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Plant Nutrition: Major elements
Dhole N. A.
Department of Botany,
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
Nutrition for
growth &
development
Plant
Essential
elements
Non-essential
elements
C, H, O, N, S,
P, K, Ca, Mg,
Fe, Mn, Zn, B,
Cu, Mo
Other than
essential
elements
Major elements:
C, H, O, S, N, P,
K, Ca, Mg
Minor elements:
B, Cu, Zn, Mn,
Mo, Fe
Major elements-
Nitrogen:
Source: Soil, bacteria, blue green algae
Function: Required for Protein, nucleic acid & chlorophyll synthesis
Deficiency symptoms:
• Chlorophyll content reduced, pale yellow & fall down
• Flowering & fruiting reduced
• Protein & starch content decreased,
• stunted growth, lateral bud remain dormant
• In tomato leaf, veins turns purple or red due to development of anthocyanin
pigment.
Nitrogen: Vein purple colored, chlorophyll pigment reduced
Sulphur:
Source: Plants, sulphates in soil
Function: Cysteine & Methionine, Protein synthesis, increase nodule formation in
leguminous plants
Deficiency symptoms:
• Chlorosis specially on young leaves which turns to yellow, orange, red or purple.
• Necrosis of young leaf tips & margin
• Apical growth inhibited, shorter internodes, premature development of lateral buds
• Leaf fall rapidly, fruit formation also suppressed
• In tobacco, tomato & tea, the leaf tip bent downwards. The leaf margin & tip roll
inwards.
Sulphur: Yellow leaf, leaf roll inwards
Phosphorus:
Source: Soil, rock, plant absorbs in the form of soluble phosphates
Function: It require in plasma membrane, nucleic acid, many coenzymes, ATP &
phosphorylated organic products. It promote root growth & fruit ripening
Deficiency symptoms:
• Young plant remain stunted, dark blue green or purple colored leaves
• Tillering of crop plant is reduced
• Premature leaf fall take place
• Growth is retarded, dead patches appear on leaf, petiole and fruits
• Cambial activity is checked
• Thickening of tracheidial is reduced and Phloem differentiation is found
incomplete.
• Phosphorus: Dark blue green or purple (Tomato)
Calcium:
Source: Soil minerals, stone or chalk, rock have large amount of carbonate of lime
Function: Major constituent of plant as calcium pectate of middle lamella of cell
wall. Activator of ATPase, some kinase, phospholipid, succinate dehydrogenase,
Carbohydrate metabolism, formation of membrane
Deficiency symptoms:
• The deficiency clear appear on young leaves, growing points of stem and root.
• Margin of the leaf appear irregular in the form or show brown spotting.
• Thin chlorotic marginal band develop.
• The young leaves may be curled backward or forward or rolled
• Roots poorly developed, lacks fibers and may appears gelatinous.
• In tomato, growing points are often killed.
Calcium: Chlorosis and young leaves curled
Potassium:
Source: Soil minerals, in the form such as potash, felspar, mica, gluconite etc. weathering
of these form produce soluble potassium for plants.
Function: It is concerned with the formation of carbohydrates, nucleic acid, proteins
synthesis, photosynthesis, transpiration regulation, enzyme action, translocations of solutes
etc.
Deficiency symptoms:
• Shoot may die, eventually plant may die.
• There may be little or no flowering
• Chlorosis occur at interveinal regions
• The color of the leaf may be dull or blue green
• Plant may become stunted growth with many fillers
• Reduced internodes of the stem and reduced production of grains
• Thin shoot develop and reduced shoot growth
• Potassium: Necrotic spots, chlorosis
Magnesium:
Source: Soil. (Heavy use of potassium may reduce absorption)
Function: It is a constitute of chlorophyll and essential for formation of pigment. It
acts as phosphorus carrier in the plant. Essential for synthesis of fat and metabolism
of carbohydrates and phosphorus.
Deficiency symptoms:
• Symptoms develops on the older leaves and proceed systematically towards the
younger leaves.
• Molted chlorosis occurs
• Leaves sometime show necrotic spots.
• Stem become yellowish - green, often hard and woody.
• Carotene is reduced
• Magnesium: chlorosis and necrotic spots
Thank you

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Plant nutrition major elements

  • 1. Plant Nutrition: Major elements Dhole N. A. Department of Botany, Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
  • 2. Nutrition for growth & development Plant Essential elements Non-essential elements C, H, O, N, S, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, B, Cu, Mo Other than essential elements Major elements: C, H, O, S, N, P, K, Ca, Mg Minor elements: B, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, Fe
  • 3. Major elements- Nitrogen: Source: Soil, bacteria, blue green algae Function: Required for Protein, nucleic acid & chlorophyll synthesis Deficiency symptoms: • Chlorophyll content reduced, pale yellow & fall down • Flowering & fruiting reduced • Protein & starch content decreased, • stunted growth, lateral bud remain dormant • In tomato leaf, veins turns purple or red due to development of anthocyanin pigment.
  • 4. Nitrogen: Vein purple colored, chlorophyll pigment reduced
  • 5. Sulphur: Source: Plants, sulphates in soil Function: Cysteine & Methionine, Protein synthesis, increase nodule formation in leguminous plants Deficiency symptoms: • Chlorosis specially on young leaves which turns to yellow, orange, red or purple. • Necrosis of young leaf tips & margin • Apical growth inhibited, shorter internodes, premature development of lateral buds • Leaf fall rapidly, fruit formation also suppressed • In tobacco, tomato & tea, the leaf tip bent downwards. The leaf margin & tip roll inwards.
  • 6. Sulphur: Yellow leaf, leaf roll inwards
  • 7. Phosphorus: Source: Soil, rock, plant absorbs in the form of soluble phosphates Function: It require in plasma membrane, nucleic acid, many coenzymes, ATP & phosphorylated organic products. It promote root growth & fruit ripening Deficiency symptoms: • Young plant remain stunted, dark blue green or purple colored leaves • Tillering of crop plant is reduced • Premature leaf fall take place • Growth is retarded, dead patches appear on leaf, petiole and fruits • Cambial activity is checked • Thickening of tracheidial is reduced and Phloem differentiation is found incomplete.
  • 8. • Phosphorus: Dark blue green or purple (Tomato)
  • 9. Calcium: Source: Soil minerals, stone or chalk, rock have large amount of carbonate of lime Function: Major constituent of plant as calcium pectate of middle lamella of cell wall. Activator of ATPase, some kinase, phospholipid, succinate dehydrogenase, Carbohydrate metabolism, formation of membrane Deficiency symptoms: • The deficiency clear appear on young leaves, growing points of stem and root. • Margin of the leaf appear irregular in the form or show brown spotting. • Thin chlorotic marginal band develop. • The young leaves may be curled backward or forward or rolled • Roots poorly developed, lacks fibers and may appears gelatinous. • In tomato, growing points are often killed.
  • 10. Calcium: Chlorosis and young leaves curled
  • 11. Potassium: Source: Soil minerals, in the form such as potash, felspar, mica, gluconite etc. weathering of these form produce soluble potassium for plants. Function: It is concerned with the formation of carbohydrates, nucleic acid, proteins synthesis, photosynthesis, transpiration regulation, enzyme action, translocations of solutes etc. Deficiency symptoms: • Shoot may die, eventually plant may die. • There may be little or no flowering • Chlorosis occur at interveinal regions • The color of the leaf may be dull or blue green • Plant may become stunted growth with many fillers • Reduced internodes of the stem and reduced production of grains • Thin shoot develop and reduced shoot growth
  • 12. • Potassium: Necrotic spots, chlorosis
  • 13. Magnesium: Source: Soil. (Heavy use of potassium may reduce absorption) Function: It is a constitute of chlorophyll and essential for formation of pigment. It acts as phosphorus carrier in the plant. Essential for synthesis of fat and metabolism of carbohydrates and phosphorus. Deficiency symptoms: • Symptoms develops on the older leaves and proceed systematically towards the younger leaves. • Molted chlorosis occurs • Leaves sometime show necrotic spots. • Stem become yellowish - green, often hard and woody. • Carotene is reduced
  • 14. • Magnesium: chlorosis and necrotic spots