Chapter 16The World Economy
New Toys• Deep-draft, round-hulled sailing ships,  loaded with heavy armaments• Compass (China-ME-Europe)• Gunpowder relat...
The pioneering explorers•   Portugal – excitement of discovery, potential harm to Muslim world,    and craving for wealth ...
Spanish Explorers• Christopher Columbus – origin?   – Sponsored by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella (Spain,     pushed ou...
Spanish Conquistadors•   God, gold, and glory!•   Hernan Cortes – Tenochtitlan to Mexico City•   Francisco Pizarro – Inca ...
• Easily conquer the Americas  – Gunpowder  – Diseases  – Civil Unrest in the Americas
British, French, Dutch, Spanish• Spanish Armada 1588• French in Canada – 1534, Samuel de  Champlain – Quebec 1608, Great L...
AnimalsDiseaseFood
Mercantilism• Economic concept –• Import only from empire  – Import raw materials, manufacture at home,    export manufact...
• Exploration• Conquest when necessary• Colonization  – Emergence of Coercive labor systems
Colonization Perks• Precious metals and cash crops  – Sugar, spice, tobacco, and later on – cotton  – All very labor inten...
Triangle of Commerce            Into Americas:Axes, Cloth, Furniture, Muskets, Tools                                      ...
Ottoman Empire• Established 1453• Continues trading Arab trading  connections with E. Africa, India, and  China• Loses B. ...
China• Participated less actively than Europe• Benefits from world economy – excess of  American money a positive for Chin...
Japan and Korea• Japan – initially attracted by Western  expeditions in the 16th century  – Pulls back  – Show some openne...
India• Mughal India – Persian for “Mongol India”    – Proceeded Dehli Sultanate•   Sold goods for New World silver•   Brit...
Russia• Isolated by Mongols• Open back up slowly – Ivan the III –  capital in Moscow• Ivan the Terrible (IV)• Time of Trou...
Africa• West Africa – become victims of the slave  trade• East Africa – still trading with India, China,  and ME• North Af...
Chapter 16   world economy
Chapter 16   world economy
Chapter 16   world economy
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Chapter 16 world economy

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Chapter 16 world economy

  1. 1. Chapter 16The World Economy
  2. 2. New Toys• Deep-draft, round-hulled sailing ships, loaded with heavy armaments• Compass (China-ME-Europe)• Gunpowder related toys – same chain – European metalwork allows for first guns and cannons – HUGE advantage
  3. 3. The pioneering explorers• Portugal – excitement of discovery, potential harm to Muslim world, and craving for wealth “potent mix”• Henry the Navigator• Dias -- Cape of Good Hope (1488) – will become a filling station• Columbus’s voyage in 1492 causes Portugal to up their efforts• Vasco da Gama reaches India in 1498 – Annual visits to India – Sometimes use ship’s guns to intimidate – Blown off course to Brazil – establish colony – Set up Mozambique in E. Africa and Gao in India – Islands of Indonesia – China – By 1542 even Japan
  4. 4. Spanish Explorers• Christopher Columbus – origin? – Sponsored by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella (Spain, pushed out Muslims, reclaimed kingdom, Castille and Aragon) – West Indies (Caribbean)• Amerigo Vespucci (Italian) – “New World” and the Americas – Spain wins papal approval for control of land (Portugal will get Brazil)• Ferdinand Magellan – set sail in 1519 – Pass Southern tip of S. America – Discover and name Pacific Ocean for Europe for “peaceful” ocean – Reached Indonesian islands in 1521 – Claims the Philippines and names them after King Philip II (will remain a Spanish holding until 1898)
  5. 5. Spanish Conquistadors• God, gold, and glory!• Hernan Cortes – Tenochtitlan to Mexico City• Francisco Pizarro – Inca Empire – Equador to Chile• Soon all but Brazil of S. America all the way up to California• St. Augustine 1519• Catholic Church and the Jesuits – chance to convert and gain Catholic souls• Silver and gold, silver and gold….FLOODS the European Economy• Glory! – Well, it’s obvious.
  6. 6. • Easily conquer the Americas – Gunpowder – Diseases – Civil Unrest in the Americas
  7. 7. British, French, Dutch, Spanish• Spanish Armada 1588• French in Canada – 1534, Samuel de Champlain – Quebec 1608, Great Lakes region, Mississippi Valley – Restrict protestants• English – Jamestown 1607, Plymouth, 1622 (but this one wasn’t economic) – Restrict Catholics• Dutch East India Company – 1602 – Taiwan• British East India Company
  8. 8. AnimalsDiseaseFood
  9. 9. Mercantilism• Economic concept –• Import only from empire – Import raw materials, manufacture at home, export manufactured goods out• Export as much as possible to as many as possible – Allow own colonies to only buy from your kingdom
  10. 10. • Exploration• Conquest when necessary• Colonization – Emergence of Coercive labor systems
  11. 11. Colonization Perks• Precious metals and cash crops – Sugar, spice, tobacco, and later on – cotton – All very labor intensive• Human labor becomes part of the exchange• Encomienda and other systems used, but some Europeans (Bartolome de las Casas) find these systems morally appalling – European kingdoms turn to Africans and enslave them
  12. 12. Triangle of Commerce Into Americas:Axes, Cloth, Furniture, Muskets, Tools To Africa: Iron, Muskets, Silver, Textiles To Europe: Fish, Rice, Tar, Timber and Tobacco Into Americas: Slaves To Africa: Rum and Muskets
  13. 13. Ottoman Empire• Established 1453• Continues trading Arab trading connections with E. Africa, India, and China• Loses B. of Lepanto in 1571 – setback against Spanish navy in the E. Mediterranean
  14. 14. China• Participated less actively than Europe• Benefits from world economy – excess of American money a positive for China• Avoid entering involvement of international trade on anyone’s terms – limits trade to a trickle – This just keeps China’s stuff in the “rare” category, Europeans anxious to open China up• Strong export pattern• British government tries to get China to open up – Effort turned down – Haughtily inform Europeans that the Chinese have no need for outside goods
  15. 15. Japan and Korea• Japan – initially attracted by Western expeditions in the 16th century – Pulls back – Show some openness to Christian missions – Fascinated by Western gunnery and shipping – Once they develop the ability to mimic W. weapons they cut off contact – Forbidden to travel or trade abroad – Enter a period of near complete isolation from 17th-19th century • Exceptions? – Chinese contact (only a little) and Dutch enclave in Nagasaki• Korea – pulls back as well
  16. 16. India• Mughal India – Persian for “Mongol India” – Proceeded Dehli Sultanate• Sold goods for New World silver• British East India Company• France• Britain wins control after 7 years war
  17. 17. Russia• Isolated by Mongols• Open back up slowly – Ivan the III – capital in Moscow• Ivan the Terrible (IV)• Time of Troubles early 1600s• Michael Romanov appointed – establishes Romanov line
  18. 18. Africa• West Africa – become victims of the slave trade• East Africa – still trading with India, China, and ME• North Africa – still trading

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