribution.unequal land distribution. – Communists won favorCommunists won favor with the peasants by takingwith the peasants by taking land from landlords thenland from landlords then redistributing it to poorredistributing it to poor peasants.peasants.
  4. 4. Civil War in ChinaCivil War in China • 1927, General Jiang Jieshi1927, General Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) defeated(Chiang Kai-shek) defeated other regional warlords toother regional warlords to establish himself as presidentestablish himself as president of China.of China. – Leader of the ChineseLeader of the Chinese Nationalist PartyNationalist Party
  5. 5. • 1934,1934, Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek surrounded smallsurrounded small Communist armies andCommunist armies and attempted to defeatattempted to defeat them.them. –  Mao’s forces were driven from southern and eastern China by Kai-shek. Mao led his forces on a long march to safety in the northwest part of China. – The Long MarchThe Long March – 90,000 began, only 6,000 of90,000 began, only 6,000 of them would survive.them would survive.
  6. 6. The Victory of the CommunistThe Victory of the Communist RevolutionRevolution • 1937-1945,1937-1945, Chiang Kai-Chiang Kai- shekshek & Mao united their& Mao united their armies to fight against thearmies to fight against the Japanese during WorldJapanese during World War II.War II. • After WWII, theyAfter WWII, they continued their civil warcontinued their civil war for the control of China.for the control of China.
  7. 7. • By 1949, the PLABy 1949, the PLA controlled most of thecontrolled most of the countryside and manycountryside and many of Chiang Kai-shek’sof Chiang Kai-shek’s troops defected to thetroops defected to the PLA.PLA. – Kai-shek then fled to TaiwanKai-shek then fled to Taiwan (with U.S. support).(with U.S. support). – On October 1949, MaoOn October 1949, Mao Zedong proclaims that theZedong proclaims that the People’s Republic of ChinaPeople’s Republic of China is establishedis established
  8. 8. The Influence of Soviet SocialismThe Influence of Soviet Socialism • Mao turns to the USSR for help.Mao turns to the USSR for help. – He faced establishing a socialistHe faced establishing a socialist nation and the need tonation and the need to modernize China’smodernize China’s underdeveloped economy.underdeveloped economy.
  9. 9. • Mao adopted the SovietMao adopted the Soviet Five Year Plan &Five Year Plan & Collectivization (1952-Collectivization (1952- 1957):1957): – Five Year Plan: modernizeFive Year Plan: modernize technology & science totechnology & science to develop heavy industrydevelop heavy industry – Collectivization: Mao reversedCollectivization: Mao reversed original land reform andoriginal land reform and peasants were organized intopeasants were organized into government owned collectivesgovernment owned collectives
  10. 10. –By 1955, China, with the help ofBy 1955, China, with the help of Soviet aid, had achievedSoviet aid, had achieved considerable success inconsiderable success in developing heavy industry &developing heavy industry & increasing agricultural production.increasing agricultural production. –Mao believed the Soviets reliedMao believed the Soviets relied too much on technological expertstoo much on technological experts and ignored the peasantsand ignored the peasants
  11. 11. The Great Leap ForwardThe Great Leap Forward • 1956, Mao asked1956, Mao asked intellectuals to commentintellectuals to comment on his first 5 years ofon his first 5 years of leadership.leadership. – Severely punished thoseSeverely punished those who criticized himwho criticized him
  12. 12. • In the 1950s Chinese wereIn the 1950s Chinese were organized into communes radicallyorganized into communes radically changing the farming systemchanging the farming system • All people had to work shift after shiftAll people had to work shift after shift with little rest, and rid themselves ofwith little rest, and rid themselves of all anti-communist thoughts.all anti-communist thoughts. • Made steel & no foodMade steel & no food • Results:Results: – Ultimately failed due to poorUltimately failed due to poor managementmanagement – Food shortages (20-40 million diedFood shortages (20-40 million died from 1958-1961 during one of thefrom 1958-1961 during one of the largest famines in history).largest famines in history).
  13. 13. The Cultural RevolutionThe Cultural Revolution • After the failure of the Great Leap Forward,After the failure of the Great Leap Forward, communist leaders focused on rebuilding the ruinedcommunist leaders focused on rebuilding the ruined economy.economy. • Mao feared that society would be concerned mostlyMao feared that society would be concerned mostly with making money which would destroy the spirit ofwith making money which would destroy the spirit of revolution, thus he wanted to get rid ofrevolution, thus he wanted to get rid of The Four Olds (Chinese traditional arts):The Four Olds (Chinese traditional arts): – Old ideas, old culture, old customs, and old habitsOld ideas, old culture, old customs, and old habits (anything rooted in pre-revolutionary or Western(anything rooted in pre-revolutionary or Western culture).culture).
  14. 14. • Mao turned to students.Mao turned to students. – Red Guards; they harassed,Red Guards; they harassed, humiliated, and imprisonedhumiliated, and imprisoned “enemies” of the state“enemies” of the state – Little Red Book - required readingLittle Red Book - required reading in schools and the workplace.in schools and the workplace. – Red Guards destroyed anythingRed Guards destroyed anything associated with the “Four Olds” orassociated with the “Four Olds” or Western Culture.Western Culture.
  15. 15. • Aftermath:Aftermath: – Mao’s wife, Jiang Qing,Mao’s wife, Jiang Qing, gained powerful influence ingained powerful influence in the CCP (Chinesethe CCP (Chinese Communist Party) andCommunist Party) and implemented many radicalimplemented many radical policies of the Culturalpolicies of the Cultural Revolution.Revolution. – After Mao’s death (Sep.9,After Mao’s death (Sep.9, 1976) the Gang of Four were1976) the Gang of Four were arrested for trying toarrested for trying to overthrow the government &overthrow the government & causing the deaths of 34,000causing the deaths of 34,000 people during the Culturalpeople during the Cultural Revolution.Revolution.
  16. 16. Deng XiaopingDeng Xiaoping • By 1979, Deng Xiaoping,By 1979, Deng Xiaoping, a leader twice disgraceda leader twice disgraced by Mao, secured controlby Mao, secured control of the CCP and againof the CCP and again shifted government policyshifted government policy toward economictoward economic developmentdevelopment • Disagreed with theDisagreed with the Cultural Revolution butCultural Revolution but made it illegal to criticizemade it illegal to criticize the governmentthe government
  17. 17. • Results of the EconomicResults of the Economic ReformsReforms – Agricultural & industrialAgricultural & industrial production increasedproduction increased – China still lacked efficientChina still lacked efficient energy and transportationenergy and transportation systems (infrastructure)systems (infrastructure)
  18. 18. • Student Protest atStudent Protest at Tiananmen SquareTiananmen Square – In April 1989 students held aIn April 1989 students held a protest at Tiananmen Squareprotest at Tiananmen Square – Demanded that theDemanded that the government consider somegovernment consider some political reforms, such aspolitical reforms, such as freedom of the press.freedom of the press. – When the governmentWhen the government refused to discuss these initialrefused to discuss these initial demands, students begandemands, students began protesting for more radicalprotesting for more radical reforms, such as democracy.reforms, such as democracy.
  19. 19. • In the first few weeks, theIn the first few weeks, the government did little to stopgovernment did little to stop the demonstrationsthe demonstrations • After a month - martial lawAfter a month - martial law declareddeclared • Troops were unable to enterTroops were unable to enter the city because local citizensthe city because local citizens – estimated at two million –– estimated at two million – showed their support of theshowed their support of the students by blocking thestudents by blocking the advance of the troops.advance of the troops.
  20. 20. • Finally, on June 3, 1989,Finally, on June 3, 1989, Deng called in the armyDeng called in the army the second time to usethe second time to use force to clear the squareforce to clear the square of protesters, killing anof protesters, killing an estimated 700-3,000estimated 700-3,000 citizens.citizens.
  21. 21. Tank ManTank Man https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YeFzeNAHEhU
  22. 22. • Aftermath of the ProtestAftermath of the Protest – The government made aThe government made a systematic effort to find &systematic effort to find & arrest the student leadersarrest the student leaders of the democracyof the democracy movement.movement. – The internationalThe international community voiced outragecommunity voiced outrage at the massacre, but noat the massacre, but no political reforms occurred.political reforms occurred.
  23. 23. – In an effort to maintain power &In an effort to maintain power & legitimacy, the Chineselegitimacy, the Chinese Communist Party has not madeCommunist Party has not made any real political reforms, but hasany real political reforms, but has increased economic liberties – thusincreased economic liberties – thus no longer truly communist but stillno longer truly communist but still an authoritarian form ofan authoritarian form of governmentgovernment • This has resulted in a hugeThis has resulted in a huge economic boom since 1989 andeconomic boom since 1989 and satisfied the newly developingsatisfied the newly developing “middle classes”.“middle classes”.
  24. 24. - 800 million peasants still in800 million peasants still in povertypoverty – Millions of peasants haveMillions of peasants have moved to urban centers inmoved to urban centers in search of work.search of work. – No political, social, economic,No political, social, economic, or education rights oror education rights or protections from theprotections from the government.government. – Lack of farm workersLack of farm workers – Rapid industrial manufacturingRapid industrial manufacturing and lack of environmental lawsand lack of environmental laws has caused China to becomehas caused China to become the world’s biggest emitter ofthe world’s biggest emitter of carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide – Also any religious practicesAlso any religious practices are strongly discouragedare strongly discouraged
  25. 25. United States and other China’s trading partners have used sanctions to pressure China to improve its human rights record. 25
  26. 26. Although democracy is unwelcome in China so far, capitalism and certain free enterprise principles have flourished!
  27. 27. 27
  • VernonNgongaMbulo

    Jul. 1, 2020
  • SriRamKaranam

    Aug. 20, 2018
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    Apr. 8, 2018
  • manish99955

    Jan. 18, 2018

Mao's Rise to Power to Modern China

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