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Skills in Counseling


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Paraphrasing,Perception Checking & Empathy

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Skills in Counseling

  3. 3. PARAPHRASING  Meaning: skill to draw out the really important details of what the client is saying.  Purpose: to clarify and understand what client has said  Also called as reflection of content that involve the client’s experience and thought.
  4. 4. How to paraphrase??  Counselor should pay attention of what the client is saying.  Counselor have to choose the important content of what the client has said.  Re-expresses the content in the counselor’s own word.  Don’t  Use repeat word by word what client said. the appropriate words to paraphrases
  5. 5. Example of paraphrasing Client statement:“Yesterday I rushed around, I seemed to have no time to myself, I went from one place to another and it was really hard to fit everything in.” Counselor response: “you had a very full day yesterday.”
  6. 6. Paraphrasing Outcomes  Help client think clearly about what he/she had said;  Enabled client to continue talking about the same issue in a constructive way;  Client can understand what exactly her/his problem properly;  Client can resolve her/his problem without the counselor give advice;  Show that counselor understand and pay attention to what the client has said.
  8. 8. Perception Checking  A perception checking statement is a message you create to check your understanding of someone’s words or behavior.  The benefits of perception checking statements include: a) helping us decode messages more accurately: Our goal is mutual understanding b) reducing defensiveness & the potential for conflict: helps us avoid assuming too much.
  9. 9. Continue..  Perception Checking has 3 parts: Description - provide a description of the behavior you noticed. Interpretation - provide two possible interpretations of the behavior. Clarification - request clarification from the person about the behavior & your interpretations.
  10. 10. Perception Checking Example 1  a) Description of behavior noticed When you walked out of the room without saying “goodbye...”  b) Two possible interpretations of behavior “I didn’t know if you were mad at me” “or if you were in a hurry and forgot.”  c) Request for clarification “What was up?”
  11. 11. Perception Checking Example 2 a) Description of behavior noticed “You haven’t called in the few days" b) Two possible interpretations of behavior I am not sure whether you’re upset with me or you’ve been busy c) Request for clarification What’s going on?”
  12. 12. EMPATHY
  13. 13. EMPATHY  Empathy is considered the most important core condition in terms of promoting positive outcomes.  Egan (2002) describes empathic understanding as a process that involves listening, understanding and communicating that understanding to the client.  Empathic understanding can be understood as a multistage process.  Several kinds of empathy : primary empathy and advanced empathy.
  14. 14. Empathy  Definition:  The counselor understands the client's feeling and experiences within the client's frame of reference and communicates that understanding without judgment.  ability to understand the feelings, attitudes, roles and perceptions and world of another. The counselor uses an "as if" quality to sensing the client's world as one's own.
  15. 15.  Purpose : to establish rapport, gain an understanding of the client, and encourage self-exploration in the client.  The goal of empathy is to move the client toward identifying and exploring crucial topics and feelings.  Carl Rogers described empathy as the capacity: -to assume the internal frame of the client, -to perceive the world as the client sees it, and the client as he or she perceives themselves, -to lay aside perceptions from external frames of reference during this time, -and to communicate this understanding back to the client.
  16. 16. Empathic understanding as a multistage process  Gladstein (1983) identifies the following stages of empathy: the counselor has an emotional reaction to the client's situation, the counselor attempts to understand the client's situation from the client's perspective, the counselor communicates empathy to the client, and the client feels a sense of caring and understanding from the counselor.
  17. 17. There are several kind of empathy :  Primary empathy : A process that involves the counselor attending, listening, and communicating accurate perceptions of the client's messages.  Advanced empathy : Involves the characteristics associated with primary empathy as well as utilizing the skills of self-disclosure, directives, or interpretations.
  18. 18.  To avoid overwhelming the client and evoking resistance, the counselor’s empathetic responses should be tentative and cautious.  Leads such as: - “ From what you have said…,” - “ Could it be that...?” - “ It seems as if…,”