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Chinese Mao 2015


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Chinese Mao 2015

  1. 1. Chinese CommunistChinese Communist RevolutionRevolution
  2. 2. Two ChinasTwo Chinas
  3. 3. Map of China and TaiwanMap of China and Taiwan
  4. 4.  China is the most populous nation in the world.China is the most populous nation in the world.  There are technically 2 Chinas:There are technically 2 Chinas: • TheThe People’s Republic of ChinaPeople’s Republic of China-a-a communist statecommunist state onon the Asian mainland.the Asian mainland. • TaiwanTaiwan, aka the, aka the Republic of ChinaRepublic of China-is a small island-is a small island that today is one of the Asian Tigers. It has athat today is one of the Asian Tigers. It has a non-non- communist governmentcommunist government..
  5. 5.  The People’s Republic of China still considersThe People’s Republic of China still considers TaiwanTaiwan aa part of Chinapart of China proper.proper.  Efforts to re-unite the 2 Chinas have sometimesEfforts to re-unite the 2 Chinas have sometimes led toled to tensiontension because Taiwan values itsbecause Taiwan values its independence.independence.
  6. 6. CommunistCommunist Rise To PowerRise To Power 1936-19491936-1949
  7. 7.  Mao ZedongMao Zedong emerged as theemerged as the leader of theleader of the CommunistsCommunists in the the 1930s.  Along with 100,000 of his followers, Mao fledAlong with 100,000 of his followers, Mao fled thethe anti-communist Nationalist Partyanti-communist Nationalist Party, forces in, forces in 1934 in a retreat known as the1934 in a retreat known as the Long MarchLong March..
  8. 8.  Mao set up a base camp in northern China withMao set up a base camp in northern China with about 20,000 survivors of the march.about 20,000 survivors of the march.  In the years that followed, theIn the years that followed, the CommunistsCommunists, the, the GuomindangGuomindang, and, and JapaneseJapanese invadersinvaders battled forbattled for control of Chinacontrol of China..
  9. 9.  After World War II, China’s civil war continued.After World War II, China’s civil war continued.  Finally, in 1949,Finally, in 1949, Mao’s Communists wereMao’s Communists were victoriousvictorious in defeating the Guomindang defeating the Guomindang forces.  The followers ofThe followers of the Nationalist Party fled tothe Nationalist Party fled to the island of Taiwanthe island of Taiwan..
  10. 10. Communism UnderCommunism Under Mao ZedongMao Zedong
  11. 11.  TheThe Communists set up theCommunists set up the People’s Republic of ChinaPeople’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949.(PRC) in 1949.  They wanted toThey wanted to transformtransform China from anChina from an agriculturalagricultural societysociety into ainto a modernmodern industrial nationindustrial nation..  Under communism, literacyUnder communism, literacy increased, old landlord andincreased, old landlord and business classes werebusiness classes were eliminated, and ruraleliminated, and rural Chinese were provided withChinese were provided with health care.
  12. 12.  However,However, MaoMao set up aset up a one-party dictatorshipone-party dictatorship thatthat denied people basic rights and freedomsdenied people basic rights and freedoms..
  13. 13. The Great LeapThe Great Leap ForwardForward
  14. 14.  In 1958,In 1958, MaoMao launched alaunched a programprogram called thecalled the Great LeapGreat Leap ForwardForward..  He called on theHe called on the people of China topeople of China to increase agriculturalincrease agricultural and industrial outputand industrial output..  To make farms moreTo make farms more productive, heproductive, he createdcreated communescommunes,, groups of people whogroups of people who live and worklive and work togethertogether..
  15. 15.  TheThe Great LeapGreat Leap ForwardForward ultimatelyultimately failedfailed..  Commune-basedCommune-based industries turned outindustries turned out poorly made goods.poorly made goods.  At the same time,At the same time, agricultural outputagricultural output declineddeclined..  Bad weather added toBad weather added to the downturn, creatingthe downturn, creating widespread famine.widespread famine.
  16. 16. The CulturalThe Cultural RevolutionRevolution && The Red GuardThe Red Guard
  17. 17.  In 1966,In 1966, MaoMao launched thelaunched the Cultural RevolutionCultural Revolution toto renew people’s loyalty to communism andrenew people’s loyalty to communism and establish a more equitable societyestablish a more equitable society..  Mao fearedMao feared thatthat revolutionary peasants andrevolutionary peasants and workersworkers were beingwere being replacedreplaced byby intellectualsintellectuals inin running the country.running the country.
  18. 18. A Red GuardA Red Guard
  19. 19. Red Guards March toRed Guards March to CantonCanton
  20. 20.  HeHe shut down schoolsshut down schools andand universitiesuniversities throughoutthroughout China and urged Chinese students to experienceChina and urged Chinese students to experience the revolution for themselves.the revolution for themselves.  Students formed groups of fightersStudents formed groups of fighters called thecalled the Red GuardsRed Guards..  TheyThey attacked professorsattacked professors,, government officialsgovernment officials,, andand factory managersfactory managers, many of whom were, many of whom were exiled or executed.exiled or executed.
  21. 21. The reddest, reddest, red sun in our heart,The reddest, reddest, red sun in our heart, Chairman Mao, and us togetherChairman Mao, and us together Zhejiang Workers, Farmers and Soldiers ArtZhejiang Workers, Farmers and Soldiers Art Academy collective, 1968Academy collective, 1968 Mao’s Little Red Book
  22. 22. Propaganda PosterPropaganda Poster
  23. 23. Go among the workers, peasants andGo among the workers, peasants and soldiers, and into the thick of struggle!soldiers, and into the thick of struggle! 1967-19721967-1972
  24. 24. Propaganda PosterPropaganda Poster
  25. 25. Propaganda PosterPropaganda Poster
  26. 26. Propaganda PosterPropaganda Poster
  27. 27. United States RecognitionUnited States Recognition ofof Communist ChinaCommunist China
  28. 28.  Due to theDue to the fears offears of communismcommunism during the earlyduring the early stages of thestages of the Cold WarCold War,, thethe United States refusedUnited States refused to recognize the People’sto recognize the People’s Republic of ChinaRepublic of China..  By the 1970s, however,By the 1970s, however, this situation was changing.this situation was changing.  China won admission into theChina won admission into the United NationsUnited Nations in 1971 andin 1971 and President Richard NixonPresident Richard Nixon visited Mao Zedongvisited Mao Zedong inin Beijing in 1972.Beijing in 1972.
  29. 29.  Finally, in 1979,Finally, in 1979, the United States officiallythe United States officially recognized the People’s Republic of Chinarecognized the People’s Republic of China..
  30. 30. Communism UnderCommunism Under Deng XiaopingDeng Xiaoping
  31. 31.  In 1976, Mao Zedong died andIn 1976, Mao Zedong died and Deng XiapongDeng Xiapong took controltook control..  His leadership would bringHis leadership would bring more economicmore economic freedomfreedom butbut little political changelittle political change..
  32. 32. Economic Reforms:Economic Reforms: The Four ModernizationsThe Four Modernizations
  33. 33.  To make China a moreTo make China a more modern countrymodern country,, DengDeng promoted foreign tradepromoted foreign trade and moreand more contact withcontact with western nationswestern nations..  He also introduced theHe also introduced the Four ModernizationsFour Modernizations..  These were concentrated into four areas:These were concentrated into four areas: 1.1. FarmingFarming-methods were modernized and mechanized-methods were modernized and mechanized 2.2. IndustryIndustry-was upgraded and expanded-was upgraded and expanded 3.3. ScienceandTechnologyScienceandTechnology-were promoted and developed-were promoted and developed 4.4. DefenseDefense-systems and military forces were improved-systems and military forces were improved
  34. 34. Limited PrivatizationLimited Privatization  DengDeng eliminatedeliminated Mao’sMao’s unpopularunpopular communescommunes..  He allowedHe allowed land to beland to be leasedleased to individualto individual  This systemThis system increasedincreased agricultural outputagricultural output..  The government alsoThe government also allowed some privateallowed some private businesses to producebusinesses to produce goods and offer services.goods and offer services.
  35. 35. Foreign InvestmentForeign Investment  Deng alsoDeng also welcomedwelcomed foreign technologyforeign technology and capitaland capital..  The government setThe government set up specialup special enterprise zonesenterprise zones where foreignerswhere foreigners could own andcould own and operate businesses.operate businesses.
  36. 36. Results of Economic ReformsResults of Economic Reforms  Deng’s policiesDeng’s policies had bothhad both positivepositive andand negativenegative resultsresults..  TheThe economy greweconomy grew, and, and some Chinesesome Chinese enjoyed aenjoyed a better standard of livingbetter standard of living..  Foreign relationsForeign relations andand trade improvedtrade improved..  CrimeCrime andand corruption grewcorruption grew, however, and the gap, however, and the gap between rich and poor widened.between rich and poor widened.
  37. 37. Deng Xiaoping (1905-Deng Xiaoping (1905- 1997)1997)
  38. 38. De-MaoizationDe-Maoization ► Agriculture ► Industry ► Science ► Defense ““The 4 Modernizations”The 4 Modernizations” Progress in:Progress in: Class struggle was no longer the central focus!
  39. 39. Gap Between Rich & PoorGap Between Rich & Poor Deng: If you open a window, some flies naturally get in!
  40. 40. Tiananmen SquareTiananmen Square
  41. 41.  The government wasThe government was willing to grant economicwilling to grant economic reforms but not politicalreforms but not political ones.ones.  In May 1989,In May 1989, demonstratorsdemonstrators in Beijingin Beijing occupiedoccupied TiananmenTiananmen SquareSquare, demanding, demanding moremore rights and freedomsrights and freedoms..  When they refused toWhen they refused to disperse as ordered,disperse as ordered, thethe government sent ingovernment sent in troops and tankstroops and tanks..
  42. 42.  Thousands of Chinese wereThousands of Chinese were killedkilled oror woundedwounded..  The incident showed how important it was forThe incident showed how important it was for China’s communist leaders to maintain controlChina’s communist leaders to maintain control..  During the 1990s efforts were made to forceDuring the 1990s efforts were made to force China toChina to end human rights violationsend human rights violations..  However, to date, these efforts have hadHowever, to date, these efforts have had limited effects.
  43. 43. Tiananmen Square, 1989Tiananmen Square, 1989 More democracy!
  44. 44. Tiananmen Square, 1989Tiananmen Square, 1989 Student activist, Wang Dan, Beijing University
  45. 45. Tiananmen Square, 1989Tiananmen Square, 1989 Democracy—Our Common Ideal!
  46. 46. Tiananmen Square, 1989Tiananmen Square, 1989 The “Goddess of Democracy”
  47. 47. Tiananmen Square, 1989Tiananmen Square, 1989 The Government Clamps Down
  48. 48. Tiananmen Square, 1989Tiananmen Square, 1989 One Lone Man’s Protest
  49. 49. Tiananmen Square, 1989Tiananmen Square, 1989 The Massacre: The People’s Army Moves In
  50. 50. Tiananmen Square, 1989Tiananmen Square, 1989 The Massacre: A Human Body Crushed by an Army Tank
  51. 51. Tiananmen Square, 1989Tiananmen Square, 1989 The Army Looks for Dissidents
  52. 52. Tiananmen Square, 1989Tiananmen Square, 1989 Student Leaders Are Arrested
  53. 53. Tiananmen Square, 1989Tiananmen Square, 1989 Chinese Students Mourn the Dead
  54. 54. Tiananmen Square, 1989Tiananmen Square, 1989 The Reestablishment of Order
  55. 55. What’s the Message Here?What’s the Message Here?
  56. 56. Return ofReturn of Hong KongHong Kong
  57. 57.  In 1842,In 1842, BritainBritain hadhad gainedgained thethe island of Hongisland of Hong KongKong, off the northern, off the northern coast of China.coast of China.  In the 1980s, Britain andIn the 1980s, Britain and China decided thatChina decided that HongHong Kong would return toKong would return to Chinese ruleChinese rule in 1997.  China agreed not toChina agreed not to change Hong Kong’s socialchange Hong Kong’s social or economic system for 50or economic system for 50 years and to allow theyears and to allow the island a degree ofisland a degree of self-self- rulerule..
  58. 58.  The island wasThe island was officially turned overofficially turned over to China onto China on July 1, 1997.July 1, 1997.
  59. 59. The Role of Women:The Role of Women: Communist China Compared ToCommunist China Compared To Dynastic ChinaDynastic China
  60. 60.  Traditionally, inTraditionally, in DynasticDynastic ChinaChina,, women werewomen were treated as inferior totreated as inferior to menmen..  The only role for aThe only role for a woman was that of awoman was that of a wifewife..  InIn Communist ChinaCommunist China,, however,however, women gainedwomen gained some rightssome rights..  Under theUnder the new Chinesenew Chinese constitutionconstitution, women won, women won equalityequality under the law.under the law.
  61. 61.  They now were expected toThey now were expected to work alongside menwork alongside men on farms and in factories.on farms and in factories.  However, only a fewHowever, only a few womenwomen had top jobs inhad top jobs in government andgovernment and commonlycommonly werewere not paid thenot paid the same as men for doing the same worksame as men for doing the same work..
  62. 62. DemographyDemography ► may be no surer predictor of destiny than trade data. But of the two momentous changes championed by Deng Xiaoping a quarter-century ago, coercive population controls and experiments with market economics, the jury is still out on which will do more to shape China's long-term potential.
  63. 63. DemographyDemography
  64. 64. DemographyDemography ►There are too many retirees in China, and not enough young people to replace them.
  65. 65. DemographyDemography ► "The evidence is overwhelming that a large population of unmarried adult males is a risk factor for both crime and war," Ms. den Boer said in an interview. "The fact that China is an authoritarian country is another risk factor."
  66. 66. SUMMARYSUMMARY  TheThe CommunistsCommunists, under, under Mao ZedongMao Zedong, rose, rose to power in China after World War power in China after World War II. TheirTheir appeal to peasants and to womenappeal to peasants and to women,, theirtheir superior armysuperior army, and, and lack of supportlack of support for the Nationalistsfor the Nationalists led to victory for theled to victory for the Communists. The communist governmentCommunists. The communist government severelyseverely restricted the rights andrestricted the rights and freedoms of most Chinesefreedoms of most Chinese. Later leaders,. Later leaders, such assuch as Deng XiaopingDeng Xiaoping, allowed, allowed freefree market reformsmarket reforms butbut little political freedomlittle political freedom.. Violations of human rightsViolations of human rights in China havein China have oftenoften made relationsmade relations withwith ChinaChina and theand the United StatesUnited States difficult.difficult.