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9 A Century of Crisis


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9 A Century of Crisis

  1. 1. R E V I E W # 9 Conflict
  2. 2. World War I Causes WWI Effects Europe 1914- 1919 •Militarism (Industrial Rev.) •Alliances •Imperialism •Nationalism •Assassination of archduke Francis Ferdinand in the Balkan powder keg by Serbian nationalist •Germany blamed Treaty of Versailles  Depression Hitler/WWII •New countries in Eastern Europe •League of Nations created but very weak •Mandates created in Middle East •Nationalist movements
  3. 3. World War II Causes WWII Effects 1939- 1945 •Appeasement •League of Nations weak •Great Depression weakens capitalist democracies •Treaty of Versailles punished Central Powers •Fascist dictators rise to power •Germany and Japan are occupied and controlled by U.S., Western Europe •Europe’s economies ruined, lose grip on colonies •U.S. vs Soviet Union (CW) •Nuclear Age •Eastern Europe conquered and controlled by Stalin (Iron Curtain) •Geneva Conventions, Universal Decl. of Human Rights •United Nations created, stronger than the L of N
  4. 4. Cold War Causes Cold War Effects 1945- 1990 •End of WWII •Superpowers: U.S. and U.S.S.R. •Conflict of ideologies (Communism vs. capitalism/democracy) •Division of Berlin & Germany (Yalta Conference) •NATO & Warsaw Pact •Arms Race (nuclear proliferation) •Space Race •Korean War, 1950-1953 •Cuban Missile Crisis •Vietnam War, 1964-1975 •Détente, 1963-1979 •Fall of Berlin Wall, 1989 •Collapse of communism
  5. 5. Human Rights Violations Ukraine South Africa Rwanda •Stalin implements Five Year Plan and collective farms  •Kulaks (wealthy, industrialized farmers) in Ukraine protest  •Forced famine •The state sets high quotas a takes food grown •Imperialism = white control of South Africa •Apartheid in South Africa (separation of the races)  blacks can’t vote, public facilities separated •Nelson Mandela, Desmond Tutu use civil disobedience to end it •Berlin Conference (1884) causes ethnic conflict  •Hutu extremists attack Tutsi minorities  •1 million dead in 100 days  •UN involvement •Mass migration from Rwanda
  6. 6. Human Rights Violations Cambodia Myanmar Sudan •American forces leave Vietnam  •Communist rebels in the Khmer Rouge under Pol Pot come to power •Slaughtered over one million Cambodians to rid Cambodia of Western influence •Fighting continued until the 1990s •Repressive military takes over when British leave  •Struggles with poverty and ethnic tensions •Aung San Suu Kyi has led a democratic movement against military rule •Won recent elections under international pressure •Arab Muslims (janjaweed) attacking Black Muslims in Darfur (South Sudan)  • Refugee crisis as people flee Darfur •Sudan rich in oil = no U.N. intervention •Country now divided into N & S, still violence today
  7. 7. Modern Crisis in the Middle East Secular vs. Traditional Palestine/ Israel The 21st Century •Islamic Fundamentalism (struggle between Western/ Technology ideas and traditional Islam •Examples: Iranian Revolution with rise of Ayatollah Khomeini •Taliban in Afghanistan •Anti-semitism throughout world  •Created Israel in 1947 as homeland to Jews  •Desire for homeland = Jewish and Arab nationalism •Extremists preventing peace process from both sides •2 state solution? •9/11 attacks led to increase US presence in Middle East (Iraq and Afghanistan) •Led to women’s rights but more anti- West sentiments