Bilingualism, code switching, and code mixing
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Bilingualism, code switching, and code mixing

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  • 1. Dr. K. Lakehal-AyatMentouri University Constantine
  • 2. Outline Bilingualism Code-Switching Code-mixing Borrowings Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 3. Introduction In many speech communities, one can see two, or more, independent languages living side by side. Multilingualism of the Indian In these communities people use more than 1 language tribes living in the north- (2 or +): one at west Amazon (between and a third with home, another at work, friends or the outside world. Brazil) Columbia and All these languages are learned naturally, and the shift from the one to the other is made without hesitation. Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 4. •The people you are speaking to, •The social context •The situation Similar cases can be observed all over the world, from Singapore to Paraguay. to speak Sp or Guarani They choose depending on People in these communities have access to a number of Location (city or countryside) languages—called codes—which they may choose from Formality, in speaking to others. of the speaker Sex What determinesHis/her social status language? the choice of a specific Intimacy of both sides Each of the available languages in a multilingual Type of activity, situation has Topic of the speech to perform, which is a certain function event. different from those of the others. Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 5. Bilingualis This There can This m is the contact be phenome prime can lead interferen non hasexample of to ce in all led to the language interferen aspects study of contact. ce of a code- language, switching Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 6. Compound vs. CoordinateBilingualismCompound Coordinate Has one semantic  Has two semantic system but two systems AND two linguistic codes. linguistic codes. Usually refers to  Usually refers to someone whose two someone whose two languages are learned languages are learnt in at the same time, often distinctively separate in the same context. contexts. Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 7. Compound Coordinate Semantic Semantic Semantic System System 1 System 2English Spanish English Spanish Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 8. Code-Switching Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to using more than one language or variety in conversation. Bilinguals who can speak at least two languages, have the ability to use elements of both languages when conversing with another bilingual. Code-switching is the syntactically and phonologically appropriate use of multiple varieties. Weinreich (1953) describes bilingualism as Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 9.  (1) Gofte bud ke she wanted to get revenge. ‘She had said that she wanted to get revenge.’ (Mahootian, 1993) (2) Ta carr light green aige be car at him: ‘He has a light green car.’ (Stenson, 1990) (3) One algebra question o mark shite: ‘you mark one algebra question’ (Nishimura, 1991) (4) Un professeur aDim: a professor excellent (‘an excellent professor’) (Bentahila and Davies, 1983) Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 10. Types of Code Switching INTER-SENTENTIAL INTRA-SENTENTIAL TAG-SWITCHING Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 11. Examples (5) Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in English y termino en espanol: INTER-SENTENTIAL ‘Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in English and finish it in Spanish.’ (Poplack, 1980) (6) I’m shuxi-ing with you. ‘I’m joking with you.’ INTRA-SENTENTIAL (Mahootian, 1993) INTRA-SENTENTIAL (7) Your bag is zir-e miz under of table: ‘Your bag is under the table.’ (8) It was a good performance, nae? ‘It was a good performance,TAG-SWITCHING wasn’t it?’ Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 12. Why do people code-switch? The topic, the solidarity with the listener, the social setting, all these have been suggested as factors that motivate people in code-switch. The motivation may not be conscious. In some extreme cases, people may not even be aware they have code-switched. Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 13.  Although switching has at times been associated with language attrition, indicative of weakness in one of the bilingual’s languages, many researchers believe that code switching is in fact a natural consequence of competence in more than one language and that it should not be mistaken for a language deficit. Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 14. Kinds of Code-SwitchingSITUATIONAL METAPHORICAL occurs when the speaker  occurs when a change of the changes the language topic of the discourse because of the change in requires a change in the the situation. language used.  Thus, a language used in a One language is used in situation which is different one situation (for example which is For instance, a language from the one it is usually used during ausually used atwith the breakfast home is occasionally because the topic of the in, heard in a government office, family members) the other because the topic that the conversation is one that is in a different one (e.g. in participants are discussing is associated with the situation government offices) with home. it is usually used in. associated Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 15. Went to the Al-hamdu movies with Hello, Majda. lillah, fine. Selma. ReetikCode-mixing How are you? kunti ma9aana. Shu akhbarik? Thank you. Ween kunti Kan l-film There is also a kind of rapid switching between fantastic. mabbarih? codes in the same conversation, even within a single sentence. Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 16. Borrowings Borrowing usually occurs when the speaker does not know a suitable equivalent for the borrowed item in the first language. The borrowed word is part of the lexicon of the first language. The borrowed items are almost always single words—usually, bur not exclusively, nouns— and are adapted to the first language in their pronunciation, morphology and grammar. An example of a borrowing into Arabic is the word ‘baguette from the French "baguette" (sandwich) or the word ‘mgripi’ from the French word "grippe" (influenza, or flu). Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine
  • 17.  In code-switching, people switch not because they cannot come up with an item in one of the codes; they switch codes for important social considerations. They switch from one code to another completely—in pronunciation, morphology, grammar and vocabulary. There is no modification or adaptation to the rules of the other code. Scholars assert that borrowings are morphologically and syntactically integrated into the host language but code switches are not. Dr. K. Lakehal-Ayat Mentouri University Constantine