Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Chinese Revolution & Mao

16,099 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Chinese Revolution & Mao

  1. 1. Revolution in China and Communist China (How does this compare with the Russian Revolution and Stalin’s Soviet Union) This presentation relies heavily on a power point created by Dan McDowell. Teaching Point, ©2003
  2. 2. Revolution in China Where are the sources? History is interpretation!
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>The Qing Dynasty maintained limited power despite forced concessions to western nations and Japan at the beginning of the 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Rural & urban workers, nationalists, communists, and intellectuals challenged the government. </li></ul><ul><li>The dynasty fell in 1911 and a weak provisional government took its place. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background <ul><li>Between 1925 – 1937 the NATIONALISTS led by Chiang Kai-shek and the COMMUNISTS led by Mao Zedong fought for control of China with regional warlords. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nationalists vs Communists <ul><li>Chiang used brutal tactics against his rivals and violently attacked communists leaders and worker groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Organized crime and Western powers supported Chiang. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Chiang Kai-shek <ul><li>Encouraged continued western investment in China and worked closely with foreign investors. </li></ul><ul><li>He failed to consolidate power, improve the economy (especially the peasants), or modernize China </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Long March <ul><li>In 1934 Chiang Kai-shek attacked the communist strong-hold in Hunan province. </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Long March <ul><li>100,000 men retreated 6000 miles over 370 days to a new communist base in Northern China. </li></ul><ul><li>30,000 soldiers remained </li></ul>
  9. 10. Mao Zedong became the leader of the communists. <ul><li>Mao was more concerned with the plight of the Chinese peasant than Chinese urban workers. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Mao Zedong <ul><li>Led the army in developing guerilla warfare tactics to fight the Nationalists and then Japanese </li></ul>
  11. 12. Civil War / Japanese Invasion <ul><li>1937 – Japan invaded China proper </li></ul><ul><li>Communists and Nationalists fought the Japanese “separately together”. </li></ul><ul><li>Communists were more effective in their guerilla war against the Japanese than the Nationalist army. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Civil War & Cold War <ul><li>After WWII ended, civil war continued. </li></ul><ul><li>The US began sending military and tactical help to Chiang Kai-shek and the USSR provided minimal help to Mao Zedong </li></ul>
  13. 14. Communist Victory <ul><li>1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Chiang Kai-shek & the Nationalists were driven out of mainland China to Taiwan, the Communists founded the People’s Republic of China . </li></ul>
  14. 15. Power Base of Mao <ul><li>The Red Army was built. </li></ul><ul><li>PEASANT support grew with redistribution of land by the government. </li></ul><ul><li>OTHERS supported the government because of propaganda and education. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Mao consolidated power <ul><li>Many who were nationalists, upper class, or dissidents were imprisoned in forced labor camps or killed. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Economic Development <ul><li>Foreign economic influence was eliminated – most foreigners were kicked out of China </li></ul><ul><li>A Soviet style five year plan was implemented to encourage collectivization of agriculture and rapid industrialization. </li></ul><ul><li>(These efforts had limited success.) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Women’s Status Improved “Women hold up half the sky.” <ul><li>Foot-binding ended and arranged marriages were limited </li></ul><ul><li>Women could hold professions, join the army, and serve in the government. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Legal equality” with men. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Women’s Status Improved? <ul><li>Women were working outside of the home AND still responsible for the home and childcare. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional emphasis on men as “superior” continued. </li></ul>
  19. 20. The Hundred Flowers Policy <ul><li>1957 </li></ul><ul><li>Goverment loosened control of people </li></ul><ul><li>People were allowed to question government policies </li></ul><ul><li>Significant rise in anti-government rhetoric caused Mao to end the policy and arrest top critics </li></ul>
  20. 21. Great Leap Forward <ul><li>1958 - Mao attempted to reinvent Chinese economy </li></ul><ul><li>Wished to industrialize outside the western model as quickly as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated private enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced people out of the cities and into communes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Backyard steel mills” – small industrial centers scattered throughout China </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Great Leap Forward = Great Leap Backward
  22. 23. Great Leap Forward <ul><li>The plan failed miserably – famine caused </li></ul><ul><li>20 + million to die, steel production dropped drastically, the program ended early, and Mao’s power was reduced </li></ul>
  23. 24. Cultural Revolution <ul><li>1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Mao wished to regain power he lost in the Great Leap Forward and create another revolutionary movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Created The Red Guard from the Chinese youth – students, peasants, & soldiers </li></ul>
  24. 27. Cultural Revolution <ul><li>Red Guard attacked people in positions of power or privilege who publicly disagreed with Mao. </li></ul><ul><li>Any “suspects” were imprisoned or forced into labor in rural areas. </li></ul>
  25. 28. Cultural Revolution <ul><li>Traditional culture and education were destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>Cult of personality formed around Mao </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually military leaders supported ending cultural revolution in fear that it would get out of control. </li></ul>
  26. 29. China after Mao <ul><li>New communist leadership allowed some private business and farm ownership and created a stock exchange. Manufacturing increased drastically as trade boomed. </li></ul>
  27. 30. China after Mao <ul><li>Overall, redistribution of wealth, education, healthcare, and living standards improved to higher levels. </li></ul>
  28. 31. China after Mao <ul><li>Government control and lack of individual freedom along with a variety of economic and social problems still make China one of the least “free” places on the planet. </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions remain terrible. </li></ul>
  29. 33. China after Mao <ul><li>Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 --student and labor protesters were killed by government forces </li></ul>

×