World War II Part 3


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World War II Part 3

  1. 1. World War II Part III
  2. 2. Battle of the Bulge  Germany’s last major stand  Began December 16, 1944  Known as the The German Ardennes offensive or the Battle of the Bulge  The Americans were taken completely by surprise  Resisted and held Saint-Vith and Bastogne  German effort was doomed after December 23, when good flying weather allowed the overwhelming Allied air superiority to make itself felt.  End of January, the last of the 80-km- (50-mi-) deep "bulge" in the Allied lines is eliminated.  Allied advance into Germany resumed in February
  3. 3. Soviet Successes By December 1944  Soviets have forced the Nazis out of Belarus, Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania, and half of Hungary and Poland Liberation of Majdanek – July 23, 1944 Fighting in Budapest Warsaw Uprising – Summer 1944 By the end of the war  Soviets have also liberated Czechoslovakia, Poland, the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camps, and parts of Germany
  4. 4. Liberation of Majdanek
  5. 5. Former Inmates After Liberation
  6. 6. By December 1944
  7. 7. Warsaw Uprising
  8. 8. Allies Successes Through the Spring of 1945  Liberated the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, Austria,  Occupied portions of Germany  April 1945 – FDR dies suddenly  April 30, 1945 – Hitler commits suicide
  9. 9. Conclusion of War Unconditional surrender from Germans on May 7th at General Eisenhowers post VE Day – Victory in Europe – May 8, 1945 Unconditional surrender from Germans on May 9th in Soviet occupied Berlin
  10. 10. Yalta Conference• Yalta – Feb 4 to Feb 11, 1945• Big Three• Begin making post-war plans• Roosevelt – wants Soviets to help in the Pacific• Churchill – pushed for importance of democratic gvts and free elections in Eastern Europe after the war• Stalin – demands that Eastern Europe become a Soviet sphere of political influence for the USSR’s protection• Discuss how to handle Germany
  11. 11. Potsdam • July-August 1945 • Truman, Stalin, Churchill, and AtleeConference • Issue ultimatum to Japan of “prompt and utter destruction” if they don’t agree to unconditional surrender • **Truman receives word of successful atom bomb test** • Truman tells Stalin that the USA has a new powerful bomb • Agree to partition Germany and work on • demilitarization, democratization, • de-nazification, and decentralization
  12. 12. Casualties of WW II Quotes in Handout
  13. 13. Partitioning Germany  Germany is divided up into four parts  Britain, United States, France and the Soviets  The democratic states become West Germany  Soviet state becomes East Germany
  14. 14. The Eastern Bloc Soviets refuse to give up Poland and cling onto the countries they had liberated from Nazi Germany Soviet Red Army hand picked dictators that would be allegiant to the Soviet Union Eastern European countries forcibly become communist  opposition is eliminated  noncompliant states are threatened to be “crushed with Soviet tanks”
  15. 15.  Eastern Bloc states forced to have communist leadership and have “loyalty” to Soviet Union NATO established April 1949, still exists  North Atlantic Treaty Organization  Today: 26 member states, 14 allies Soviet Union successfully tests the atom bomb August 1949 Warsaw Pact established to counter NATO  Officially Warsaw Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance  Signed May 1955, not disestablished until 1991  Founding members: Albania (leaves 1961), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, and later East Germany
  16. 16. Rebuilding Europe• Europe is in ruins• Aerial attack abilities devastated most of the major cities of Europe• Rebuild buildings, railroads, and infrastructure• Where do you start? – brick by brick
  17. 17. Warsaw in Ruins
  18. 18. Hamburg, Germany
  19. 19. Marshall Plan European Recovery Plan Secretary of State – George Marshall Reconstruction plan offered in July 1947 Intended to help foster stability and rehabilitation to European countries 4 year plan of economic and technical assistance – 13 billion US Dollars West takes advantage Eastern bloc offered same deal if the Soviets were willing to make political reforms and allow for some external controls – Deny help
  20. 20. Marshall Plan Extremely successful! Restores countries to even better status than before the war
  21. 21. United Nations April 1945 50 countries met Charter and purpose developed  Save future from war  Promote national self-determination  Promote respect for human rights  Help nations solve problems Headquarters- New York City The P5 – Permanent 5 members with veto power  USA, China, GB, France, and USSR
  22. 22. Advantages Over LeagueNo major power refused to joinUN peace keeping force Armed group to enforce decisions
  23. 23. Overall… UN more effective socially, economically not politically 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights-  Protect from oppression  Preservation of rights