Chapter 24 - Imperialism


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AP World - Imperialism

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Chapter 24 - Imperialism

  1. 1. Imperialism 1800-1914
  2. 2. A Western Dominated WorldNew Imperialism and ItsCauses– Domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region.– Economic interests Raw materials/ natural resources(petroleum, rubber, manganese for steel, palm oil for machinery, dyes, cotton, hemp) Need market to sell factory goods
  3. 3. Political and military interests– Rise of nationalism – “we’re SO better than YOU” – land = prestigeHumanitarian Goals– Westerners feel concern for “little bros” beyond the seas– Missionaries, doctors, colonial officials, etc, obliged to spread blessings of Western civilization; including medicine, law, and Christian religionSocial Darwinism– Racial superiority; European races are superior; imperial conquest and destruction of weaker races were nature’s way of improving the human species
  4. 4. Initially Europeans had limited interest incontrolling regions (very expensive)Communication realities preventedcentralized control (had to rely on localadmin)
  5. 5. Dutch = PrototypeDutch paid tribute to Mataram sultans– Dutch East India Company worked within the systemLater backed Mataram sultans inintertribal conflicts– Every time the Dutch helped they demanded more land Dutch backing was needed due to their organization, weapons, etc By the 1750s they had given everything up
  6. 6. The Success of Western ImperialismDuring 1870-1914 Imperialistsgained much more control overthe worldReasons for Western Success– Weakness of Nonwestern States Ottoman, Mughal, and Qing empires were declining Slave trade was draining Africa– Western Advantages Strong economics, well organized gvts, pwrful armies and navies, improved medical knowledge, military technology
  7. 7. Resistance– Asians and Africans often resisted domination and fought backCriticism at Home– Imperialism immoral?– Imperialism hypocritical? Democracy v. imposition of power
  8. 8. Forms of Imperial RuleColonies– France – use direct rule Sends officials and soldiers from France to administer Goal? Impose French culture on colonies and then into French provinces– Britain – use indirect rule Use sultans, chiefs/local rulers, etc Encourage children of Western rulers to get education in Britain (to groom a new Westernized generation of leaders)
  9. 9. Protectorates– Local rulers were left in place, but were expected to follow the advice of European advisers (Puppet and satellite relationship)Spheres of Influence– Outside power claims exclusive investment/trading privileges with an area (US claims Latin Am.)
  10. 10. New Economic Patterns – Global EconomyMoney Economy– Barter system replaced by money economyEconomic Dependency (depend on industrialnations products)– Could be considered economic subjugationModernization– Modern banking system– Transportation and communication networks Railroads! Canals! Telegraph!
  11. 11. Cultural ImpactWesternization – gvt, ideas, technology, andculture– Resented or embraced?Schools and Hospitals –– Built by missionaries– Taught literacy– Introduced vaccines and hygieneReligion– Missionaries and Christian faithImpact on Western Culture– New foods, art, architecture, sculptors, etc
  12. 12. Political EffectsWorld WarsEarly 1900’s – Africa and Asia – Westerneducated elites begin organizingnationalist movements to end colonial ruleCompetition between industrialnations=extra tension
  13. 13. Your TaskRegion Foreign Resources Key figures/ Long term Nation key events effectsIndiaSouth AfricaCongoNew ZealandHawaii
  14. 14. Scramble for AfricaBerlin Conference – 1884 – Called by Portugal – Organized by Bismark – Formalizes the “Scramble for Africa” US was invited but did not participate European powers recognize that – Congo=Leopold’s – Niger River and Congo River = open for ships to traverse – International prohibition of the slave trade is signed – Did not officially “carve up” Africa…but did determine what land was currently in the hands of Africans and was thus, fair game… – European powers only held a colony if They had treaties with local leaders Their flags flew there They established an admin there
  15. 15. IndiaNawabs – Mughal empire’s Muslim princes – regional rulers…oftenmade independent agreements with the British, Dutch, and FrenchSepoys – hired and trained Indian troops1763 – Seven Years War Ends1818 – British Raj (reign) begins (hold the majority of India)Sepoy Rebellion – 1857 – Stage a mutiny, proclaim allegiance to the Mughals, elites and peasants join in… – British send in forces to “contain the trouble” – By 1858 – direct imperial rule is imposed
  16. 16. British Imperial Rule in IndiaMadras, Bombay, Calcutta – Admin centers – Local leaders of princely states had to report to British adminsReasons for British takeover – Muslims/Hindus don’t unite under national identity – Some Indians liked fighting for British Received uniforms, weapons, pay, 5 to 1 Indians serving the British to the actual # of British soldiersIndia has lots of raw materials, large populationSocial Reforms
  17. 17. South AfricaDutch colony – halfway to India post 1652Boers (farmers) started moving inland– Descendents of the Dutch speaking settlers– Subjugated local Khoikhoi peoples; miscegenation ensued creating a “colored” populationBritish take over in the 1800s– Boers had not benefited from the Scientific, Industrial, or Urban revolutions– Had slavesBoers move even further inland…
  18. 18. Boer WarCome into contact with established Bantus – the Zulus and XhosaBritish forced at times to come in on the side of the BoersBoers try to create the Boer Republics in the 1850s – Orange Free State and Transvaal – Diamonds were discovered in 1867. Uhoh. Cecil Rhodes moves in and founds De Beers Consolidated– Boers win first war in 1871– Gold discovered in 1885– Boer War from 1899-1902– British win, but feel bad about treating Boers horribly, tend to allow then to rule themselves– 1910 – Union of South Africa is founded, generally led by Afrikaners
  19. 19. The CongoHeart of DarknessKing Leopold II
  20. 20. New ZealandPoor Maoris
  21. 21. HawaiiClaimed by British in 1843US in 1898Originally Discovered by Captain JamesCookPopulation declines by halfTurned to commercial cropsAmerican planters/naval base encouragethe US to annex
  22. 22. Suez Canal – 1869Panama Canal – 1904-1914