Chapter 14 - The Mongols


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AP World
Unit III

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Chapter 14 - The Mongols

  1. 1. Chapter 14The Last Great Nomadic Challenges From Chinggis Khan to Timur
  2. 2.  A young leader unites the nomadic Mongols of central Asia Overrun lands from China to Eastern Europe – dubs himself “Genghis Khan” – “world emperor”
  3. 3.  Take over N. China, central Asia, and eastern Persia Genghis Khan’s sons and grandson’s will help conquer the rest of China, Tibet, Persia, Iraq, Southern Russia, and most of Asia Minor Divide conquered land up into 4 khanates (kingdoms)
  4. 4.
  5. 5.  Could cover 90 miles on horseback per day (the “amazing” Roman military could travel 25) Bows launched arrows 400 yards (English longbow limit 250yds) Scouts checked out next attack point before full scale attack Ruthless – submit or die Villages that resisted were destroyed completely
  6. 6. Ghenggis Khan attacking Syria and Palestine
  7. 7. Genghis Khan and his Mongolian Buddies… fun facts, rumors, interesting bits Goal not to loot, but to destroy Upon capturing Baghdad in 1258, the last caliph and his sons were trampled to death – A fate reserved for rulers, goal? demoralize European rumor mill – Mongolians looked like monkeys, barked like dogs, ate raw flesh, drank horse urine, knew no laws, showed no mercy Water = weakness; could conquer through mountains, rice paddies, rivers, etc, but not seas/oceans (Java or Japan)
  8. 8. Russia according to the Russians
  9. 9. Reasons for Mongol Military Success Fernandez-Armesto, "The World, A History" p. 418
  10. 10. Impact Varied Pax Mongolica – after the initial shock of the attacks, a peace comparable to the Roman empire, is established. – Communication from E Asia and W Europe – **At the end of Pax Mongolica the Silk Road is over. Il-Khans - Persia – Mongols assimilated and became Muslim – Poor caliph – Il-Khans became protectors and advocates of Islam, all Mongols within the Khanate are ordered to convert – Timur/Tamerlane (from Jagadai) breaks the peace, attacks from India to Russia  Timur = Turkish  Osman (one of his guys) becomes the founder of the Ottoman Turks
  11. 11. Impact Varied Khanate of the Golden Horde – Russia - Batu - largely illiterate clan – cut off Russia’s contact with the West, lasts 240+ years – Meet great resistance, ruthless results “no eye remained to weep for the dead” – Kiev falls, Novgorod hangs on by a thread – Perks? Russia benefits from trade; Protected from Teutonic Knights who wanted to attack Orthodoxy and spread Catholicism – Downsides? Miss the Renaissance Khanate of Jagadai - India – Timur Lang (Tamerlane) (Turk, in-law of the Mongols) – destroyed just about everything in sight – destroys the sultanate – occupation doesn’t last as long – sultanate restores fairly quickly and Islam continues to grow in India under the Mogul Empire as Hindus cling to their beliefs
  12. 12. Impact Varied Khanate of the Great Khan - China – Khublai Khan – Known as the Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368 – dismissed Confucian scholars; many had deep Buddhist beliefs – forbade marriage between Mongols and Chinese – inhibited Chinese from learning Mongol language (which didn’t exist until GK) – Chinese maintain their own identity  never take Vietnam or Japan – Japan is saved by typhoon winds “kamikaze” – divine wind – Rebellion – poor rebellion Ju Yanzhang founds
  13. 13. Keep in Mind Anti-Mongolian Writing is written by literate urbanites
  14. 14. Mongolian Superlatives Where was it least oppressive? Where did it create and establish an era of peace? Where was it most harmful for the society politically and culturally?