Rise of the Soviet Union: Period 6

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Rise of the Soviet Union: Period 6

  1. 1. Period 6: 1900-Present
  2. 2. REASONS FOR REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA Czar’s government used fear and terror Weak Leadership of Czar Nicholas II Russia was an autocracy! The Czar had complete power Huge difference between social classes (4/5 of population were peasants) Czar’s wife under influence of Rasputin Agitation from intelligentsia, socialists, communists And anarchists Defeat in Russo-Japanese War (1905) Czar kept dismissing the Duma Bloody Sunday Massacre (1905) Russia’s Involvement in World War I 1. Defeated by German army – many Russians captured or killed 2. Russian army had outdated and limited weapons 3. Railway network was poor – limited transport of food and supplies 4. Czar took command of army – He was directly to blame!
  3. 3. Challenges to the Czar
  4. 4. The Rise of a Leader
  5. 5. The Rise of an Ideology
  6. 6. The Decay of a Dynasty
  7. 7. The March Revolution (Provisional Government)
  8. 8. The Return of Lenin
  9. 9. The November Revolution (Bolshevik)
  10. 10. The Civil War (Reds vs Whites)
  11. 11. The New Economic Policy
  12. 12. Film Clip The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
  13. 13. What part of the story is this painting depicting?
  14. 14. Soviet Empire and Socialist RealismSoviet Empire and Socialist Realism Do Now:Do Now: Why would communist leaders want art that looked realistic instead of abstract?
  15. 15. Vladimir LeninVladimir Lenin
  16. 16. Death of Lenin: 1924Death of Lenin: 1924 • Lenin suffered from a series of strokes in 1922- 1923 • He was unable to walk or speak and eventually died in 1924 • Lenin suffered from a series of strokes in 1922- 1923 • He was unable to walk or speak and eventually died in 1924 Lenin’s death set off a fearsome power struggle between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky with terrible consequences for the Russian people…. Lenin’s death set off a fearsome power struggle between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky with terrible consequences for the Russian people….
  17. 17. • Prominent member of the Politburo • Named Secretary of the communist party and built up political alliances • Ruthless and power-hungry • Prominent member of the Politburo • Named Secretary of the communist party and built up political alliances • Ruthless and power-hungry StalinStalin TrotskyTrotsky • Part of military organization • Led the Red army to fight the White army during the Civil War. • Great speaker and intellectual who wanted a world-wide communist revolution • Part of military organization • Led the Red army to fight the White army during the Civil War. • Great speaker and intellectual who wanted a world-wide communist revolution Killed in 1940!Killed in 1940!Stalin schemed his way into power, using a series of ruthless political moves Stalin schemed his way into power, using a series of ruthless political moves “I am not sure that Comrade Stalin will always use his power properly. Comrade Trotsky, on the other hand, is distinguished by his outstanding ability.” Lenin’s Will (1923). “I am not sure that Comrade Stalin will always use his power properly. Comrade Trotsky, on the other hand, is distinguished by his outstanding ability.” Lenin’s Will (1923).
  18. 18. • Lenin set down the brutal rules for the Soviet System. • Stalin built that system into a global power • Lenin set down the brutal rules for the Soviet System. • Stalin built that system into a global power • Lenin was willing to share power & tolerate some debate inside the Party. • Stalin insisted on absolute obedience and all the power. • Lenin was willing to share power & tolerate some debate inside the Party. • Stalin insisted on absolute obedience and all the power. • Lenin took great risks to spread Communist Revolution. • Stalin wanted security and power for the Soviet Union even if it harmed the chances for Communist revolution elsewhere. • Lenin took great risks to spread Communist Revolution. • Stalin wanted security and power for the Soviet Union even if it harmed the chances for Communist revolution elsewhere.
  19. 19. Glorification of StalinGlorification of Stalin Religious PersecutionReligious Persecution Five-Year PlansFive-Year Plans CollectivizationCollectivization Reign of TerrorReign of Terror Control of Cultural LifeControl of Cultural Life Examine images of Stalin and categorize them into one of these 6 groups!
  20. 20. The Glorification of Stalin Stalin developed what became known as a "personality cult". Artists painted pictures glorifying Stalin and His accomplishments.
  21. 21. The Glorification of Stalin He gained the nickname "Uncle Joe" which was an attempt to develop an image of a kind, homely man who was the ‘father’ of all Russians.
  22. 22. Leader Stalin with scouts
  23. 23. • Stalin's control over Russia meant that freedom was the one thing that people lost. • The people of Russia had to read, listen to, see and learn only what the state allowed. • The state’s control of the media was total. State-Controlled MediaState-Controlled Media
  24. 24. This was all called "Social Realism". Those who wrote poems and novels had to glorify Stalin. Some artists and authors were so depressed by all this that they committed suicide rather than do what the state ordered them to do. Many others tried to leave the country. "Stalin as an Organizer of the October Revolution" by Karp Trokhimenko Socialist Realism Art
  25. 25. • Those who attempted to listen to or read anything else were severely punished and sent to labor camps.
  26. 26. According to these images, what do you think is a major goal that Stalin wants to achieve? According to these images, what do you think is a major goal that Stalin wants to achieve? Read Document and answer question
  27. 27. •Stalin ended Lenin’s NEP, which allowed some capitalism •Agriculture was collectivized, and large scale forced labor enforced upon peasants. •Plan was to increase crop production and use profits for State industry CollectivizationCollectivization
  28. 28. Celebration on a collective farm
  29. 29. •As a result of their opposition, several million peasants met death by an engineered famine and genocide. •As a result of their opposition, several million peasants met death by an engineered famine and genocide. Ukrainian Famine Film ClipFilm Clip
  30. 30. Success of Collectivization
  31. 31. They are writing about us in Pravda
  32. 32. Do Now: 1. Get into groups of 4 2. Exchange Storybooks 3. Read and Critique Storybooks using worksheet. 4. Be honest, but also be kind! 1. Get into groups of 4 2. Exchange Storybooks 3. Read and Critique Storybooks using worksheet. 4. Be honest, but also be kind!
  33. 33. Industrialization •Stalin started the rapid development of economy with Five-Year Plans, first of which were launched in 1927. •All the resources were commanded by state to ensure rapid industrialization. •Heavy investment was done in industry, at the cost of agriculture and consumer goods. •Stalin started the rapid development of economy with Five-Year Plans, first of which were launched in 1927. •All the resources were commanded by state to ensure rapid industrialization. •Heavy investment was done in industry, at the cost of agriculture and consumer goods.
  34. 34. Alexey Stakhanov – Hero of Socialism
  35. 35. “Planner’s Preferences” not “Consumer’s Preferences” Command Economy
  36. 36. A Russian Family with Stalin. A Russian Family with Stalin. Cultural Life How does Stalin use Socialist Realist Art and Propaganda to control people? How does Stalin use Socialist Realist Art and Propaganda to control people?
  37. 37. 'Thanks to the Party, Thanks to Dear Stalin for a Happy, Joyful Childhood' How does Stalin use Socialist Realist Art and Propaganda to control people? How does Stalin use Socialist Realist Art and Propaganda to control people?
  38. 38. Female Athletes
  39. 39. Education
  40. 40. Education
  41. 41. Communist Values
  42. 42. • The Great Purges – 1934 and 1939. • Stalin put on ‘show trials’, where the accused pleaded guilty to impossible charges of treason. • During Stalin's rule of the country over 20 million people were sent to labor camps, where nearly half of them died. • The Great Purges – 1934 and 1939. • Stalin put on ‘show trials’, where the accused pleaded guilty to impossible charges of treason. • During Stalin's rule of the country over 20 million people were sent to labor camps, where nearly half of them died. Reign of Terror
  43. 43. Doctored Photos
  44. 44. Doctored Photos
  45. 45. Doctored Photos
  46. 46. Why the hell would anyone make those works on their own? We were ordered. If you didn’t agree to do it, they would either kill you or send you to Siberia. Naturally the entire culture was declared as a tool for propaganda. If you wanted to do something for yourself, art for yourself, you had to also give a tribute to the ideology.” - Lithuanian artist Why the hell would anyone make those works on their own? We were ordered. If you didn’t agree to do it, they would either kill you or send you to Siberia. Naturally the entire culture was declared as a tool for propaganda. If you wanted to do something for yourself, art for yourself, you had to also give a tribute to the ideology.” - Lithuanian artist Social-Realism “Social on the inside and realistic on the outside,” the most effective style for controlling the public.
  47. 47. Western Art Comparison
  48. 48. Comparison
  49. 49. Comparison
  50. 50. In turn, artists complied with State demands and produced in a naturalist, academic style. They wouldn't dare to even dream of abstract art. In turn, artists complied with State demands and produced in a naturalist, academic style. They wouldn't dare to even dream of abstract art. “Ideas are more powerful than guns. We would not let our enemies have guns, why should we let them have ideas.”
  51. 51. Marcel Duchamp - Cubism Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 1912
  52. 52. Marcel Duchamp Fountain
  53. 53. Salvador Dali Persistence of Memory
  54. 54. Salvador Dali Surrealism
  55. 55. Salvador Dali
  56. 56. Andy Warhol – Pop Art
  57. 57. Andy Warhol
  58. 58. Jackson Pollack, 1950
  59. 59. Socialist Realism Abstract Art

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