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  1. 1. NUCLEOSOMES<br />Presented by : Sheetal Narkar <br />
  2. 2. PACKAGING OF DNA IN CHROMOSOMES<br />An eukaryotic chromosome consists of a linear DNA molecule.<br />This DNA is condensed into a complex structure with histones and non histone proteins………….<br />
  3. 3. WHY PACKAGING IS REQUIRED ????????<br /><ul><li>DNA is about 3 meters long and it has to be packed in a nucleus, which is only a few micrometers in a diameter.
  4. 4. Hence highly coiled structure is required.
  5. 5. There are various orders of packaging :
  6. 6. First order of packaging : nucleosomes.
  7. 7. Second order of packaging : solenoid fiber.
  8. 8. Scaffold loop.
  9. 9. Chromatid.
  10. 10. Chromosome.</li></li></ul><li>First order of packaging : nucleosomes.<br /> Second order of packaging : solenoid fiber.<br /> Scaffold loop.<br /> Chromatid.<br /> Chromosome.<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Nucleosomes are the fundamental repeating subunits of all <br />eukaryoticchromatin (except when packaged in sperm).<br />They are made up of DNA and four pairs of proteins called histones, <br /> and resemble "beads on a string of DNA" when observed with an electron microscope. <br />They represent the first order of DNA compaction in the chromosome……………………..<br />
  13. 13. FORMATION OF NUCLEOSOMES<br />Core particle chromatosome nucleosome<br />CORE PARTICLE : <br />It consists of 146 bp of DNA wrapped 1.8 times in a left handed helix around the outside of an octamer of histones.<br />CHROMATOSOME :<br /> The core particle interacts with one molecule of histone H1 to form a particle containing ~166 bp of DNA called chromatosome.<br />NUCLEOSOME :<br />The chromatosome links with the linker DNA forming a nucleosome containing ~200 bp of DNA.<br />
  14. 14. CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS<br />The chromosomes of eukaryotes are made up of DNA and proteins.<br />There are 2 major types of proteins associated with DNA in the<br /> chromatin.<br />
  15. 15. HISTONES<br />They are the most abundant proteins associated with the chromosomes.<br />They are very rich in basic proteins.<br />At normal ph of the cell the histones have net positive charge that facilitates their binding to the negatively charged DNA. <br />This positive charge is found mainly on the amino group of the side chains of the basic amino acids lysine and arganine.<br />Histones lack tryptophan.<br />
  16. 16. Histones are highly modified proteins , and the modifications include acetylation ,methylation and phosphorylation……………..<br /><ul><li>5 major types of histones associated with eukaryotic DNA are :</li></ul>Each class of histone consists of a :<br /><ul><li>N – terminal , which is hydrophobic.
  17. 17. C – terminal , which is hydrophilic.
  18. 18. Central globular structure , which forms the central molecule.</li></ul>H2A , H2B , H3 and H4 together form an octamer while H1 links to the linker DNA outside the octamer.<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. DEPRESS THE GENETIC ACTIVITY :<br />As the histones increase the compaction of the DNA , it depresses the genetic activity.<br />STRUCTURAL ROLE :<br />They play a structural role in the packaging of DNA molecules and hence render them more compact.<br />Functions of histones :<br />
  21. 21. NON HISTONES<br />They are all the proteins <br /> associated with the DNA <br /> apart from the histones.<br />They are very different <br /> from histones.<br />They are acidic proteins <br /> i.e. have a net negative <br /> charge and likely to bind <br /> the positively charged histones.<br />
  22. 22. Functions of non - histones :<br />STRUCTURAL :<br /> They play a structural role in the shape of the chromosome.<br />REGULATORY :<br /> They positively regulate the gene expression and stimulate genetic activity. They play an essential role in the transcriptional and translational activity.<br />ENZYMATIC :<br /> many enzymatic activities are associated with chromatin. Enzymes of chromosomal metabolism [ nucleic acid polymerases , nucleases] and enzymes of histone metabolism are all<br /> non – histone proteins.<br />
  23. 23. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE DNA AND HISTONES<br />Interaction between the DNA and histones take place between negatively charged phosphates of DNA and positively charged groups <br /> of histone.<br />The major electrostatic interaction of DNA phosphates are with the globular part of the core.<br />The other interactions include hydrogen bonding between oxygen of phosphates of the DNA and histones.<br />Thus this shows that DNA doesn’t appear to be buried into the core<br /> but contacts it at widely separated points.<br />
  24. 24. SOLENOID MODEL OF NUCLEOSOMES<br />According to this model , the 10 nm fibre of nucleosomes gets coiled upon itself to form a 30 nm wide helix……<br />This 30 nm structure is called as solenoid. It has 5 or 6 nucleosomes per helix.<br />The histone N – terminal tails direct the DNA to wrap around the histone octamer disc.<br />These N – terminals are thus required for the formation of 30 nm fibre as they interact with adjacent nucleosomes by making multiple H – bonds and thus stabilising the 30 nm fibre……<br />
  26. 26. PHASING AND MODIFICATION OF NUCLEOSOMES IN ACTIVE GENES<br />A] PHASING OF NUCLEOSOMES :<br /><ul><li>Some specificity in the distribution of DNA sequences on the nucleosomes and a lack of their random distribution is called as NUCLEOSOME PHASING……..
  27. 27. Nucleosomes are phased along the length of the DNA.
  28. 28. Spacing of nucleosomes is not random but is regular.
  29. 29. e.g. In chromosome of SV40 a DNA segment of 400 bp encompassing the replication region and the promoters is naked , i.e completely devoid of nucleosomes showing phasing of nucleosomes.
  30. 30. E.g. 5’ ends of many genes are naked suggesting that the active genes have to uncoil and loose their nucleosome structure temporarily….</li></li></ul><li>B] MODIFICATION OF NUCLEOSOMES IN ACTIVE GENES :<br />e.g. Acetylation of Conserved Lysines<br />
  31. 31. Thank you<br />