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Ultra-structure of Nucleus and
functions
Dhole N. A.
Department of Botany,
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
The structure of a nucleus is composed of
1. The nuclear membrane
2. Nucleoplasm
3. Nucleolus
4. Chromosomes
Structure of Nucleus
https://microbenotes.com/nucleus-structure-and-functions/
https://www.vedantu.com/biology/nucleus
1. Nuclear Membrane
• The nuclear membrane is a double-layered structure that encloses the
contents of the nucleus.
• The outer layer of the membrane is connected to the endoplasmic reticulum.
• Similar to the cell membrane, the nuclear envelope consists
of phospholipids that form a lipid bilayer.
• The envelope helps to maintain the shape of the nucleus and assists in
regulating the flow of molecules into and out of the nucleus through nuclear
pores.
• The nucleus communicates with the remaining of the cell or the cytoplasm
through several openings called nuclear pores.
• Such nuclear pores are the sites for the exchange of large molecules
(proteins and RNA) between the nucleus and cytoplasm.
• A fluid-filled space or perinuclear space is present between the two layers
of a nuclear membrane.
2. Nucleoplasm:
• Nucleoplasm is the gelatinous substance within the nuclear envelope.
• This semi-aqueous material is similar to the cytoplasm and is composed
mainly of water with dissolved salts, enzymes, and organic molecules
suspended within.
• The nucleolus and chromosomes are surrounded by nucleoplasm, which
functions to cushion and protect the contents of the nucleus.
• Nucleoplasm also supports the nucleus by helping to maintain its shape.
• Additionally, nucleoplasm provides a medium by which materials, such as
enzymes and nucleotides (DNA and RNA subunits), can be transported
throughout the nucleus.
• Substances are exchanged between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm
through nuclear pores.
3. Nucleolus:
• Contained within the nucleus is a dense, membrane-less structure
composed of RNA and proteins called the nucleolus.
• Some of the eukaryotic organisms have a nucleus that contains up to four
nucleoli.
• The nucleolus contains nucleolar organizers, which are parts of
chromosomes with the genes for ribosome synthesis on them.
• The nucleolus helps to synthesize ribosomes by transcribing and
assembling ribosomal RNA subunits.
• These subunits join together to form a ribosome during protein synthesis.
• The nucleolus disappears when a cell undergoes division and is reformed
after the completion of cell division.
4. Chromosomes :
• The nucleus is the organelle that houses chromosomes.
• Chromosomes consist of DNA, which contains heredity information and
instructions for cell growth, development, and reproduction.
• Chromosomes are present in the form of strings of DNA and histones
(protein molecules) called chromatin.
• When a cell is “resting” i.e. not dividing, the chromosomes are organized
into long entangled structures called chromatin.
• The chromatin is further classified into heterochromatin and euchromatin
based on the functions.
• The former type is a highly condensed, transcriptionally inactive form,
mostly present adjacent to the nuclear membrane.
• On the other hand, euchromatin is a delicate, less condensed organization
of chromatin, which is found abundantly in a transcribing cell.
Functions of Nucleus:
• The nucleus provides a site for genetic transcription that is segregated
from the location of translation in the cytoplasm, allowing levels of gene
regulation that are not available to prokaryotes.
• The main function of the cell nucleus is to control gene expression and
mediate the replication of DNA during the cell cycle.
• It controls the hereditary characteristics of an organism.
• The organelle is also responsible for protein synthesis, cell division,
growth, and differentiation.
• Storage of hereditary material, the genes in the form of long and thin
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strands, referred to as chromatin.
• Storage of proteins and RNA (ribonucleic acid) in the nucleolus.
• The nucleus is a site for transcription in which messenger RNA (mRNA)
are produced for protein synthesis.
• During the cell division, chromatins are arranged into chromosomes in the
nucleus.
• Production of ribosomes (protein factories) in the nucleolus.
• Selective transportation of regulatory factors and energy molecules
through nuclear pores.
References:
• https://microbenotes.com/nucleus-structure-and-functions/
• https://www.vedantu.com/biology/nucleus
Thank you

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Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functions

  • 1. Ultra-structure of Nucleus and functions Dhole N. A. Department of Botany, Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
  • 2. The structure of a nucleus is composed of 1. The nuclear membrane 2. Nucleoplasm 3. Nucleolus 4. Chromosomes
  • 5. 1. Nuclear Membrane • The nuclear membrane is a double-layered structure that encloses the contents of the nucleus. • The outer layer of the membrane is connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. • Similar to the cell membrane, the nuclear envelope consists of phospholipids that form a lipid bilayer. • The envelope helps to maintain the shape of the nucleus and assists in regulating the flow of molecules into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pores. • The nucleus communicates with the remaining of the cell or the cytoplasm through several openings called nuclear pores.
  • 6. • Such nuclear pores are the sites for the exchange of large molecules (proteins and RNA) between the nucleus and cytoplasm. • A fluid-filled space or perinuclear space is present between the two layers of a nuclear membrane.
  • 7. 2. Nucleoplasm: • Nucleoplasm is the gelatinous substance within the nuclear envelope. • This semi-aqueous material is similar to the cytoplasm and is composed mainly of water with dissolved salts, enzymes, and organic molecules suspended within. • The nucleolus and chromosomes are surrounded by nucleoplasm, which functions to cushion and protect the contents of the nucleus.
  • 8. • Nucleoplasm also supports the nucleus by helping to maintain its shape. • Additionally, nucleoplasm provides a medium by which materials, such as enzymes and nucleotides (DNA and RNA subunits), can be transported throughout the nucleus. • Substances are exchanged between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm through nuclear pores.
  • 9. 3. Nucleolus: • Contained within the nucleus is a dense, membrane-less structure composed of RNA and proteins called the nucleolus. • Some of the eukaryotic organisms have a nucleus that contains up to four nucleoli. • The nucleolus contains nucleolar organizers, which are parts of chromosomes with the genes for ribosome synthesis on them. • The nucleolus helps to synthesize ribosomes by transcribing and assembling ribosomal RNA subunits. • These subunits join together to form a ribosome during protein synthesis. • The nucleolus disappears when a cell undergoes division and is reformed after the completion of cell division.
  • 10. 4. Chromosomes : • The nucleus is the organelle that houses chromosomes. • Chromosomes consist of DNA, which contains heredity information and instructions for cell growth, development, and reproduction. • Chromosomes are present in the form of strings of DNA and histones (protein molecules) called chromatin. • When a cell is “resting” i.e. not dividing, the chromosomes are organized into long entangled structures called chromatin.
  • 11. • The chromatin is further classified into heterochromatin and euchromatin based on the functions. • The former type is a highly condensed, transcriptionally inactive form, mostly present adjacent to the nuclear membrane. • On the other hand, euchromatin is a delicate, less condensed organization of chromatin, which is found abundantly in a transcribing cell.
  • 12. Functions of Nucleus: • The nucleus provides a site for genetic transcription that is segregated from the location of translation in the cytoplasm, allowing levels of gene regulation that are not available to prokaryotes. • The main function of the cell nucleus is to control gene expression and mediate the replication of DNA during the cell cycle.
  • 13. • It controls the hereditary characteristics of an organism. • The organelle is also responsible for protein synthesis, cell division, growth, and differentiation. • Storage of hereditary material, the genes in the form of long and thin DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strands, referred to as chromatin. • Storage of proteins and RNA (ribonucleic acid) in the nucleolus. • The nucleus is a site for transcription in which messenger RNA (mRNA) are produced for protein synthesis.
  • 14. • During the cell division, chromatins are arranged into chromosomes in the nucleus. • Production of ribosomes (protein factories) in the nucleolus. • Selective transportation of regulatory factors and energy molecules through nuclear pores.