Disease Inferior Technology Civil unrest/disunity Superstition/belief in doomsday
1 CORTÉS IN MEXICO PIZARRO IN PERUHernan Cortés landed on the Francisco Pizarro arrived in PeruMexican coast in 1519. in 1532, just after the conclusionCortés arranged alliances with of a bloody civil war.discontented peoples who hated Helped by Indian allies, Pizarrotheir Aztec overlords. captured the new king,The Aztec emperor, Moctezuma, Atahualpa, and killed thousandsthought Cortés might be a god. of his followers.He offered tribute to Cortés andwelcomed him to Tenochtitlán. The Spanish then overran theWhen relations grew strained, the Incan heartland.Aztecs drove the Spanish out ofTenochtitlán.In 1521, Cortés returned andcaptured and demolishedTenochtitlán.
1Which of the following countries did not have land claims in NorthAmerica in 1675? a) Spain b) England c) France d) PortugalWhy did Moctezuma offer tribute to Cortés? a) Moctezuma hoped to open trading relations with the Spanish. b) Moctezuma thought that Cortés might be a god. c) Moctezuma wanted to show his respect for Spanish culture. d) Moctezuma wanted to show the Spanish the wealth of the Aztec empire.
1Which of the following countries did not have land claims in NorthAmerica in 1675? a) Spain b) England c) France d) PortugalWhy did Moctezuma offer tribute to Cortés? a) Moctezuma hoped to open trading relations with the Spanish. b) Moctezuma thought that Cortés might be a god. c) Moctezuma wanted to show his respect for Spanish culture. d) Moctezuma wanted to show the Spanish the wealth of the Aztec empire.Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.
Fancy word for Spain and Portugal Describe Portugal and Spain’s culture and how it shaped colonies in the Americas… ◦ Develop encomiendas system ◦ Iberians had traditionally owned slaves from the trans-Saharan trade routes ◦ In process of Reconquesting Iberia…so very pro- Catholic
1492-1570 ◦ age of conquest; administration and economy established 1570-1700 ◦ colonial institutions and societies take form 1700s ◦ reform and reorganization Plants seeds of dissatisfaction and revolt
Thoughts from the resident specialists? ◦ Encomiendas given to conquerors of the region Could use the Indians as workers/servants or could tax them harshly Had actually owed Inca/Aztec tributes, but they were reasonable Spanish demands harsh, arbitrary, excessive, and do not come with reciprocal obligations
What role does Bartolome de Las Casas play? ◦ “A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies” ◦ http://www.lehigh.edu/~ ejg1/doc/lascasas/casas. htm ◦ By 1540s, begin moving away from encomiendas
Force labor for state projects ◦ Church construction, road building, mining, agriculture, etc The Mining Industry ◦ Mita – forced labor in Peru, used to work the mines ◦ Paid for the work, but mistreated, many move away to seek employment in the cities Creates a wage labor system
Compare and contrast slavery versus coercive labor systems. Or Compare and contrast North American and South American labor systems…
2In the 1500s, Spain claimed a vast empire stretchingfrom California to South America. GOVERNMENT THE CATHOLIC THE ECONOMY CHURCH The Church worked with the Spain closely controlledSpain was determined to government to convert economic activity, especiallymaintain strict control over Native Americans to trade.its empire. Christianity. The Spanish grew sugarThe empire was divided cane, which was grown on Church leaders often servedinto five provinces, each of plantations and required as royal officials.which was ruled by a large numbers of workers.viceroy. Spanish missionaries forcibly imposed European culture At first, the Spanish forcedThe Council of the Indies the Native Americans to over Native American culture.helped pass laws for the work under brutalcolonies. conditions. Later, the colonists began shipping slaves from Africa to do their work.
Begins as a trade factory Shifts to plantation agriculture Becomes the first great plantation colony ◦ Will serve as a model for other European colonies in the Caribbean Create a bureaucratic structure that integrated the colony within an imperial system Jesuits play a contributing role; cattle ranches and sugar mills help support the construction of churches and schools and create a network of missions for Native Ams
1695 – gold strikes occur in the interior mountains Gold Rush! Waves of 5000 people a year pour in from Portugal Towns develop 1735-1760 – height of production (3 tons a year!...Brazil becomes the greatest source of gold in the Western world) Diamonds also discovered Effects? ◦ Disastrous for the indigenous population ◦ Catalyzes expansion of slavery ◦ Rio de Janeiro – port closest to the mines; major growth
2In Spanish America, the mix of diverse people gave rise to a new socialstructure.Supposedly two republics one of the “Spaniards” one of the “Indians” ◦Only Indians pay tributeMiscegenation and slavery will cause the development of multiple racesNot just racial distinctions in society; also ones based on wealth andoccupationPeninsulares, people born in Spain, were at the top of society.Creoles, American-born descendents of Spanish settlers, were next.Mestizos were people of Native American and European descent.Mulattoes were people of African and European descent.Native Americans and people of African descent formed the lowest socialclasses.Slave owners often had female slaves as mistresses and freed theirmulatto children
2The blending of Native American, African, and Europeanpeoples and traditions resulted in a new Americanculture.Colonial cities were centers of government, commerce,and European culture.To meet the Church’s need for educated priests, thecolonies built universities.Although Spanish culture was dominant in the cities, theblending of diverse traditions changed people’s livesthroughout the Americas.
Bourbon Reforms through “Englightened Despotism” ◦ Sets up a French-based intendant system in the Indies Improves tax collection, gov’t more effective ◦ Many reforms linked directly to defense and military issues Spain still in a power struggle with England and France ◦ Active role in the economy State monopolies of essentials – tobacco and gunpowder ◦ Mining inspectors and experts are set to Peru and New Spain to suggest reforms and introduce new techniques ◦ Restructuring of gov’t and economy helps revive the Spanish Empire
Portuguese – Marquis of Pombal (PM and another “Enlightened Despot”) ◦ Fiscal reforms to eliminate contraband, gold smuggling and tax evasion ◦ Monopoly companies to stimulate agriculture in older plantation zones ◦ Allow large importation numbers of slaves ◦ New crops introduced ◦ Rio de Janeiro becomes the capital ◦ Main products? Cotton, wild caco, sugar, tobacco and hides
By mid-1700s the Span and Port colonies have major population growth and productive capacities ◦ Declining mortality rates + ◦ Increasing fertility levels + ◦ Increasing immigration from Europe + ◦ A thriving slave trade = ◦ All equal reasons for population growth
Reformist policies, tighter tax collection and more activist gov’ts in Span Am and Brazil: ◦ Disrupt old patterns of power and influence ◦ Raise expectations ◦ And provoke violent colonial reactions Complaints focus on gov’t control of tobacco and liquor consumption, rising prices, new taxes, etc Communero Revolt in New Granada 1781 Tupac Amaru – led a native uprising in Peru (he’s executed, but it drags on for a few years) Brazil – a group plotting an uprising is caught and punished before it even occurs