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Un-defining digital literacies:                Image or
students’ day-to-day engagements               text to
with technologies                              go here
Martin Oliver & Lesley Gourlay
Institute of Education, University of London

EdTech Conference 2012
NUI Maynooth
31st May 2012
Overview

1) Literacies as social practice
2) Literacies as situated practices
3) Literacies as distributed and diffuse




2
Literacies as social practice




3
Definitions of digital literacies

    Digital literacy defines those capabilities which fit an
    individual for living, learning and working in a digital
    society.

    (Beetham, 2010)

• Is having a definition “a convenient hypocrisy”?

4
Conceptions of literacies
• Ethnographic research (Brice-Heath 1983,
  Street 1984)
• Social practice not individual cognition
• Academic literacies (Lea & Street, 1998)
• Critique of cognitive, individual model
• Focus on meaning-making and texts
5
Learning technology
Many theories of “learning” but not good explanation of
  “technology”

Literature search
• Decade of journals in the field
• Only 10 articles in a decade that try to explain
  “technology”
• Five of them about “affordances”
Technology “offers” (causes) or constrains
• A way of designing user agency out
• Appealing to designers who want users to behave
• Cf. Woolgar & Grint (1997) and “configuring the users” (an
  STS take on the problem)
• Vendor rhetoric of technology “solutions”

Seeking approaches that don’t reduce ‘the social’ to a
  ‘command and control’ systems/engineering paradigm
7
Literacies as situated practice




8
IOE JISC project
2-year funded project
  – http://diglitpga.jiscinvolve.org/
  – Digital Literacies programme, 10 projects

1st year: student research
  • Focus groups
  • Longitudinal multimodal journalling

2nd year: implementation projects

9
Methodology
Reflecting diversity, complexity etc

Data as close as possible to practices, not accounts of practices

Journalling as ethnographically informed data of

Artefacts – emphasis on experience over abstraction, sense of the
   fine-grained day-to-day lived practices


10
11
12
What did the focus groups say about
situated practice?




13
What do our students use?
Lots of things - many institutional, but also many that are not institutionally supported

•    Office tools (primarily Microsoft, plus Google docs and Prezi)
•    Institutional VLEs (Moodle and Blackboard)
•    Email (institutional, personal and work-based)
•    Synchronous conferencing services (Skype, Elluminate)
•    Calendars (iCal, Google)
•    Search engines and databases (including Google, Google Scholar, library databases,
     professional databases such as Medline, etc),
•    Social networking sites (Facebook, Academia.edu, LinkedIn) and services (Twitter)
•    Image editing software (photoshop, lightbox)
•    Endnote
•    Reference works (Wikipedia, online dictionaries and social bookmarking sites such as
     Mendeley)
•    GPS services
•    Devices (PCs at the institution and at home, laptops including MacBooks, iPhones, iPads,
     Blackberries and E-book readers).
14
“The student experience”
No evidence that the student experience is singular…
•Marked differences in experiences and priorities across the
four groups
•PGCE, MA students, PhD students, Online masters’ students
•Coping with whiteboards and staff room politics of access;
using the VLE to access materials; library databases; using
the VLE to create a sense of community (…and Skype behind
the scenes…)
•Professional, personal, study
15
The sense of community is much stronger at my new school. People stay
     at work later- at the old school everyone left early. And at the old
  school we weren’t given any work space in the English department so
  we had to work in the staff room but at the new one we have desks so
     we really feel connected to the department. And its great because
    everyone works at their desks and then for lunch they have ‘turn-in’
      time when we all move our chairs away from our desks and eat
                              together in a circle.

                            (PGCE student)
16
I could go into like Web of Knowledge, I could put that reference into
     EndNote, I could then go and look it up through, do a direct link through
     to [the University’s] holdings, find the article. But if I actually looked that
       article up in the [the University’s] holdings, I then can't then pull it the
         other way. And it’s like hang on a minute, why does it work in one
        direction and not another, that just seems [unclear]. Then I've got,
        something I've actually had up on my screen a moment before, I'm
       having to type in by hand. I'm like why, why am I doing this? I don't
       understand the logic behind why the pathways don't work both ways.

                                  (PhD Student)

17
Complexity: domains and devices




18
Access, difference, convergence

     Well, in my bedroom, on my bed, it's mainly my mobile and
      going through my emails, travel information, whether on
       Facebook, my mobile too. Then, um, and in the study
     room, that would be my laptop and, um, laptop, that would
               be Blackboard, research, entertainment.




19
The only thing I struggle with […], is the issue of like keeping
your private life separate from your work life because I think
increasingly the two, you're being forced to kind of mush the
two together. Because like [Another Institution] used to have
its own email server and it would provide you with an email.
Now it’s provided by Gmail and it’s like everybody knows that
Gmail is the nosiest thing in the world and tracks absolutely
everything you do. And […] I'm a little bit uncomfortable with
the idea that my work email knows what shopping I do and,
you know what I mean? I just find the whole thing is starting
to get a little bit scary.

20
Journalling case study: Yuki
Japanese, female in her 40s, MA student

     For me the most important thing is portability, because I use
     technologies, ICT, everywhere I go, anywhere I go. For example of
     course I use some technologies, PCs and laptops and my iPad in the
     IOE building, and in the IOE building I use PC, I use them in PC room,
     in library, and for searching some data or journals. In the lecture room I
     record my, record the lectures and taking memos by that.



21
Print literacies




22
Digital/digitised texts




23
Non-human actors




24
Domains




25
26
27
Themes from the journals

•    Complex, constantly shifting set of practices
•    Permeated with digital mediation
•    Strongly situated / contingent on the material
•    Distributed across human /nonhuman actors
•    Texts are restless, constantly crossing apparent
     boundaries of human/nonhuman, digital/analogue, here/not
     here, now/not now.

28
Humans, and what they take to be their learning and social
     process, do not float, distinct, in container-like contexts of
     education, such a classrooms or community sits, that can
     be sits, that can be conceptualised and dismissed as
     simply a wash of material stuff and spaces. The things that
     assemble these contexts, and incidentally the actions and
     bodies including human ones that are part of these
     assemblages, are continuously acting upon each other to
     bring forth and distribute, as well as to obscure and deny,
     knowledge. (Fenwick et al 2011)
29
So, what might this mean for you?
Thinking differently about digital literacies
• Calling things “generic” and “transferable” just hides the complexity
• “Skills” understood as achievements that involve resources (physical,
  digital) and people in specific places

…leading to new questions:
• Can we develop “resilience”: the capacity to cope when parts of these
  network change or break?
• (Beetham, Exeter) Can we develop learners’ digital literacy repertoires?

30
What might you need to think about?
What technologies are students using anyway?
• Do these help or hinder study?
• Can they learn to use them in this new context?
• Can you help them bring together or keep separate different parts of their
  lives?




31
What technologies are students required to use?
• What do they struggle with or get concerned about?
• Where and when do they do this? (Do you know?)
• Who helps them, inside or outside the institution? (…if anyone…)
• What happens when they struggle, or choose not to use them?

How can you help students to help each other?
• Can “resilient” coping strategies be described and shared?


32
Revisiting the definitions

     Digital literacy defines those capabilities which fit an individual for
     living, learning and working in a digital society. (Beetham, 2010)

Taxonomic definitions or literacies or of attributes are doomed to failure




33
Revisiting the definitions
A focus on orientations not skills and capabilities
  • …agility, adaptability, resilience, tolerance of ambiguity, ability to
    interweave institutional/non-institutional technologies, ability to work
    across a range of physical, temporal, digital and analogue domains
  • A situated account implies situated development, not monolithic
    institutional programmes

If we want to develop digital literacies for life…
   • Not giving learners something, but helping them to develop an unafraid
     stance of constant learning

34
Questions and comments?

     http://diglitpga.jiscinvolve.org/
                                         Institute of Education
                                         University of London
                                         20 Bedford Way
                                         London WC1H 0AL
                                         Tel +44 (0)20 7612 6000
                                         Fax +44 (0)20 7612 6126
                                         Email info@ioe.ac.uk
35
                                         Web www.ioe.ac.uk

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Un-defining digital literacies: students' day-to-day engagements with technologies

  • 1. Un-defining digital literacies: Image or students’ day-to-day engagements text to with technologies go here Martin Oliver & Lesley Gourlay Institute of Education, University of London EdTech Conference 2012 NUI Maynooth 31st May 2012
  • 2. Overview 1) Literacies as social practice 2) Literacies as situated practices 3) Literacies as distributed and diffuse 2
  • 3. Literacies as social practice 3
  • 4. Definitions of digital literacies Digital literacy defines those capabilities which fit an individual for living, learning and working in a digital society. (Beetham, 2010) • Is having a definition “a convenient hypocrisy”? 4
  • 5. Conceptions of literacies • Ethnographic research (Brice-Heath 1983, Street 1984) • Social practice not individual cognition • Academic literacies (Lea & Street, 1998) • Critique of cognitive, individual model • Focus on meaning-making and texts 5
  • 6. Learning technology Many theories of “learning” but not good explanation of “technology” Literature search • Decade of journals in the field • Only 10 articles in a decade that try to explain “technology” • Five of them about “affordances”
  • 7. Technology “offers” (causes) or constrains • A way of designing user agency out • Appealing to designers who want users to behave • Cf. Woolgar & Grint (1997) and “configuring the users” (an STS take on the problem) • Vendor rhetoric of technology “solutions” Seeking approaches that don’t reduce ‘the social’ to a ‘command and control’ systems/engineering paradigm 7
  • 9. IOE JISC project 2-year funded project – http://diglitpga.jiscinvolve.org/ – Digital Literacies programme, 10 projects 1st year: student research • Focus groups • Longitudinal multimodal journalling 2nd year: implementation projects 9
  • 10. Methodology Reflecting diversity, complexity etc Data as close as possible to practices, not accounts of practices Journalling as ethnographically informed data of Artefacts – emphasis on experience over abstraction, sense of the fine-grained day-to-day lived practices 10
  • 11. 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. What did the focus groups say about situated practice? 13
  • 14. What do our students use? Lots of things - many institutional, but also many that are not institutionally supported • Office tools (primarily Microsoft, plus Google docs and Prezi) • Institutional VLEs (Moodle and Blackboard) • Email (institutional, personal and work-based) • Synchronous conferencing services (Skype, Elluminate) • Calendars (iCal, Google) • Search engines and databases (including Google, Google Scholar, library databases, professional databases such as Medline, etc), • Social networking sites (Facebook, Academia.edu, LinkedIn) and services (Twitter) • Image editing software (photoshop, lightbox) • Endnote • Reference works (Wikipedia, online dictionaries and social bookmarking sites such as Mendeley) • GPS services • Devices (PCs at the institution and at home, laptops including MacBooks, iPhones, iPads, Blackberries and E-book readers). 14
  • 15. “The student experience” No evidence that the student experience is singular… •Marked differences in experiences and priorities across the four groups •PGCE, MA students, PhD students, Online masters’ students •Coping with whiteboards and staff room politics of access; using the VLE to access materials; library databases; using the VLE to create a sense of community (…and Skype behind the scenes…) •Professional, personal, study 15
  • 16. The sense of community is much stronger at my new school. People stay at work later- at the old school everyone left early. And at the old school we weren’t given any work space in the English department so we had to work in the staff room but at the new one we have desks so we really feel connected to the department. And its great because everyone works at their desks and then for lunch they have ‘turn-in’ time when we all move our chairs away from our desks and eat together in a circle. (PGCE student) 16
  • 17. I could go into like Web of Knowledge, I could put that reference into EndNote, I could then go and look it up through, do a direct link through to [the University’s] holdings, find the article. But if I actually looked that article up in the [the University’s] holdings, I then can't then pull it the other way. And it’s like hang on a minute, why does it work in one direction and not another, that just seems [unclear]. Then I've got, something I've actually had up on my screen a moment before, I'm having to type in by hand. I'm like why, why am I doing this? I don't understand the logic behind why the pathways don't work both ways. (PhD Student) 17
  • 19. Access, difference, convergence Well, in my bedroom, on my bed, it's mainly my mobile and going through my emails, travel information, whether on Facebook, my mobile too. Then, um, and in the study room, that would be my laptop and, um, laptop, that would be Blackboard, research, entertainment. 19
  • 20. The only thing I struggle with […], is the issue of like keeping your private life separate from your work life because I think increasingly the two, you're being forced to kind of mush the two together. Because like [Another Institution] used to have its own email server and it would provide you with an email. Now it’s provided by Gmail and it’s like everybody knows that Gmail is the nosiest thing in the world and tracks absolutely everything you do. And […] I'm a little bit uncomfortable with the idea that my work email knows what shopping I do and, you know what I mean? I just find the whole thing is starting to get a little bit scary. 20
  • 21. Journalling case study: Yuki Japanese, female in her 40s, MA student For me the most important thing is portability, because I use technologies, ICT, everywhere I go, anywhere I go. For example of course I use some technologies, PCs and laptops and my iPad in the IOE building, and in the IOE building I use PC, I use them in PC room, in library, and for searching some data or journals. In the lecture room I record my, record the lectures and taking memos by that. 21
  • 26. 26
  • 27. 27
  • 28. Themes from the journals • Complex, constantly shifting set of practices • Permeated with digital mediation • Strongly situated / contingent on the material • Distributed across human /nonhuman actors • Texts are restless, constantly crossing apparent boundaries of human/nonhuman, digital/analogue, here/not here, now/not now. 28
  • 29. Humans, and what they take to be their learning and social process, do not float, distinct, in container-like contexts of education, such a classrooms or community sits, that can be sits, that can be conceptualised and dismissed as simply a wash of material stuff and spaces. The things that assemble these contexts, and incidentally the actions and bodies including human ones that are part of these assemblages, are continuously acting upon each other to bring forth and distribute, as well as to obscure and deny, knowledge. (Fenwick et al 2011) 29
  • 30. So, what might this mean for you? Thinking differently about digital literacies • Calling things “generic” and “transferable” just hides the complexity • “Skills” understood as achievements that involve resources (physical, digital) and people in specific places …leading to new questions: • Can we develop “resilience”: the capacity to cope when parts of these network change or break? • (Beetham, Exeter) Can we develop learners’ digital literacy repertoires? 30
  • 31. What might you need to think about? What technologies are students using anyway? • Do these help or hinder study? • Can they learn to use them in this new context? • Can you help them bring together or keep separate different parts of their lives? 31
  • 32. What technologies are students required to use? • What do they struggle with or get concerned about? • Where and when do they do this? (Do you know?) • Who helps them, inside or outside the institution? (…if anyone…) • What happens when they struggle, or choose not to use them? How can you help students to help each other? • Can “resilient” coping strategies be described and shared? 32
  • 33. Revisiting the definitions Digital literacy defines those capabilities which fit an individual for living, learning and working in a digital society. (Beetham, 2010) Taxonomic definitions or literacies or of attributes are doomed to failure 33
  • 34. Revisiting the definitions A focus on orientations not skills and capabilities • …agility, adaptability, resilience, tolerance of ambiguity, ability to interweave institutional/non-institutional technologies, ability to work across a range of physical, temporal, digital and analogue domains • A situated account implies situated development, not monolithic institutional programmes If we want to develop digital literacies for life… • Not giving learners something, but helping them to develop an unafraid stance of constant learning 34
  • 35. Questions and comments? http://diglitpga.jiscinvolve.org/ Institute of Education University of London 20 Bedford Way London WC1H 0AL Tel +44 (0)20 7612 6000 Fax +44 (0)20 7612 6126 Email info@ioe.ac.uk 35 Web www.ioe.ac.uk

Editor's Notes

  1. martin
  2. lesley
  3. lesley Review and scoping study for a cross-JISC learning and digital literacies programme: Sept 2010
  4. lesley Cf brice heath Brice-Heath, S. 1983. Ways with Words . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  5. Oliver, M. (in press) Learning technology: theorising the tools we study. British Journal of Educational Technology . http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01283.x/abstract
  6. martin Woolgar, S. & Grint, K. (1997) The Machine at Work: Technology, Work and Organization. London: Polity. Friesen, N. (2009). Rethinking e-learning research. New York: Peter Lang.
  7. lesley
  8. lesley
  9. lesley
  10. lesley
  11. lesley
  12. lesley
  13. lesley
  14. Hayles, K. 1999. How we Became Posthuman Hayles, K. 2006. From cyborg to cognisphere. Fenwick, T., Edwards,R. & Sawchuk, P. 2011. Emerging Approaches to Educational Research: Tracing the Sociomaterial . London: Routledge.
  15. Martin
  16. lesley Review and scoping study for a cross-JISC learning and digital literacies programme: Sept 2010
  17. lesley Review and scoping study for a cross-JISC learning and digital literacies programme: Sept 2010