Nationalist Movements in Latin Am, ME, and Africa


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Latin Am
Middle East
20th Century

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Nationalist Movements in Latin Am, ME, and Africa

  1. 1. 20th Century Nationalism
  2. 2. Onto Africa…
  3. 3. Resistance to Colonial Rule• Discrimination – white settlers forced Africans off the best land in Kenya and Rhodesia – Restrict who can grow most lucrative crops (coffee and sisal)• Africans forced to carry ID cards, pay special taxes and travel was limited
  4. 4. Resistance Takes Many Forms• Those who lost lands to Europeans sometimes squatted or settled illegally• Workers started forming labor unions• Socialism gains popularity• Protests become common
  5. 5. Examples • Kenya and the Kikuyu • Protested loss of land, forced labor, heavy taxes, and ID cards • Jailed the Kikuyu leaders • Nigeria • “Women’s War” – reaction to British policies that restricted women’s positions in the markets – Machetes and sticks
  6. 6. Racial Segregation and Nationalism in South Africa• 1910-1940 – whites imposed a system of racial segregation – Ensured white economic and political power, and social supremacy• Laws restrict better-paying jobs in mines to whites only – Blacks pushed into low-paid, less-skilled work• Evicted from the best land – Forced to live on crowded reserves in infertile areas• Abolish the right to vote in 1936
  7. 7. Apartheid in South Africa• Post 1948, restrictive segregation laws become official, permanent laws
  8. 8. Pan-African Congress• Led by African American scholar – WEB DuBois• First met in Paris in 1919• Delegates from African colonies, the West Indies, and the US called on Paris peacemakers to approve a charter of rights for Africans – Demands are ignored, but cooperation among African and African American leaders is established
  9. 9. Egypt• During WW I Egyptians were forced to provide food and workers to help Britain• Resistance simmered• When the war ended Western-educated officials, peasants, landowners, Christians, and Muslims united behind the WAFD party, launching strikes and revolts• British finally agreed to declare Egypt independent – But British stayed to guard the Suez and remained the indirect power behind the king• 1930s the Muslim Brotherhood develops – fosters a broad Islamic nationalism that reject western culture and denounces widespread corruption in the Egyptian gov’t
  10. 10. Bye Bye Ottomans• Collapsed officially in 1918• Arab lands divided up between British and French, but the Turks resist and build Turkey• Mustafa Kemal – leads Turkish nat’lists to overthrow the sultan – Defeats western occupation forces – Declares Turkey a republic – Nicknamed “Ataturk” – “father of the Turks”
  11. 11. Westernization– Replaces Islamic law with European models– Discards Muslim calendar for the Christian one– Replaces Arabic with the Latin alphabet– Dress code – western– Closed religious schools, opens thousands of state schools– No more veil– Polygamy is outlawed– Women begin working outside the home– Industrial expansion
  12. 12. Turkey inspires…• Iran• Greatly resent the British and Russians• 1925 Reza Khan overthrows the shah and creates his own dynasty – Modernizes, makes Iran independent – Industrializes – Western clothing – Creates modern, secular schools – Secular law replaces the sharia – British still own the oil industry
  13. 13. Pan-Arabism• Arabs had helped the Euro Allies fight the Ottomans and Central Powers in WWI (with promise of independence)• Instead…Allies carve up the Ottoman lands “mandates” – Britain – Palestine and Iraq, Later Trans-Jordan – France – Syria and Lebanon• Can we say betrayal? – 1920s and 30s – anger erupted in frequent protests and revolts against the West – A particularly sensitive area? • Palestine – Arab nationalists versus European Zionists (Jewish Nationalists)
  14. 14. • Russian Revolution• Fascism
  15. 15. Struggle for Change in Latin America
  16. 16. Mexican Revolution • Porfirio Diaz, rules Mexico, 35 yrs by 1910 • Landowners, businesses, and foreign investors are happy • Majority (peasants living in poverty) are not – No land or education = no hope
  17. 17. The Battle Begins• Francisco Madero – liberal reformer who demands free elections• Diaz imprisons him• Madero encourages revolts, Diaz resigns• Madero becomes prez of Mexico• Madero is murdered within two years
  18. 18. Power Struggle • Francisco “Pancho” Villa – Rebel from the north – Personal power – Wins loyalty from followers • Emiliano Zapata – Indian tenant farmer – Leads peasant revolt – Followers=Zapatistas
  19. 19. • Fighting goes on for years• Around 1,000,000 are killed• Peasants, small farmers, ranchers, and urban workers are all involved• Soldaderas (women soldiers) cook, treat wounded, and fight with the men
  20. 20. Venustiano Carranza • Elected 1917 • Constitution of 1917 – Land, religion, and labor • Break up estates • Restrict foreigners from owning land • Allowed Nationalization – Govt takeover of natural resources – Sets minimum wage – Protects strike rights
  21. 21. The PRI• Institutional Revolutionary Party – Created in 1929 – Accommodated all groups in Mexican society including busineses, military leaders, peasants, and workers – Back reform – Suppressed oppression
  22. 22. Rising Tide of Nationalism• Reclaiming oil fields from foreign investors renews sense of nationalism – Especially with United States• Economic Nationalism – determined to develop their own economies and independence from foreign economic control• Cultural Nationalism – revival of mural paintings
  23. 23. Jose Clemente Orozco
  24. 24. David Alfaro Siqueiros
  25. 25. Good Neighbor Policy• During Mexican Revolution the United States supported leaders who it thought would best protect US interests• 1914, attack Vera Cruz (imprisoning US sailors)• 1916, US invades b/c Pancho Villa killed over 12 Americans in Mexico• Result? Anti-American sentiments• 1920s Nicaragua, Augusto Cesar Sandino led guerrilla movement against US occupied forces (Sandino Latin Am hero)• 1930s FDR creates the good neighbor policy: – US withdrew troops in Haiti and Nicaragua, lifts legislature that limited Cuban independence