Chapter 7 s and se asia, crusades - revised

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Stearns Ch 7

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Chapter 7 s and se asia, crusades - revised

  1. 1. Chapter 7: Abbasid Decline andthe Spread of Islamic Civilization to South and Southeast Asia
  2. 2. Harun al-Rashid • Shi’a revolts and assassination attempts begin with the third caliph (al-Mahdi) • Eldest son poisoned • Harun al-Rashid ascends to the throne • Contact with Charlemagne’s emissaries and Christianshttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/Wilayah_Abbasiyyah_semasa_khalifah_Harun_al-Rashid.jpg – Presents of an elephant and an intricate water clockBronze Chess Piece of the – Christians are dazzled byCaliph Harun al-Rashid - BaghdadAM.0098 • The Thousand and One NightsOrigin: Central Asia – Set in BaghdadCirca: 780 AD to 850 AD – Stories reveal sources ofDimensions: 3.4" (8.6cm) dynastic weaknesshigh • Relied on Persian advisorsCollection: Near EasternMedium: Bronze http://miniaturesinancientart.com/BronzeChessPieceCaliphHarunalRashidAM0098.html
  3. 3. A painting made byJulius Köckert of Harun al-Rashid receiving the delegation of the leader of the Franks Charlemagne.http://www.muslims.eu/The_Islamic_Golden_Age.html
  4. 4. • Harun al-Rashid dies, civil war breaks out• Ma’mun becomes the caliph (813-833) – His sons anticipate the civil war that would erupt when their dad dies • Work on creating personal armies – When the son wins the next round • Recruits body guards to maintain his status – 4000 Turkish speaking slaves (had been nomads) – Once caliph, has mercenary force of over 70,000
  5. 5. Slave mercenaries• 846 slave mercenaries murder the reigning caliph – Decade of four caliph assassinations and poisonings• From this time onward leaders of the slave mercenary armies were often the real power behind the Abbasid throne – Also a major source of unrest
  6. 6. Not Good.• Taxation steadily increases• Food riots• Pillaging, disarray, rebellion, etc.• Irrigation works of the Tigris-Euphrates falling apart• Flood, famine,
  7. 7. The harem and veil• Harem – tradition emerges during Abbasid era – Wives and concubines in Abb. Court were restricted to forbidden quarters of the imperial palace – Concubines could earn freedom by bearing healthy sons• Veil• Lower class women farmed, wove clothes or rugs, raised silkworms• Rich women were not allowed careers• Slave women often have more freedom – can go to the market, don’t have to wear the veil and robes• Marriage at puberty – legal set age: 9 – Devote lives to running the household and serving the husband• Women’s freedom? Constrained.
  8. 8. Slaves, Concubines, and Eunuchs• Female and male slaves existed by the tens of thousands in Baghdad• 11,000 eunuchs• 4,000 concubines…• Slaves were captured or purchased from Balkans, central Asia, and Sudanic Africa (non-Muslim areas)• Sold in slave markets – beauty and intelligence
  9. 9. Buyids• 945• Buyids of Persia – army that invades Abbasid Empire – capture Baghdad – appoint themselves sultan (“victorious”) – Control the caliph and the court
  10. 10. Seljuk Turks• 1055• Nomadic invaders from central Asia enter through Persia• About 200 yrs• Turkish military leaders rule Abbasid Empire in the name of caliphs (usually Persian or Arab) http://www.generationaldynamics.com/ww2010/seljuk.jpg• Staunch Sunnis, purge the Shi’a officials• Begin harassing the Byzantines http://library.thinkquest.org/29369/Scholio/Turk. gif
  11. 11. • Christian crusaders (knights from W. The Europe) determined to capture the Holy Land launch a surprise attack between Crusades • 1096-1099 Very successful, capture and divide up much of the land into Christian kingdoms • Jerusalem is taken – Muslim and Jewish inhabitants are massacredhttp://www.history.org.uk/resources/primary_guide_1140,1162_53.html
  12. 12. Eight Crusades• Success of each Crusade widely varies• 12th century• Muslims, led by Salah-uh-Din rapidly reconquered most of the crusader outposts• Saladin• Salah-uh-Din
  13. 13. Impact of Crusades• Far greater impact on Christians because they launched the Crusades (Muslims were just defending themselves)• Difficult to determine which aspects of cultural diffusion that occurred between the Muslims and Europe as a result of the Crusades, because they were interacting for so many different reasons and in many different ways (trade!) – Muslim weapons (really cool damascene swords) – Muslim techniques for fortifications (castes build in the 11th and 12th centuries around William the Conqueror reflect this) – Muslim records of classical learning were found – Arabic numerals (originally from the Indians) – Oriental rugs and tapestries – Cloth (taffeta, muslin, damask, fustian) – Persian and Arabic words – The game of chess (from India) – Some of the troubadours songs – Muslims take little from the Europeans
  14. 14. Things the Muslims impart on others• Windmills and water pumps• Muslim science, law and philosophy• Islamic art and architecture
  15. 15. • Art• Persian Literature – Persian slowly replaces Arabic in the court, becomes the chief language of high culture – Epic poem of the history of Persia from the beginnings of time to the Islamic conquests with details of battles, intrigues, and illicit love affairs “Shah-Nama” – Everyday life• Sciences – Sine, cosine, tangent – Animal, vegetable, mineral – Muslim traders bring papermaking from China
  16. 16. Attacks• Mongols 1220s, 1250s – Chinggis Khan – 1258 Baghdad is captured and sacked by the Mongols – 37th and last Abbasid caliph put to death• Mamluks – Turkish rulers of Egypt who stop the invasion• Baghdad never recovers, especially after 1401’s Tamerlane attacks
  17. 17. Onto South Asia• India continually infiltrated by migrant groups and aggressors• Muslims are the first group of people who bring in their own sophisticated civilization
  18. 18. Dhows• Great for speed, dexterity, and exploration• Poor for warfare – too small to hold cannons or lots of soldiers
  19. 19. Dar-al-Islam• “Abode of Islam”• Exists after the empire crumbles• Term used to refer to all areas of the Muslim peoples
  20. 20. Delhi Sultanate• After the Gupta empire, India was fragmented into local kingdoms with rival princes vying for control• Hindu and Buddhist rulers spent huge sums building and decorating magnificent temples• Trade continued to link to the ME, SE Asia, and China• Arabs conquer the Indus Valley in 711• ~1000 CE Muslim Turks and Afghans push into India, by 1100 they stop pillaging and fooling around and settle down a bit• Sultan of Ghur defeated Hindu armies in the N and made Delhi his capital, successors organized a sultanate (land ruled by sultan)• Delhi Sultanate 1206-1526 – marked the start of Muslim rule in N. India
  21. 21. • Muslims used archers against the war elephants• Hindu princes wasted resources battling each other instead of uniting against a common enemy
  22. 22. Muslim Rule• Sultans introduce Muslim traditions of government• Turks Persians and Arabs migrate to India to serve as soldiers and officials• Trade b/n India and Muslim world increases• During Mongol raids many scholars fled from Baghdad to Delhi, bringing Persian art and architecture
  23. 23. Muslims and Hindus• Muslims conquest of N. India = disaster for Hindus and Buddhists• Destroyed many Buddhist monasteries – Contributed to decline of Buddhism as a major religion in India• Violently attack Hindus• Some convert to escape death• Hinduism – ancient religion that evolved for thousands of years, many sacred texts, prayers before statues representing many gods and goddesses• Islam – new faith, single sacred text, devout monotheists, -- statues of gods are offensive to the one true God.• Hindus – accepted caste status, honored Brahmans as a priestly castes• Muslims – equality of all believers before God and no religious hierarchy• Hindus – celebrate religious occasions with music and dance• Muslims – strictly condemn this practice
  24. 24. Improvements• Dehli sultans slowly grow more tolerant of their subject population• Some Muslim scholars acknowledge that behind the many Hindu gods and goddesses there was a single god and accepted Hinduism as a monotheistic religion• Hindus remain second-class citizens, but as long as they pay a non-Muslim tax they can practice their own religion• Some sultans even leave Hindu rajahs in place• Many Hindus convert to Islam – Some lower-caste Hindus prefer Islam because it rejected the caste system – Some convert to be able to serve in the Muslim government• Indian merchants were attracted to Islam because of the strong trade network across Muslim lands
  25. 25. Blending of Cultures• Indian Muslims absorb elements of Hindu culture – Marriage customs – Caste ideas• Urdu – a language of Persian, Arabic, and Hindi emerges• Persian and Indian art blends• Indian music and dance brought into the sultans courts
  26. 26. Islam also spread through Southeast Asia
  27. 27. • Islam spread onward to Sumatra and Malaya and Borneo• SE Asian products began to be exported to China, India, and the Mediterranean – Aromatic woods from the rainforests of Borneo and Sumatra – Spices – cloves, nutmeg and mace
  28. 28. • Shrivijaya – far reaching trading empire between Malay and Sumatra – When Shrivijaya empire is in place there are few converts to Islam • Shrivijaya officials were devout Buddhists, • but after their decline, Muslims gain influence – Trading contacts pave the way for conversion – Islam spreads gradually – all the way to the Philippines http://misterdeejay.net/indonesia/colonialism/before/Eempire.jpg – Java – slow progress, strong Hindu-Buddhist leadership • But H-B had sometimes been limited to upper class, so Islam is well received – Bali is one of the only regions that remains relatively impervious (extremely Hindu) – Muslim converts blend many of their cultural traditions in with their
  29. 29. • Islamic world served as an avenue for the exchange of ideas, plants and medicines, commercial goods, and inventions both between centers of urban and agrarian life• Muslim Merchants continually influenced the people they came in contact with along their vast trade network and continually gathered and shared more ideas

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