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Sexual Reproduction in
Marchantia
Dhole N. A.
Department of Botany,
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
Sexual reproduction in Marchantia:
• Sexual reproduction in Marchantia is oogamous. All species are
dioecious. Male reproductive bodies are known as antheridia and
female as archegonia. Antheridia and archegonia are produced an
special, erect modified lateral branches of thallus called
antheridiophore and archegoniophore ) respectively.
• Further growth of the thallus is checked because growing point of the
thallus is utilised in the formation of these branches. In some thalli of
M. palmatci and L. polymorpha abnormal receptacle bearing both
anheridia and archegonia have also been reported, such bisexual
receptacles are called as androgynous receptacles.
Antheridiophore:
• It consists of 1-3 centimetre long stalk and a lobed disc at the apex. The
disc is usually eight lobed but in M. geminata it is four lobed. The lobed
disc is a result of created dichotomies.
L.S. through disc of Antheridiophore:
• The disc consists of air chambers alternating with heridial cavities. Air
chambers are more or less triangular and open on upper surface by n
pore Called ostiole. Antheridia arise in acropetal succession i.e., the older
near the center and youngest at the margins.
Ref. https://www.brainkart.com/article/Marchantia---Bryophytes_32874/
Ref. https://www.biologydiscussion.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/clip_image014-47.jpg
• A mature antheridium is globular in shape and can be differentiated into
two parts stalk and body.
• Stalk is short multicellular and attaches the body to the base of the
antheridial chamber.
• A single layered sterile jacket encloses the mass of androcyte mother cells
which metamorphosis into antherozoids.
• The antherozoid is a minute rod like biflagellate structure.
• Jacket initials divide by several anticlinal divisions to form a single layer of
sterile antheridial jacket. Primary androgonial cells divide by several
repeated transverse and vertical divisions resulting in the formation of
large number of small androgonial cells.
• The last generation of the androgonial cells is known as androcyte mother
cells. Each androcyte mother cells divides by a diagonal mitotic division to
form two triangular cells called androcytes. Each androcyte cell
metamorphosis into an antheozoid.
Ref. https://www.biologydiscussion.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/clip_image018-26.jpg
Archegoniophore or Carpocephalum:
• It arises at the apical notch and consists of a stalk and terminal disc. It is slightly
longer than the antheridiophore.
• It may be five to seven cm. long. The young apex of the archegoniophore divides
by three successive dichotomies to form eight lobed rosette like disc.
• Each lobe of the disc contains a growing point. The archegonia begin to develop
in each lobe in acropetal succession, i.e., the oldest archegonium near the centre
and the young archegonium near the apex of the disc. Thus, eight groups of
archegonia develop on the upper surface of the disc. There are twelve to
fourteen archegonia in a single row in each lobe of the disc.
• A mature archegonium is a flask shaped structure. It remains attached
to the archegonial disc by a short stalk. It consists upper elongated
slender neck and basal globular portion called venter. The neck
consists of six vertical rows enclosing eight neck canal cells and large
egg. Four cover cells are present at the top of the neck.
Fertilization in Marchantia:
• Marchantia is dioecious. Fertilization takes place when male and female
thalli grow near each other. Water is essential for fertilization. The neck
of the archegonium is directed upwards on the dorsal surface of the disc
of the archegoniophore.
• In the mature archegonium the venter canal cell and neck canal cells
disintegrate and form a mucilaginous mass. It absorbs water, swells up
and comes out of the archegonial mouth by pushing the cover cells
apart. This mucilaginous mass consists of chemical substances.
• The antherozoids are splashed by rain drops. They may fall on the nearby
female receptacle or swim the whole way by female receptacle. It is only
possible if both the male and female receptacles are surrounded by
water.
• Many antherozoids enter the archegonial neck by chemotactic
response and reach up to egg. This mechanism of fertilization is called
splash cup mechanism. One of the antherozoids penetrates the egg
and fertilization is effected. The fusion of both male and female nuclei
results in the formation of diploid zygote or oospore. Fertilization
ends the gametophytic phase.
• In Marchantia, sex organs are borne on special stalked receptacles called the
gametophores.
• Those bearing antheridia are called antheridiophores and archegonia bearing
structures are called archegoniophores.
• Marchantia is heterothallic or dioecious. i.e., male and female receptacles are
present on different thalli.
• The sex organs in bryophytes are multicellular. The male sex organ is called
antheridium. It produce biflagellate antherozoids.
• The female sex organ is flask shaped called archegonium and produces a single
egg.
• Water is essential for fertilization. The antherozoids are released into water and
are attracted towards archegonium through chemotaxis.
• Although many antherozoids enter the archegonium, only one fuses with the egg
to form zygote.
• The zygote represent the first cell of the sporophytic generation. Zygote develops
in to a multicellular structure called sporophyte.
Mature Sporogonium or sporophyte:
• A mature sporogonium can be differentiated into three parts, viz., the foot, seta and capsule.
Foot. It is bulbous and multicellular. It is composed of parenchymatous cells. It acts as anchoring
and absorbing organ. It absorbs the food from the adjoining gametophytic cells for the
developing sporophyte.
Seta:
• It connects the foot and the capsule. At maturity, due to many transverse divisions it elongates
and pushes the capsule through three protective layers viz., calyptra, perigynium and
perichaetium.
Capsule:
• It is oval in shape and has a single layered wall which encloses spores and elaters. It has been
estimated that as many as 3, 00,000 spores may be produced in single sporogonium and there
are 128 spores in relation to one elater.
Dispersal of Spores:
• As the sporogonium matures, seta elongates rapidly and pushes the capsule in the air through
the protective layers. The ripe capsule wall dehisces from apex to middle by four to six irregular
teeth or valves. The annular thickening in the cells of the capsule wall causes the valves to roll
backward exposing the spores and elaters.
• The elaters are hygroscopic in nature. In dry weather they lose water and become twisted. When
the atmosphere is wet, they become untwisted and cause the jerking action. Due to this the
spore mass loosens and spores are carried out by air currents
Ref. https://www.brainkart.com/article/Marchantia---Bryophytes_32874/
Germination of Spores and Development of Gametophyte:
• Under favourable conditions, the spores germinate immediately. In first year
the spore viability is approximately 100%. Before germination it divides by
transverse division to form two unequal cells. The lower cell is small in size.
• It is relatively poor in cell contents, achlorophyllous and extends to form
germ-rhizoid. The large cell is chlorophyllous and undergoes divisions to
form a six to eight cell germ-filament or protonema. At this stage the
contents of the cells migrate at the apex.
• The apex is cut off from the rest of the sporeling by a division. It behaves as
apical cell. It is wedge-shaped with two cutting faces. The apical cell cuts off
five to seven cells alternately to the left and right. These cells by repeated
divisions form a plate like structure.
• According to O’ Hanlon’s (1976) a marginal row of cells appears in the apical
region in this plate. By the activity of these marginal cells, the expansion of
the plate takes place into thallus, a characteristic of Marchantia.
Alternation of Generation in Marchantia:
• The life cycle of Marchantia shows regular alternation of two morphologically
distinct phases. One of the generations is Haplophase and the other is
diplophase.
Haplophase or Gametophytic Phase:
• In Marchantia this phase is dominant and produces the sex organs. Sex organs
produce gametes to form a diploid zygote.
Diploid Phase or Sporophytic Phase:
• Zygote develops into sporophyte. In Marchantia sporophyte is represented by
foot, seta and capsule. The sporophyte produces the spores in the capsule. The
spores on germination produce the gametophyte.
• So, in Marchantia two morphologically distinct phases (Haplophase and
Diplophase) constitute the life cycle. The life cycle of this type which is
characterised by alternation of generations and sporogenic meiosis is known as
heteromorphic and diplohaplontic.
References:
• https://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/quick-notes-on-
marchantia-with-diagrams-biology/21405
• https://www.brainkart.com/article/Marchantia---Bryophytes_32874/
Thank you

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5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia

  • 1. Sexual Reproduction in Marchantia Dhole N. A. Department of Botany, Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
  • 2. Sexual reproduction in Marchantia: • Sexual reproduction in Marchantia is oogamous. All species are dioecious. Male reproductive bodies are known as antheridia and female as archegonia. Antheridia and archegonia are produced an special, erect modified lateral branches of thallus called antheridiophore and archegoniophore ) respectively. • Further growth of the thallus is checked because growing point of the thallus is utilised in the formation of these branches. In some thalli of M. palmatci and L. polymorpha abnormal receptacle bearing both anheridia and archegonia have also been reported, such bisexual receptacles are called as androgynous receptacles.
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  • 4. Antheridiophore: • It consists of 1-3 centimetre long stalk and a lobed disc at the apex. The disc is usually eight lobed but in M. geminata it is four lobed. The lobed disc is a result of created dichotomies. L.S. through disc of Antheridiophore: • The disc consists of air chambers alternating with heridial cavities. Air chambers are more or less triangular and open on upper surface by n pore Called ostiole. Antheridia arise in acropetal succession i.e., the older near the center and youngest at the margins.
  • 7. • A mature antheridium is globular in shape and can be differentiated into two parts stalk and body. • Stalk is short multicellular and attaches the body to the base of the antheridial chamber. • A single layered sterile jacket encloses the mass of androcyte mother cells which metamorphosis into antherozoids. • The antherozoid is a minute rod like biflagellate structure.
  • 8. • Jacket initials divide by several anticlinal divisions to form a single layer of sterile antheridial jacket. Primary androgonial cells divide by several repeated transverse and vertical divisions resulting in the formation of large number of small androgonial cells. • The last generation of the androgonial cells is known as androcyte mother cells. Each androcyte mother cells divides by a diagonal mitotic division to form two triangular cells called androcytes. Each androcyte cell metamorphosis into an antheozoid. Ref. https://www.biologydiscussion.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/clip_image018-26.jpg
  • 9. Archegoniophore or Carpocephalum: • It arises at the apical notch and consists of a stalk and terminal disc. It is slightly longer than the antheridiophore. • It may be five to seven cm. long. The young apex of the archegoniophore divides by three successive dichotomies to form eight lobed rosette like disc. • Each lobe of the disc contains a growing point. The archegonia begin to develop in each lobe in acropetal succession, i.e., the oldest archegonium near the centre and the young archegonium near the apex of the disc. Thus, eight groups of archegonia develop on the upper surface of the disc. There are twelve to fourteen archegonia in a single row in each lobe of the disc.
  • 10. • A mature archegonium is a flask shaped structure. It remains attached to the archegonial disc by a short stalk. It consists upper elongated slender neck and basal globular portion called venter. The neck consists of six vertical rows enclosing eight neck canal cells and large egg. Four cover cells are present at the top of the neck.
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  • 12. Fertilization in Marchantia: • Marchantia is dioecious. Fertilization takes place when male and female thalli grow near each other. Water is essential for fertilization. The neck of the archegonium is directed upwards on the dorsal surface of the disc of the archegoniophore. • In the mature archegonium the venter canal cell and neck canal cells disintegrate and form a mucilaginous mass. It absorbs water, swells up and comes out of the archegonial mouth by pushing the cover cells apart. This mucilaginous mass consists of chemical substances. • The antherozoids are splashed by rain drops. They may fall on the nearby female receptacle or swim the whole way by female receptacle. It is only possible if both the male and female receptacles are surrounded by water.
  • 13. • Many antherozoids enter the archegonial neck by chemotactic response and reach up to egg. This mechanism of fertilization is called splash cup mechanism. One of the antherozoids penetrates the egg and fertilization is effected. The fusion of both male and female nuclei results in the formation of diploid zygote or oospore. Fertilization ends the gametophytic phase.
  • 14. • In Marchantia, sex organs are borne on special stalked receptacles called the gametophores. • Those bearing antheridia are called antheridiophores and archegonia bearing structures are called archegoniophores. • Marchantia is heterothallic or dioecious. i.e., male and female receptacles are present on different thalli. • The sex organs in bryophytes are multicellular. The male sex organ is called antheridium. It produce biflagellate antherozoids. • The female sex organ is flask shaped called archegonium and produces a single egg. • Water is essential for fertilization. The antherozoids are released into water and are attracted towards archegonium through chemotaxis. • Although many antherozoids enter the archegonium, only one fuses with the egg to form zygote. • The zygote represent the first cell of the sporophytic generation. Zygote develops in to a multicellular structure called sporophyte.
  • 15. Mature Sporogonium or sporophyte: • A mature sporogonium can be differentiated into three parts, viz., the foot, seta and capsule. Foot. It is bulbous and multicellular. It is composed of parenchymatous cells. It acts as anchoring and absorbing organ. It absorbs the food from the adjoining gametophytic cells for the developing sporophyte. Seta: • It connects the foot and the capsule. At maturity, due to many transverse divisions it elongates and pushes the capsule through three protective layers viz., calyptra, perigynium and perichaetium. Capsule: • It is oval in shape and has a single layered wall which encloses spores and elaters. It has been estimated that as many as 3, 00,000 spores may be produced in single sporogonium and there are 128 spores in relation to one elater. Dispersal of Spores: • As the sporogonium matures, seta elongates rapidly and pushes the capsule in the air through the protective layers. The ripe capsule wall dehisces from apex to middle by four to six irregular teeth or valves. The annular thickening in the cells of the capsule wall causes the valves to roll backward exposing the spores and elaters. • The elaters are hygroscopic in nature. In dry weather they lose water and become twisted. When the atmosphere is wet, they become untwisted and cause the jerking action. Due to this the spore mass loosens and spores are carried out by air currents
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  • 18. Germination of Spores and Development of Gametophyte: • Under favourable conditions, the spores germinate immediately. In first year the spore viability is approximately 100%. Before germination it divides by transverse division to form two unequal cells. The lower cell is small in size. • It is relatively poor in cell contents, achlorophyllous and extends to form germ-rhizoid. The large cell is chlorophyllous and undergoes divisions to form a six to eight cell germ-filament or protonema. At this stage the contents of the cells migrate at the apex. • The apex is cut off from the rest of the sporeling by a division. It behaves as apical cell. It is wedge-shaped with two cutting faces. The apical cell cuts off five to seven cells alternately to the left and right. These cells by repeated divisions form a plate like structure. • According to O’ Hanlon’s (1976) a marginal row of cells appears in the apical region in this plate. By the activity of these marginal cells, the expansion of the plate takes place into thallus, a characteristic of Marchantia.
  • 19. Alternation of Generation in Marchantia: • The life cycle of Marchantia shows regular alternation of two morphologically distinct phases. One of the generations is Haplophase and the other is diplophase. Haplophase or Gametophytic Phase: • In Marchantia this phase is dominant and produces the sex organs. Sex organs produce gametes to form a diploid zygote. Diploid Phase or Sporophytic Phase: • Zygote develops into sporophyte. In Marchantia sporophyte is represented by foot, seta and capsule. The sporophyte produces the spores in the capsule. The spores on germination produce the gametophyte. • So, in Marchantia two morphologically distinct phases (Haplophase and Diplophase) constitute the life cycle. The life cycle of this type which is characterised by alternation of generations and sporogenic meiosis is known as heteromorphic and diplohaplontic.
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