Chapter 23 –State by State,Nations EmergeThe age of –isms and -izations
Defining an IndependentCountry While the terms country, state, and nation are often used interchangeably, there is a difference.A State (note the capital "S") is a self-governing political entity. The term State can be used interchangeably with country. A nation, however, is a tightly-knit group of people which share a common culture. A nation-state is a nation which has the same borders as a State.
States and Independent Countries Has space or territory which has internationally recognized boundaries (boundary disputes are OK). Has people who live there on an ongoing basis. Has economic activity and an organized economy. A country regulates foreign and domestic trade and issues money. Has the power of social engineering, such as education. Has a transportation system for moving goods and people. Has a government which provides public services and police power. Has sovereignty. No other State should have power over the countrys territory. Has external recognition. A country has been "voted into the club" by other countries. Examples of entities that are not countries include: Hong Kong, Bermuda, Greenland, Puerto Rico, and most notably the constituent parts of the United Kingdom. (Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and England are not countries.) “state” spelled with lower case is an internal entity of a federal State (ex.- USA and FL)
Nations and Nation-States Nations are culturally homogeneous groups of people, larger than a single tribe or community, which share a common language, institutions, religion, and historical experience. When a nation of people have a State or country of their own, it is called a nation-state. Places like France, Egypt, Germany, Japan, and New Zealand are excellent examples of nation-states. There are some States which have two nations, such as Canada and Belgium. Even with its multicultural society, the United States is also referred to as a nation-state because of the shared American "culture." There are nations without States. For example, the Kurds are stateless people.
Population Revolution After 1730 – Western Europe’s population mushroomed Britain and Prussia 100%, France 50% Border policing – reduced mvmt of disease bearing animals POTATO! – reduced death rate! Results? More competition for gvt and church positions Rapid expansion of domestic manufacturing in W. Europe and US
Bastille, Austria,France Prussia, and Britain, Robespierre, etc. Napoleon Bonaparte – 1799 Converts revolutionary republic to authoritarian empire Napoleonic Code – all men are equal and have natural rights Public education, centralized secondary schools and universities And, expansion
1802 – Crowns himself Emperor 1804 – begins Outward expansion Gains majority of Europe in the years leading up to 1812 General Winter – Napoleon’s first failure 1814 and 1815 Napoleon beaten back Battle of Waterloo – Napoleon returns from Elba and tries with one last hurrah. Britain fights, Prussia arrives, Napoleon is done.
Napoleon replaced many of the governments he overthrew with family or friends France’s invasions had two effects in Italy and Germany: Whetted appetites for greater national unity as French invasion helped people realize their loyalties to their own nations Local governments had been disassembled…
Congress of Vienna - 1815 Reestablished balance of power Tweaked borders to ensure that stronger powers surrounded France (gains for Prussia and Italy) Realignments facilitated national unification 100 years of Inter-European Peace But not domestic peace Restoration of monarchies
Nationalism Replaced older loyalties to church or locality (Go Germany…NOT Go Mecklenburg!) National Symbols France is the first to coin their national anthem US flag during the Revolutionary War, France’s flag, etc.
Conservatives – defined themselves as ones who opposed revolutionary goals Liberals – want to limit state interference in individual life and urge representation of propertied people in government Constitutional rule and protection for freedoms of religion, press, assembly, etc. Radicals –accept liberal demands, also want wider voting rights, even democracy
Revolutions of 1820s and 1830s Greek Revolution – 1820s 1830’s France – different king and more liberal monarchy Italy and Germany Belgian Revolution – liberal regime and newly independent nation Britain – Reform Bill 1832 – parliamentary vote to most middle class men US – universal male suffrage (except slaves) France, Britain, Belgium, and US Guarantee individual rights against arbitrary state action Religious freedom (Judaism included) Voting systems for all men
Revolutions of 1848 Bad harvests 1846 and 1847 Artisans want to restrain industrialization Peasants want to end manorialism Germanic and Italian regions – nationalism demands Women want right to vote Spreads like wildfire through Europe Revolutions in France, Britain, Germany, Italy, Austria and Hungary
Fires extinguished quickly Artisans and factory workers’ needs are disregarded Nationalist efforts fail for now France – Napoleon’s nephew replaces republic with authoritarian empire until 1870 ***Serfdom is fully abolished throughout Western Europe*** Many liberals and working-class leaders decide revolutions are too risky, gradual methods are better Improved transportation reduces food crises from recurring
Industrialization Railroads Canals Urbanization Sanitation Louis Pasteur – 1880’s Birth rates and death rates Children are source of emotional satisfaction and parental responsibility Rise of corporations
Social Changes ~1900 Civil Service Exam for Western Gvts Gvts extend control – inspect factory safety, monitor health of prostitutes, hospital conditions, papers/passports for travel, etc. Compulsory schooling Up to age 12 US states beginning to require high school W. nations expand to public secondary schools Girls taught about the importance of women in the home Nationalism is emphasized – taught superiority of nation’s language and history (often attacked immigrant or minority cultures) Literacy Rates – by 1900 about 90-95% of all adults in W. Europe and US are literate
Karl Marx Communist Manifesto – 1848 Class struggle Human perfectibility – set up exemplary communities where work and rewards would be shared and the evils of capitalism would end Socialism
Feminists Movements Britain, US, Australia and Scandinavia Middle class women – want to vote!
Mass Culture – 1900’s White-collar labor force growing Secretaries, clerks, salespeople Bicycle Fad First true product craze Middle-class families “have” to have it Influences women’s dress Mass leisure culture Sensationalist journalism Shock and entertainment Theatre Comedy routines Music halls Vaudeville Motion pictures Vacation trips and seaside resorts, (Coney Island in the US) Team Sports Soccer, American football, basketball Olympic Games – 1896 (perfect for nationalist passions)
Science Charles Darwin – 1859 The Origin of Species Albert Einstein – theory of relativity e=mc2 Sigmund Freud Id, ed, ego subconscious
Art and Literature Impressionism Pointillism Romanticism – intense passions and emotions, not rational thought Beauties of nature, novelists want to move readers to tears – not evoke philosophical debate By 1900 Art and Literature becomes increasingly abstract, continues to violate rules and expectations