China Timeline


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timeline of the history of the communist revolution in china

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China Timeline

  1. 1. Modern History China and the Communist Revolution
  2. 2. Pre-Condition Period 1910 --> 1936
  3. 3. 1911 <ul><li>Double Tenth Revolution (10/10/11) </li></ul><ul><li>--> Qing Dynasty overthrown </li></ul><ul><li>--> Sun Yatsen (Nationalist) elected President </li></ul><ul><li>--> removed Imperial system </li></ul><ul><li>--> introduced a Republic for the first time </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1912 <ul><li>Sun gives up Presidency to Yuan </li></ul><ul><li>--> feared civil war, wanted to avoid bloodshed </li></ul><ul><li>--> still influential in government </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1914-15 <ul><li>WWI begins </li></ul><ul><li>--> Yuan accepted Japan’s 21 Demands </li></ul><ul><li>--> Japan occupied German leases in Shandong province </li></ul><ul><li>Yuan appointed himself Emperor </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1916 <ul><li>Yuan Shikai dies </li></ul><ul><li>--> Sun returned to China from Japan to re-est. Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Warlords controlled many cities and provinces </li></ul><ul><li>--> warred with each other over land </li></ul><ul><li>--> peasants conscripted to fight </li></ul><ul><li>Dams/irrigation ignored, trade restricted, modernization ceased </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1919 <ul><li>May 4th Movement </li></ul><ul><li>--> socio-political-intellectual revolution aimed at achieving national independence </li></ul><ul><li>--> massive rallies/demonstrations against giving Shandong to Japan </li></ul><ul><li>--> as a result, China refused to sign Treaty of Versailles </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1921-24 <ul><li>Chinese Communist Party formed (1921) </li></ul><ul><li>1st United Front (1923) </li></ul><ul><li>--> Sun admitted CCP into GMD </li></ul><ul><li>Sun introduced ‘3 Principles of the People’ </li></ul><ul><li>--> Nationalism, Democracy, People’s Livelihood </li></ul><ul><li>--> promised to provide land, irrigation and colonization systems </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1925 <ul><li>Sun Yatsen died during attempts to negotiate with warlords </li></ul><ul><li>Jiang Jieshi succeeded Sun </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1926 <ul><li>Mao Zedong convinced the CCP that Marxism-Leninism is not suitable for China </li></ul><ul><li>--> they should focus on the peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Expedition </li></ul><ul><li>--> GMD set out to overthrow warlords </li></ul><ul><li>--> they had been resisting Nationalists </li></ul><ul><li>--> peasants had been organized by CCP and disarmed and killed landlord officials themselves (greatly disturbs GMD) </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1927 <ul><li>Shanghai Massacre </li></ul><ul><li>--> 1st Nationalist attempt to exterminate CCP </li></ul><ul><li>--> GMD roamed streets looking for ‘telltale’ sign - red neck indicated the person had worn the cheaply-made red scarf of the CCP </li></ul><ul><li>--> all CCP in GMD were killed </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1928-31 <ul><li>Warlords of Beijing expelled - Northern Expedition over (1928) </li></ul><ul><li>Jiang sets out on 1st Extermination of Bandits Campaign (of Communists) (1930) </li></ul><ul><li>Japan invades Manchuria </li></ul><ul><li>--> Jiang forbids any retaliation </li></ul><ul><li>--> CCP attack Japanese with guerrilla tactics </li></ul><ul><li>--> Chinese people angry at GMD for focusing on CCP rather than Japanese </li></ul>
  13. 13. 1932-34 <ul><li>Jap. Troops repelled at Shanghai (1932) </li></ul><ul><li>Jiang launches 5th Extermination Campaign against CCP (1933) </li></ul><ul><li>Jiang launches the New Life Movement </li></ul><ul><li>--> aimed at the promotion of a regular life guided by four virtues - courtesy, honesty, righteousness and humility </li></ul>
  14. 14. 1934-35 <ul><li>CCP break through GMD and begin the Long March </li></ul><ul><li>--> lasted one year (Oct 1934 - Oct 1935) </li></ul><ul><li>--> allowed CCP to spread propaganda through more secluded areas of China </li></ul><ul><li>--> took land from landlords and distributed among the peasants </li></ul><ul><li>--> CCP were respectful to the peasants, educated them and trained them to defend against the brutal GMD </li></ul>
  15. 15. Critical Period 1937 --> Early 1950s
  16. 16. 1937 <ul><li>Japan began a full scale invasion of China proper </li></ul><ul><li>--> Chinese people grew more resentful of GMD as Jiang did not oppose them </li></ul><ul><li>--> CCP had still been fighting the Japanese with guerrilla tactics for months </li></ul><ul><li>A top GMD general kidnapped Jiang and forced him to sign a treaty with the CCP’s Red Army </li></ul><ul><li>--> 2nd United Front </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1940-41 <ul><li>GMD ordered CPP troops to move to a certain region </li></ul><ul><li>--> failed to comply quickly enough </li></ul><ul><li>--> GMD claimed CCP were plotting against them </li></ul><ul><li>--> GMD troops attacked Red Army soldiers - end of 2UF </li></ul><ul><li>Mao launched the Rectification Campaign to finalize the adaptation of Marxism-Leninism to Chinese society </li></ul><ul><li>--> beginning of Maoism </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1943 <ul><li>Britain, France and USA surrendered their concessions in China </li></ul><ul><li>--> this was a step towards the unification of the country </li></ul>
  19. 19. 1945-6 <ul><li>Japan surrendered and withdrew from China </li></ul><ul><li>USA assisted GMD to take over cities and railways (1945) </li></ul><ul><li>negotiations between GMD and CCP failed </li></ul><ul><li>--> GMD defended cities against CCP </li></ul><ul><li>Full scale civil war broke out between CCP and GMD </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1947-48 <ul><li>CCP continued to confiscate land from landlords and distribute it among the peasants </li></ul><ul><li>CCP captured Manchuria and southern cities (including Beijing) </li></ul><ul><li>2million GMD troops were lost - most deserted to join the CCP </li></ul>
  21. 21. 1949 <ul><li>Jiang fled to Formosa (Taiwan) </li></ul><ul><li>--> established a nationalist gov. in Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>--> still separate from China today (Chinese view it as joined, Taiwan doesn’t) </li></ul><ul><li>Mao proclaimed the establishment of the People’s Republic of China </li></ul><ul><li>--> Mao became Chairman </li></ul><ul><li>--> Zhou Enlai became Premier </li></ul>
  22. 22. 1950 <ul><li>Agrarian Land Reform Law passed </li></ul><ul><li>--> widespread confiscation of landlords property - given to poor peasants </li></ul><ul><li>--> Speak Bitter Meetings - peasants to spoke out against their landlords </li></ul><ul><li>--> Struggle Sessions - members of the CCP and community coerced individuals into confessing crimes </li></ul><ul><li>--> many landlords executed </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1950 <ul><li>Marriage Law passed </li></ul><ul><li>--> gave women rights and equality with men </li></ul><ul><li>--> abolished feudal marriage system (had included arranged marriages, male dominance, disregard of the interest of children, child marriages, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>--> new regulations included legal marriages age, banning of in-family marriages, mutual-consent divorces and shared ownership of marital property </li></ul><ul><li>--> hard to enforce in secluded country areas </li></ul><ul><li>Mao sent troops to North Korea to help against advancing UN and US troops </li></ul>
  24. 24. 1952 <ul><li>Mao signed a Sino-Japanese trade agreement </li></ul><ul><li>3 Antis Campaign (Corruption, Waste, Too Much Red Tape) </li></ul><ul><li>5 Antis Campaign (Bribery, Tax Evasion, Fraud, Theft of Gov. Property, Spying) </li></ul><ul><li>--> both aimed at businessmen and gov. officials </li></ul>
  25. 25. 1952 <ul><li>1st 5 Year Plan </li></ul><ul><li>--> emphasized industrial development rather than agricultural </li></ul><ul><li>--> aimed to introduce collectivisation </li></ul><ul><li>Interest groups set up </li></ul><ul><li>--> CCP-run </li></ul><ul><li>--> people encouraged to join </li></ul>
  26. 26. 1953 <ul><li>Mao encouraged people to join/form cooperatives/communes </li></ul><ul><li>All Chinese citizens granted suffrage (except country-revolutionaries and landlords) </li></ul><ul><li>86% of all industry was under gov. control </li></ul><ul><li>Bad harvests and famine (1953-4) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Consolidation Period Mid 1950s --> 1976
  28. 28. 1956 <ul><li>Hundred Flowers Campaign </li></ul><ul><li>--> initially aimed at discussing China’s problems in a way that would lead to new forms of art and new cultural institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>--> Mao saw an opportunity to promote socialism - believed if intellectuals were invited to discuss CCP policies that would realize its superiority to capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>--> began to publicly criticize those who had not put in any ‘healthy criticism’ </li></ul>
  29. 29. 1957 <ul><li>Anti-Rightist and 2nd Rectification Campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>--> millions of intellectuals began to criticize every aspect of the CCP gov. </li></ul><ul><li>--> Mao felt it had gone beyond the ‘healthy’ level and set out to silence them </li></ul><ul><li>--> some arrested and sent to re-education camps, some underwent public re-education in public criticism meetings, some executed </li></ul><ul><li>--> some sources believe Mao had not anticipated how the HFC would develop, others believe it was a plot to ‘entice snakes out of their lair’ </li></ul>
  30. 30. 1958 <ul><li>Great Leap Forward </li></ul><ul><li>aimed to introduce the people to the socialist way of life while improving China’s economy to overtake US and UK </li></ul><ul><li>--> massive transfer of labour from towns and cities to rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>--> 600, 000 ‘backyard furnaces’ set up to take in every bit of metal (inc. cooking/harvest equip.) </li></ul><ul><li>--> people exaggerated production figures even though machinery was failing, metal from furniture was useless and very little agricultural output was produced </li></ul><ul><li>--> failed and 30million died </li></ul><ul><li>--> did achieve est. of new industries (e.g. nuclear) and completion of irrigation projects </li></ul>
  31. 31. 1959-61 <ul><li>A split occurred within the CCP over Mao’s policies </li></ul><ul><li>--> Mao lost some power - Liu Shaoqi replaced him as Head of State (1959) </li></ul><ul><li>Liu introduced New Economic Policy </li></ul><ul><li>--> broke down communes, allowed private ownership, rented machinery to peasants </li></ul><ul><li>--> helped increase production but also allowed corruption and collusion to re-emerge </li></ul>
  32. 32. 1962-66 <ul><li>Maoist nation had disappeared </li></ul><ul><li>--> production was up but peasants were suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Mao launched the Socialist Education Movement </li></ul><ul><li>--> hoped to reassert his his position and restore the ‘fading socialist vision’ </li></ul><ul><li>--> propaganda fostered 3 important ‘isms’ - collectivism, patriotism, socialism </li></ul><ul><li>--> Mao developed a grudge against Liu and his followers, such as Deng Xiaoping </li></ul>
  33. 33. 1966-76/77 <ul><li>Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>--> another of Mao’s attempts to purge China of ‘rightists’ - esp. those within the CCP </li></ul><ul><li>--> Liu Shaoqi was expelled from the CCP </li></ul><ul><li>--> Mao encouraged the Red Guards (not a military group, but merely the nation’s youth that held a cult following of Mao) to destroy the ‘4 Olds’ - thought, culture, customs, habits </li></ul><ul><li>--> did not specify what was classified as ‘old’ </li></ul><ul><li>--> RGs ravaged China, destroying much of its cultural heritage and abusing/attacking people on the streets </li></ul><ul><li>--> when he regained control, Mao began a suppression of the guards which culminated in conflict between the PLA and the RGs </li></ul><ul><li>--> many RGs were deported to the countryside </li></ul>
  34. 34. 1975 <ul><li>Zhou Enlai est. the ‘4 Modernizations (agricultural, technology, industry and defence) </li></ul><ul><li>--> China’s economy was opened up to the world, allowing for increased imports and foreign investment </li></ul><ul><li>--> commune system brought to an end and original villages re-established </li></ul><ul><li>-->private ownership allowed, with subsidies to protect against low sales </li></ul><ul><li>--> farmers were not confidant in the scheme </li></ul>
  35. 35. 1976 <ul><li>Zhou Enlai died - this greatly disturbed the Chinese people who had loved and respected him </li></ul><ul><li>--> the Gang of Four (leftist political faction made up of CCP officials, with Mao’s last wife, Jiang Qing at its head) forbade the wearing of black armbands, making wreaths or displaying portraits of Zhou </li></ul><ul><li>--> these orders were ignored and the people of Beijing massed in Tianenmen Square to pay their respects </li></ul><ul><li>--> Jiang Qing ordered the removal of the wreaths and the arrests of the mourners - the militia was employed to prevent any more demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>--> Zhou’s succeeder, Hua Guofeng, ordered the arrest of the Gang of Four </li></ul>
  36. 36. 1976 <ul><li>Mao Zedong died (also succeeded by Hua Guofeng) </li></ul><ul><li>--> occurred after a series of earthquakes - some believed they had been signs that Mao had lost his ‘Mandate from Heaven’ </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution died with Mao </li></ul>
  37. 37. Post-Revolutionary Period 1977 --> 90
  38. 38. 1977 <ul><li>Hua Guofeng introduced a version of the 4 Modernisations as part of a 10 Year Plan </li></ul><ul><li>--> called for greater industrial emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>--> resulted in the est. of many large-scale industrial projects, somewhat beyond China’s financial and material capacity </li></ul><ul><li>--> led to Hua’s political demise </li></ul>
  39. 39. 1977/8 <ul><li>Deng Xiaoping reinstated </li></ul><ul><li>--> he questioned the ‘leftist’ idea of blindly following ‘Mao Zedong thought’ without seeking truth or integrating theory with practice </li></ul><ul><li>--> the Democracy Wall was put up in Beijing and called for a 5th Modernisation - democracy </li></ul><ul><li>--> those that pointed out China’s lack of democracy were named ‘counter-revolutionaries’ and imprisoned </li></ul><ul><li>--> pro-democracy movements were dealt with harshly </li></ul>
  40. 40. 1979 <ul><li>Household Responsibility System </li></ul><ul><li>--> formed to replace all communes and previous systems </li></ul><ul><li>--> land remained public but each household was given a plot for cultivation and these could now be inherited </li></ul><ul><li>--> a portion of produce was to be sold to the gov. for a set price, the rest could be sold or kept by the farmer </li></ul><ul><li>--> purchase of customer goods (better homes, furniture, TVs) and the standard of living rose </li></ul><ul><li>--> income and productivity increased </li></ul><ul><li>--> less workers needed on farms so many moved to cities - however, there was little work their either so many ended up living in slums </li></ul><ul><li>--> rich-poor gap re-emerged </li></ul>
  41. 41. 1979 <ul><li>Economic Reform Program </li></ul><ul><li>--> aimed to modernize China and eliminate economic imbalances </li></ul><ul><li> --> Special Economic Zones set up to carry out special econ. policies under special econ. management </li></ul><ul><li>--> within a few years the zones had est. the infrastructure and facilities for investors and an exporting economy </li></ul><ul><li>--> Deng said ‘when you open the door, a few flies get in’ </li></ul><ul><li>--> changes to China included an inflow of western ideas, cultures and goods; a booming economy; a re-emergence of the rich-poor gap and an increase in demands for freedom of political speech </li></ul>
  42. 42. 1979 <ul><li>One Child Policy </li></ul><ul><li>--> introduced to alleviate social, economic and environmental problems in China </li></ul><ul><li>--> caused an increase in forced abortions and female infanticide </li></ul><ul><li>--> parents with multiple children weren’t given the same benefits as those with one child </li></ul>
  43. 43. 1980/1 <ul><li>Zhao Ziyang became Premier </li></ul><ul><li>A resolution was passed on CCP history, admitting that the Party (and Mao) had made mistakes due to a lack of experience </li></ul>
  44. 44. 1982-87 <ul><li>Hu Yaobang became the General-Secretary of the CCP </li></ul><ul><li>--> his open contempt for ‘Maoist excesses’ and previous support for the pro-democracy movement made him the perfect scapegoat for Deng Xiaoping </li></ul><ul><li>--> he was forced to submit a humiliating self-criticism and resign (1987) </li></ul>
  45. 45. 1989 <ul><li>Hu Yaobang died </li></ul><ul><li>--> students gathered to demand a reversal of the verdicts against him </li></ul><ul><li>--> they began a hunger strike which won a great deal of public support </li></ul><ul><li>--> they continued their previous pro-democracy movements, the largest of which occurred at Tianenmen Square in Beijing - they were joined by urban workers who had been alarmed by new econ. reform, rising inflation and corruption </li></ul><ul><li>--> protests were no longer just pro-democracy but anti-government </li></ul>
  46. 46. 1989 <ul><li>Zhao Ziyang, the CCP General-Secretary, who was sympathetic to the movement, was ostracised from the CCP and failed to prevent the introduction of martial law </li></ul><ul><li>--> May 20 - PLA troops attempted to reach the Square but were stopped by citizens and urban workers </li></ul><ul><li>--> the troops opened fire on the unarmed crowd </li></ul><ul><li>--> although called the Tianenmen Square Incident, most casualties occurred in the surrounding streets </li></ul>
  47. 47. 1990 <ul><li>China was a society divided </li></ul><ul><li>The people lost faith in their government </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights were non-existent </li></ul><ul><li>Gov wanted to modernise the economy but not the system that ran it </li></ul>
  48. 48. THEnd <ul><li>The post-revolutionary society did not reflect the ideology of the revolution itself - China had become capitalist again, the government controlled everything and human rights were non-existent, and there was a huge divide between the rich and poor. </li></ul>