End of World War II


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End of World War II

  1. 1. Finishing off the War andReconstructing Europe and Japan
  2. 2. Yalta Conference• Yalta – Feb 4 to Feb 11, 1945• Big Three• Begin making post-war plans• Roosevelt – wants Soviets to help in the Pacific• Churchill – pushed for importance of democratic gvts and free elections in Eastern Europe after the war• Stalin – demands that Eastern Europe become a Soviet sphere of political influence for the USSR’s protection• Discuss how to handle Germany
  3. 3. Conclusion of War FDR dies April 12, 1945 Adolf Hitler commits suicide April 30, 1945 Unconditional surrender from Germans on May 7th at General Eisenhowers post VE Day – Victory in Europe – May 8, 1945 Unconditional surrender from Germans on May 9th in Soviet occupied Berlin
  4. 4. Potsdam • July-August 1945 • Truman, Stalin, Churchill, and AtleeConference • Issue ultimatum to Japan of “prompt and utter destruction” if they don’t agree to unconditional surrender • **Truman receives word of successful atom bomb test** • Truman tells Stalin that the USA has a new powerful bomb • Agree to partition Germany and work on demilitarization, democratization, denazification, and decentralization
  5. 5. Casualties of WW IIhttp://mrbelloblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/WWII-casualties.jpg
  6. 6. Partitioning Germany  Germany is divided up into four parts  Britain, United States, France and the Soviets  The democratic states become West Germany  Soviet state becomes East Germany
  7. 7. The Eastern Bloc Soviets refuse to give up Poland and cling onto the countries they had liberated from Nazi Germany Soviet Red Army hand picked dictators that would be allegiant to the Soviet Union Eastern European countries forcibly become communist • opposition is eliminated • noncompliant states are threatened to be “crushed with Soviet tanks”
  8. 8.  Eastern Bloc states forced to have communist leadership and have “loyalty” to Soviet Union NATO established April 1949, still exists • North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Today: 26 member states, 14 allies Soviet Union successfully tests the atom bomb August 1949 Warsaw Pact established to counter NATO • Officially Warsaw Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance • Signed May 1955, not disestablished until 1991 • Founding members: Albania (leaves 1961), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, and later East Germany
  9. 9. Marshall Plan European Recovery Plan Secretary of State – George Marshall Reconstruction plan offered in July 1947 Intended to help foster stability and rehabilitation to European countries 4 year plan of economic and technical assistance – 13 billion US Dollars West takes advantage Eastern bloc offered same deal if the Soviets were willing to make political reforms and allow for some external controls – Deny help
  10. 10. Japan Potential Endings: 1. a massive invasion of Japan, expected to cost millions of Allied casualties 2. a naval blockade to starve Japan, along with continued conventional bombing 3. demonstration of the new weapon on a deserted island to pressure Japan to surrender 4. a softening of Allied demands for an unconditional surrender Hiroshima August 6, 1945 Nagasaki August 9, 1945 Surrender August 14
  11. 11. Unconditional Surrender from Japan  VJ Day  Official surrender signed September 2, 1945  Emperor’s address to the people • “Jewel Voice Broadcast • Gyokuon-hoso  Ways the occupation was done well