SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Ultra-structure of Lysosome and its
functions
Dhole N. A.
Department of Botany,
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
Lysosomes:
• lysosome, subcellular organelle that is found in nearly all types of eukaryotic
cells (cells with a clearly defined nucleus) and that is responsible for the
digestion of macromolecules, old cells parts, and microorganisms.
• Each lysosome is surrounded by a membrane that maintains an acidic
ebvironment within the interior via a proton pump.
• Lysosomes contain a wide variety of hydrolytic enzymes (acid hydrolases)
that break down macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and
polysaccharides.
• These enzymes are active only in the lysosome’s acidic interior; their acid-
dependent activity protects the cell from self-degradation in case of
lysosomal leakage or rupture, since the pH of the cell is neutral to slightly
alkaline.
• Lysosomes were discovered by the Belgian cytologist Christian Rene de Duve
in the 1950s. (De Duve was awarded a share of the 1974 Nobel Prize for
Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of lysosomes and other organelles
known as peroxisomes.)
https://www.britannica.com/science/Pompes-disease https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/lysosomes/
• Lysosomes are membrane-bound, dense granular structures containing
hydrolytic enzymes responsible mainly for intracellular and extracellular
digestion.
• The word “lysosome” is made up of two words “lysis” meaning breakdown
and “soma” meaning body.
• It is an important cell organelle responsible for the inter and extracellular
breakdown of substances.
• They are more commonly found in animal cells while only in some lower
plant groups ( slime molds and saprophytic fungi).
• Lysosomes occur freely in the cytoplasm. In animals, found in almost all cells
except in the RBCs.
• They are found in most abundant numbers in cells related to enzymatic
reactions such as liver cells, pancreatic cells, kidney cells, spleen cells,
leucocytes, macrophages, etc.
Structure of Lysosomes:
• Lysosomes are without any characteristic shape or structure i.e. they are
pleomorphic
• They are mostly globular or granular in appearance.
• It is 0.2-0.5 μm in size and is surrounded by a single lipoprotein membrane unique
in composition.
• The membrane contains highly glycosylated lysosomal associated membrane
proteins (LAMP) and Lysosomal integral membrane proteins (LIMP).
• LAMPs and LIMPs form a coat on the inner surface of the membrane
• They protect the membrane from attack by the numerous hydrolytic enzymes
retained inside.
• The lysosomal membrane has a hydrogen proton pump which is responsible for
maintaining pH conditions of the enzyme The acidic medium maintained by the
proton pump that pumps H+ inside the lumen, ensures the functionality of the
lysosomal enzymes.
• Inside the membrane, the organelle contains enzymes in the crystalline form.
Lysosomal Enzymes :
• For degradation of extra and intracellular material, lysosomes filled with
enzymes called hydrolases. It contains about 40 varieties of enzymes which
are classified into the following main types, namely:
• Proteases, which digest proteins
• Lipases, which digests lipids
• Amylase, which digests carbohydrates
• Nucleases, which digest nucleic acids
• Phosphoric acid monoesters
• Collectively the group of enzymes is called hydrolases which cause cleavage
of substrates by the addition of water molecules. Most of the lysosomal
enzymes function in the acidic medium.
Lysosomal Membrane:
•As compared to the mitochondria, it is slightly thicker.
•Sialic acid is present in it.
•Since the lysosomal membrane protein is highly glycosylated, it
protects from the action of the lysosomal proteases.
•The lysosomal membrane can fuse with the other membranes of the
cell which is the unique property.
•When the lysosomal membrane ruptures, lysosomal enzymes are
released.
•It can be caused by the destabilizing influence of the surface-active
agents and the steroid sex hormones.
•The lysosomal membrane is stabilized by cortisone and hydrocortisone.
• The margins of each cisterna are gently curved so that the entire dictyosome
•On the tissue, they possess an anti-inflammatory effect.
•Within the lysosome all the process of digestion takes place.
•For the action of the lysosomal enzyme, the medium should be acidic.
•To maintain the acidic condition inside the organelle, there should be an
accumulation of the H+.
•It is maintained by the proton pump which is ATP-dependent.
•Transport protein is also present in the lysosomal membrane.
•When the macromolecules get digested, the final products can be
transported by these proteins.
•After the transportation, they can be further utilized by the cell or be
excreted.
Types of Lysosomes:
Polymorphism can be seen in the morphology of the lysosome.
There are four types of lysosomes.
• Primary lysosome
• Heterophagosomes
• Autophagososomes
• Residual Bodies
A. Primary Lysosomes:
• They are also called:
• Storage granules
• Protolysosomes
• The primary lysosome is bounded by a single membrane.
• It has a diameter of 100nm.
• A digestive enzyme is present in it which has not taken part in the digestion.
• One type of enzyme or another is present in it.
• Only in the secondary lysosome, there is the presence of the full complement
of acid hydrolases.
B. Heterophagosomes:
• They are also called:
• heterophagic vacuoles
• heterolysosomes
• Phagolysosomes
• When the primary lysosome fuse with the cytoplasmic vacuoles, a
heterophagosome is formed.
• Extracellular substances are present in the cytoplasmic vacuoles.
• Different endocytic processes like pinocytosis, phagocytosis, or receptor-mediated
endocytosis help in bringing such extracellular substances into the cell.
• In these secondary lysosomes, there is the presence of the hydrolytic enzymes
which digest the engulfed substances.
• After digestion, such particles will pass across the membrane of the lysosome.
• Then it will become part of the matrix.
C. Autophagosomes
• They are also called:
• Autophagic vacuole
• cytolysosomes
• Autolysosomes
• Digestion of the different intracellular structures like mitochondria,
ribosomes, peroxisome, and glycogen granules can be done by the primary
lysosome.
• Autophagy is called autodigestion.
• During cell growth and repair, autophagy is a normal event.
• It is prevalent in the differentiation, the dedifferentiation of the tissues and
tissue under stress.
Autophagy occurs in different forms:
i. By fusion of the lysosome:
• It is enclosed inside the double membrane sac.
• Then there is the breakdown of the inner membrane.
• Penetration of the enzyme can occur to the enclosed organelle.
ii. Formation of a vesicle and fusion with primary lysosome:
• Vesicle is formed when the smooth endoplasmic reticulum encases the
organelle which needs to be digested.
• Microautophagy also takes place. When the digestion process proceeds then
it becomes difficult to identify the type of secondary lysosome if it is
heterophagosome or autophagosome. So, in this stage, it is said as the
digestive vacuole.
D. Residual Bodies:
• They are also called:
• Telolysosome
• Dense bodies
• Incomplete digestion results in the formation of the residual bodies.
• When some lysosomal enzymes are absent, incomplete digestion may occur.
• Inside the digestive vacuoles, the undigested food remains as the residue.
• Then they make take different forms.
• Residue body is larger and irregular in shape.
• By the defecation, residual bodies are eliminated in the case of Amoeba and
some other protozoa.
• In some cells, for a longer period, the residual body may stay which may
cause aging.
Functions of Lysosomes:
Lysosomes serve two major functions:
1.Intracellular Digestion
• To digest food, the lysosome membrane fuses with the membrane of food vacuole and
squirts the enzymes inside.
• The digested food then diffuses through the vacuole membrane and enters the cell to be
used for energy and growth.
2.Autolytic Action
• Cell organelles that need to be ridden are covered by vesicles or vacuoles by the process
of autophagy to form autophagosome.
• The autophagosome is then destroyed by the action of lysosomal enzymes.
• Processes in which lysosomes play crucial roles include:
a. Heterophagy
• The taking into the cell of exogenous material by phagocytosis or pinocytosis and the
digestion of the ingested material after fusion of the newly formed vacuole with a
lysosome.
b. Autophagy
• A normal physiological process that deals with the destruction of cells in the body.
It is essential for maintaining homeostasis, for normal functioning by protein
degradation, turnover of destroyed cell organelles for new cell formation
c. Extracellular Digestion
• Primary lysosomes secrete hydrolases outside by exocytosis resulting in
degradation of extracellular materials.
• Eg. Saprophytic fungi
d. Autolysis
• It refers to the killing of an entire set of cells by the breakdown of the lysosomal
membrane. It occurs during amphibian and insect metamorphosis.
e. Fertilization
• The acrosome of the sperm head is a giant lysosome that ruptures and releases
enzymes on the surface of the egg. This provides the way for sperm entry into the
egg by digesting the egg membrane.
References:
• https://www.britannica.com/science/lysosome
• https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/lysosomes/
• https://microbenotes.com/lysosomes-structure-enzymes-types-
functions/
Thank you

More Related Content

What's hot

Transcriptional regulation
Transcriptional regulationTranscriptional regulation
Transcriptional regulation
Dr Muhammad Mustansar
 
Shoot and root apical meristem
Shoot and root apical meristemShoot and root apical meristem
Shoot and root apical meristem
Smart Karthi
 
Female gametophyte
Female gametophyteFemale gametophyte
Female gametophyte
Mansi Prajapati
 
Meristem culture
Meristem cultureMeristem culture
Meristem culture
Suman Rawte
 
Ecological speciation
Ecological speciationEcological speciation
Ecological speciation
EmaSushan
 
Ribosomes - Basics
Ribosomes - BasicsRibosomes - Basics
Ribosomes - Basics
Nethravathi Siri
 
Female gametophyte
Female gametophyteFemale gametophyte
Female gametophyte
gohil sanjay bhagvanji
 
Development of male gametophyte
Development of male gametophyteDevelopment of male gametophyte
Development of male gametophyte
gohil sanjay bhagvanji
 
mitochondria biogenesis and functions.pptx
mitochondria biogenesis and functions.pptxmitochondria biogenesis and functions.pptx
mitochondria biogenesis and functions.pptx
Kottakkal farook arts and science college
 
Ribosome
RibosomeRibosome
Ribosome
Dr Anjani Kumar
 
Theory of shoot apical meristem
Theory of shoot apical meristemTheory of shoot apical meristem
Theory of shoot apical meristem
gohil sanjay bhagvanji
 
Molecular Analysis Of SAM & RAM
Molecular Analysis Of SAM & RAMMolecular Analysis Of SAM & RAM
Molecular Analysis Of SAM & RAM
Tilak I S
 
Mapping the bacteriophage genome
Mapping the bacteriophage genomeMapping the bacteriophage genome
Mapping the bacteriophage genome
vibhakhanna1
 
Documentation in plant taxonomy
Documentation in plant taxonomyDocumentation in plant taxonomy
Documentation in plant taxonomy
Sangeeta Das
 
Molecular basis of spontanceous mutation,induced mutation & physical and ...
Molecular basis of spontanceous mutation,induced mutation & physical and ...Molecular basis of spontanceous mutation,induced mutation & physical and ...
Molecular basis of spontanceous mutation,induced mutation & physical and ...
gohil sanjay bhagvanji
 
Pollen wall proteins
Pollen wall proteinsPollen wall proteins
Heterochromatin and euchromatin mains
Heterochromatin and euchromatin mainsHeterochromatin and euchromatin mains
Heterochromatin and euchromatin mains
hithesh ck
 
Overview of translocation(Phloem transport)
Overview of translocation(Phloem transport)Overview of translocation(Phloem transport)
Overview of translocation(Phloem transport)
Sir Parashurambhau College, Pune
 
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene structures
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene structuresProkaryotic and eukaryotic gene structures
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene structures
tusharamodugu
 
Concept of biotechnology
Concept of biotechnologyConcept of biotechnology

What's hot (20)

Transcriptional regulation
Transcriptional regulationTranscriptional regulation
Transcriptional regulation
 
Shoot and root apical meristem
Shoot and root apical meristemShoot and root apical meristem
Shoot and root apical meristem
 
Female gametophyte
Female gametophyteFemale gametophyte
Female gametophyte
 
Meristem culture
Meristem cultureMeristem culture
Meristem culture
 
Ecological speciation
Ecological speciationEcological speciation
Ecological speciation
 
Ribosomes - Basics
Ribosomes - BasicsRibosomes - Basics
Ribosomes - Basics
 
Female gametophyte
Female gametophyteFemale gametophyte
Female gametophyte
 
Development of male gametophyte
Development of male gametophyteDevelopment of male gametophyte
Development of male gametophyte
 
mitochondria biogenesis and functions.pptx
mitochondria biogenesis and functions.pptxmitochondria biogenesis and functions.pptx
mitochondria biogenesis and functions.pptx
 
Ribosome
RibosomeRibosome
Ribosome
 
Theory of shoot apical meristem
Theory of shoot apical meristemTheory of shoot apical meristem
Theory of shoot apical meristem
 
Molecular Analysis Of SAM & RAM
Molecular Analysis Of SAM & RAMMolecular Analysis Of SAM & RAM
Molecular Analysis Of SAM & RAM
 
Mapping the bacteriophage genome
Mapping the bacteriophage genomeMapping the bacteriophage genome
Mapping the bacteriophage genome
 
Documentation in plant taxonomy
Documentation in plant taxonomyDocumentation in plant taxonomy
Documentation in plant taxonomy
 
Molecular basis of spontanceous mutation,induced mutation & physical and ...
Molecular basis of spontanceous mutation,induced mutation & physical and ...Molecular basis of spontanceous mutation,induced mutation & physical and ...
Molecular basis of spontanceous mutation,induced mutation & physical and ...
 
Pollen wall proteins
Pollen wall proteinsPollen wall proteins
Pollen wall proteins
 
Heterochromatin and euchromatin mains
Heterochromatin and euchromatin mainsHeterochromatin and euchromatin mains
Heterochromatin and euchromatin mains
 
Overview of translocation(Phloem transport)
Overview of translocation(Phloem transport)Overview of translocation(Phloem transport)
Overview of translocation(Phloem transport)
 
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene structures
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene structuresProkaryotic and eukaryotic gene structures
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene structures
 
Concept of biotechnology
Concept of biotechnologyConcept of biotechnology
Concept of biotechnology
 

Similar to Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions

Lysosome
LysosomeLysosome
Lysosome
SoniaBajaj10
 
Lysosomes and peroxisomes
Lysosomes and peroxisomesLysosomes and peroxisomes
Lysosomes and peroxisomes
Sara Hassan
 
Role of lysosomes as hyrolaytic activity of an enzymes
 Role of lysosomes as hyrolaytic activity of an enzymes Role of lysosomes as hyrolaytic activity of an enzymes
Role of lysosomes as hyrolaytic activity of an enzymes
Eram Rashid
 
Lysosome
LysosomeLysosome
1585118470_Z(H)-II-LYSOSOMES.pdf
1585118470_Z(H)-II-LYSOSOMES.pdf1585118470_Z(H)-II-LYSOSOMES.pdf
1585118470_Z(H)-II-LYSOSOMES.pdf
AkhilKrishnaPillai
 
LYSOSOMES structure and functions.123456789pptx
LYSOSOMES structure and functions.123456789pptxLYSOSOMES structure and functions.123456789pptx
LYSOSOMES structure and functions.123456789pptx
InamUlHaqKhan6
 
CELL Biochemistry - new.ppt
CELL Biochemistry - new.pptCELL Biochemistry - new.ppt
CELL Biochemistry - new.ppt
AnnaKhurshid
 
CELL Biochemistry.ppt
CELL Biochemistry.pptCELL Biochemistry.ppt
CELL Biochemistry.ppt
AnnaKhurshid
 
lysosome anatomy.pptx
lysosome  anatomy.pptxlysosome  anatomy.pptx
lysosome anatomy.pptx
SAURABHSINGH228504
 
CELL STRUCTURE.pptx
CELL STRUCTURE.pptxCELL STRUCTURE.pptx
CELL STRUCTURE.pptx
VRAGHAVI
 
Sps.final
Sps.finalSps.final
Cell Structure and Function by Dr. Zahoor Mir.pptx
Cell Structure and Function by Dr. Zahoor Mir.pptxCell Structure and Function by Dr. Zahoor Mir.pptx
Cell Structure and Function by Dr. Zahoor Mir.pptx
healthvisionphysioth
 
Endomembrane system
Endomembrane systemEndomembrane system
Endomembrane system
Abhinav Baranwal
 
BMP 111 LECTURE 3&4.pptx
BMP 111 LECTURE 3&4.pptxBMP 111 LECTURE 3&4.pptx
BMP 111 LECTURE 3&4.pptx
SaadMohdBello
 
CELL-the-unit-of-life-8.pptx
CELL-the-unit-of-life-8.pptxCELL-the-unit-of-life-8.pptx
CELL-the-unit-of-life-8.pptx
MUSharavanaPriyan
 
Cell and cell organelles
Cell and cell organellesCell and cell organelles
Cell and cell organelles
sheessince94
 
LYSOSOME.pdf
LYSOSOME.pdfLYSOSOME.pdf
LYSOSOME.pdf
SayanKundu50
 
Lecture 2 (cell and it's function)
Lecture 2 (cell and it's function)Lecture 2 (cell and it's function)
Lecture 2 (cell and it's function)
Ayub Abdi
 
easylearningwithned.blogspot.com-What is Lysosomes Origin and Occurrence Morp...
easylearningwithned.blogspot.com-What is Lysosomes Origin and Occurrence Morp...easylearningwithned.blogspot.com-What is Lysosomes Origin and Occurrence Morp...
easylearningwithned.blogspot.com-What is Lysosomes Origin and Occurrence Morp...
Home
 
cell structure.pptx
cell structure.pptxcell structure.pptx
cell structure.pptx
KowsikaS8
 

Similar to Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions (20)

Lysosome
LysosomeLysosome
Lysosome
 
Lysosomes and peroxisomes
Lysosomes and peroxisomesLysosomes and peroxisomes
Lysosomes and peroxisomes
 
Role of lysosomes as hyrolaytic activity of an enzymes
 Role of lysosomes as hyrolaytic activity of an enzymes Role of lysosomes as hyrolaytic activity of an enzymes
Role of lysosomes as hyrolaytic activity of an enzymes
 
Lysosome
LysosomeLysosome
Lysosome
 
1585118470_Z(H)-II-LYSOSOMES.pdf
1585118470_Z(H)-II-LYSOSOMES.pdf1585118470_Z(H)-II-LYSOSOMES.pdf
1585118470_Z(H)-II-LYSOSOMES.pdf
 
LYSOSOMES structure and functions.123456789pptx
LYSOSOMES structure and functions.123456789pptxLYSOSOMES structure and functions.123456789pptx
LYSOSOMES structure and functions.123456789pptx
 
CELL Biochemistry - new.ppt
CELL Biochemistry - new.pptCELL Biochemistry - new.ppt
CELL Biochemistry - new.ppt
 
CELL Biochemistry.ppt
CELL Biochemistry.pptCELL Biochemistry.ppt
CELL Biochemistry.ppt
 
lysosome anatomy.pptx
lysosome  anatomy.pptxlysosome  anatomy.pptx
lysosome anatomy.pptx
 
CELL STRUCTURE.pptx
CELL STRUCTURE.pptxCELL STRUCTURE.pptx
CELL STRUCTURE.pptx
 
Sps.final
Sps.finalSps.final
Sps.final
 
Cell Structure and Function by Dr. Zahoor Mir.pptx
Cell Structure and Function by Dr. Zahoor Mir.pptxCell Structure and Function by Dr. Zahoor Mir.pptx
Cell Structure and Function by Dr. Zahoor Mir.pptx
 
Endomembrane system
Endomembrane systemEndomembrane system
Endomembrane system
 
BMP 111 LECTURE 3&4.pptx
BMP 111 LECTURE 3&4.pptxBMP 111 LECTURE 3&4.pptx
BMP 111 LECTURE 3&4.pptx
 
CELL-the-unit-of-life-8.pptx
CELL-the-unit-of-life-8.pptxCELL-the-unit-of-life-8.pptx
CELL-the-unit-of-life-8.pptx
 
Cell and cell organelles
Cell and cell organellesCell and cell organelles
Cell and cell organelles
 
LYSOSOME.pdf
LYSOSOME.pdfLYSOSOME.pdf
LYSOSOME.pdf
 
Lecture 2 (cell and it's function)
Lecture 2 (cell and it's function)Lecture 2 (cell and it's function)
Lecture 2 (cell and it's function)
 
easylearningwithned.blogspot.com-What is Lysosomes Origin and Occurrence Morp...
easylearningwithned.blogspot.com-What is Lysosomes Origin and Occurrence Morp...easylearningwithned.blogspot.com-What is Lysosomes Origin and Occurrence Morp...
easylearningwithned.blogspot.com-What is Lysosomes Origin and Occurrence Morp...
 
cell structure.pptx
cell structure.pptxcell structure.pptx
cell structure.pptx
 

More from Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar

Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptxUltra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptxUltrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptxUltrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functionsUltrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functionsUltra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis
7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis
7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
2. Marchantia distribution and external features
2. Marchantia distribution and external features2. Marchantia distribution and external features
2. Marchantia distribution and external features
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
1. General characters of bryophytes
1. General characters of bryophytes1. General characters of bryophytes
1. General characters of bryophytes
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
Economic importance of viruses and bacteriaEconomic importance of viruses and bacteria
Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Plant nutrition minor elements
Plant nutrition minor elementsPlant nutrition minor elements
Plant nutrition minor elements
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Plant nutrition major elements
Plant nutrition major elementsPlant nutrition major elements
Plant nutrition major elements
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ascent of sap and transpiration
Ascent of sap and transpirationAscent of sap and transpiration
Ascent of sap and transpiration
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Plant water relation
Plant water relationPlant water relation
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficitDiffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 

More from Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar (20)

Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptxUltra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
 
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptxUltrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
 
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptxUltrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
 
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functionsUltrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functions
 
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functionsUltra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
 
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
 
7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis
7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis
7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis
 
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
 
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
 
2. Marchantia distribution and external features
2. Marchantia distribution and external features2. Marchantia distribution and external features
2. Marchantia distribution and external features
 
1. General characters of bryophytes
1. General characters of bryophytes1. General characters of bryophytes
1. General characters of bryophytes
 
Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
Economic importance of viruses and bacteriaEconomic importance of viruses and bacteria
Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
 
Plant nutrition minor elements
Plant nutrition minor elementsPlant nutrition minor elements
Plant nutrition minor elements
 
Plant nutrition major elements
Plant nutrition major elementsPlant nutrition major elements
Plant nutrition major elements
 
Ascent of sap and transpiration
Ascent of sap and transpirationAscent of sap and transpiration
Ascent of sap and transpiration
 
Plant water relation
Plant water relationPlant water relation
Plant water relation
 
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficitDiffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
 
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
 

Recently uploaded

The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically youngThe debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
Sérgio Sacani
 
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
by6843629
 
Eukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptx
Eukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptxEukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptx
Eukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptx
RitabrataSarkar3
 
Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf
Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdfBob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf
Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf
Texas Alliance of Groundwater Districts
 
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptxESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
PRIYANKA PATEL
 
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defectsThe binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
Sérgio Sacani
 
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNERandomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
University of Maribor
 
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptxThe use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
MAGOTI ERNEST
 
Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf
Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdfThornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf
Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf
European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform
 
Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...
Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...
Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...
University of Maribor
 
Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward
Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths ForwardImmersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward
Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward
Leonel Morgado
 
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
Sharon Liu
 
Equivariant neural networks and representation theory
Equivariant neural networks and representation theoryEquivariant neural networks and representation theory
Equivariant neural networks and representation theory
Daniel Tubbenhauer
 
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different formsBasics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
MaheshaNanjegowda
 
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Leonel Morgado
 
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdfTopic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
TinyAnderson
 
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Leonel Morgado
 
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Aditi Bajpai
 
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptxOedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
muralinath2
 

Recently uploaded (20)

The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically youngThe debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
 
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
 
Eukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptx
Eukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptxEukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptx
Eukaryotic Transcription Presentation.pptx
 
Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf
Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdfBob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf
Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf
 
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptxESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
 
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defectsThe binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
 
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNERandomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
 
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptxThe use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
 
Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf
Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdfThornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf
Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf
 
Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...
Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...
Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...
 
Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward
Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths ForwardImmersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward
Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward
 
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
 
Equivariant neural networks and representation theory
Equivariant neural networks and representation theoryEquivariant neural networks and representation theory
Equivariant neural networks and representation theory
 
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different formsBasics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
 
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
 
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdfTopic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
 
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
 
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
 
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
 
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptxOedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
 

Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions

  • 1. Ultra-structure of Lysosome and its functions Dhole N. A. Department of Botany, Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
  • 2. Lysosomes: • lysosome, subcellular organelle that is found in nearly all types of eukaryotic cells (cells with a clearly defined nucleus) and that is responsible for the digestion of macromolecules, old cells parts, and microorganisms. • Each lysosome is surrounded by a membrane that maintains an acidic ebvironment within the interior via a proton pump. • Lysosomes contain a wide variety of hydrolytic enzymes (acid hydrolases) that break down macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and polysaccharides.
  • 3. • These enzymes are active only in the lysosome’s acidic interior; their acid- dependent activity protects the cell from self-degradation in case of lysosomal leakage or rupture, since the pH of the cell is neutral to slightly alkaline. • Lysosomes were discovered by the Belgian cytologist Christian Rene de Duve in the 1950s. (De Duve was awarded a share of the 1974 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of lysosomes and other organelles known as peroxisomes.)
  • 5. • Lysosomes are membrane-bound, dense granular structures containing hydrolytic enzymes responsible mainly for intracellular and extracellular digestion. • The word “lysosome” is made up of two words “lysis” meaning breakdown and “soma” meaning body. • It is an important cell organelle responsible for the inter and extracellular breakdown of substances. • They are more commonly found in animal cells while only in some lower plant groups ( slime molds and saprophytic fungi). • Lysosomes occur freely in the cytoplasm. In animals, found in almost all cells except in the RBCs. • They are found in most abundant numbers in cells related to enzymatic reactions such as liver cells, pancreatic cells, kidney cells, spleen cells, leucocytes, macrophages, etc.
  • 6. Structure of Lysosomes: • Lysosomes are without any characteristic shape or structure i.e. they are pleomorphic • They are mostly globular or granular in appearance. • It is 0.2-0.5 μm in size and is surrounded by a single lipoprotein membrane unique in composition. • The membrane contains highly glycosylated lysosomal associated membrane proteins (LAMP) and Lysosomal integral membrane proteins (LIMP). • LAMPs and LIMPs form a coat on the inner surface of the membrane • They protect the membrane from attack by the numerous hydrolytic enzymes retained inside. • The lysosomal membrane has a hydrogen proton pump which is responsible for maintaining pH conditions of the enzyme The acidic medium maintained by the proton pump that pumps H+ inside the lumen, ensures the functionality of the lysosomal enzymes. • Inside the membrane, the organelle contains enzymes in the crystalline form.
  • 7. Lysosomal Enzymes : • For degradation of extra and intracellular material, lysosomes filled with enzymes called hydrolases. It contains about 40 varieties of enzymes which are classified into the following main types, namely: • Proteases, which digest proteins • Lipases, which digests lipids • Amylase, which digests carbohydrates • Nucleases, which digest nucleic acids • Phosphoric acid monoesters • Collectively the group of enzymes is called hydrolases which cause cleavage of substrates by the addition of water molecules. Most of the lysosomal enzymes function in the acidic medium.
  • 8. Lysosomal Membrane: •As compared to the mitochondria, it is slightly thicker. •Sialic acid is present in it. •Since the lysosomal membrane protein is highly glycosylated, it protects from the action of the lysosomal proteases. •The lysosomal membrane can fuse with the other membranes of the cell which is the unique property. •When the lysosomal membrane ruptures, lysosomal enzymes are released. •It can be caused by the destabilizing influence of the surface-active agents and the steroid sex hormones. •The lysosomal membrane is stabilized by cortisone and hydrocortisone.
  • 9. • The margins of each cisterna are gently curved so that the entire dictyosome •On the tissue, they possess an anti-inflammatory effect. •Within the lysosome all the process of digestion takes place. •For the action of the lysosomal enzyme, the medium should be acidic. •To maintain the acidic condition inside the organelle, there should be an accumulation of the H+. •It is maintained by the proton pump which is ATP-dependent. •Transport protein is also present in the lysosomal membrane. •When the macromolecules get digested, the final products can be transported by these proteins. •After the transportation, they can be further utilized by the cell or be excreted.
  • 10. Types of Lysosomes: Polymorphism can be seen in the morphology of the lysosome. There are four types of lysosomes. • Primary lysosome • Heterophagosomes • Autophagososomes • Residual Bodies
  • 11. A. Primary Lysosomes: • They are also called: • Storage granules • Protolysosomes • The primary lysosome is bounded by a single membrane. • It has a diameter of 100nm. • A digestive enzyme is present in it which has not taken part in the digestion. • One type of enzyme or another is present in it. • Only in the secondary lysosome, there is the presence of the full complement of acid hydrolases.
  • 12. B. Heterophagosomes: • They are also called: • heterophagic vacuoles • heterolysosomes • Phagolysosomes • When the primary lysosome fuse with the cytoplasmic vacuoles, a heterophagosome is formed. • Extracellular substances are present in the cytoplasmic vacuoles. • Different endocytic processes like pinocytosis, phagocytosis, or receptor-mediated endocytosis help in bringing such extracellular substances into the cell. • In these secondary lysosomes, there is the presence of the hydrolytic enzymes which digest the engulfed substances. • After digestion, such particles will pass across the membrane of the lysosome. • Then it will become part of the matrix.
  • 13. C. Autophagosomes • They are also called: • Autophagic vacuole • cytolysosomes • Autolysosomes • Digestion of the different intracellular structures like mitochondria, ribosomes, peroxisome, and glycogen granules can be done by the primary lysosome. • Autophagy is called autodigestion. • During cell growth and repair, autophagy is a normal event. • It is prevalent in the differentiation, the dedifferentiation of the tissues and tissue under stress.
  • 14. Autophagy occurs in different forms: i. By fusion of the lysosome: • It is enclosed inside the double membrane sac. • Then there is the breakdown of the inner membrane. • Penetration of the enzyme can occur to the enclosed organelle. ii. Formation of a vesicle and fusion with primary lysosome: • Vesicle is formed when the smooth endoplasmic reticulum encases the organelle which needs to be digested. • Microautophagy also takes place. When the digestion process proceeds then it becomes difficult to identify the type of secondary lysosome if it is heterophagosome or autophagosome. So, in this stage, it is said as the digestive vacuole.
  • 15. D. Residual Bodies: • They are also called: • Telolysosome • Dense bodies • Incomplete digestion results in the formation of the residual bodies. • When some lysosomal enzymes are absent, incomplete digestion may occur. • Inside the digestive vacuoles, the undigested food remains as the residue. • Then they make take different forms. • Residue body is larger and irregular in shape. • By the defecation, residual bodies are eliminated in the case of Amoeba and some other protozoa. • In some cells, for a longer period, the residual body may stay which may cause aging.
  • 16. Functions of Lysosomes: Lysosomes serve two major functions: 1.Intracellular Digestion • To digest food, the lysosome membrane fuses with the membrane of food vacuole and squirts the enzymes inside. • The digested food then diffuses through the vacuole membrane and enters the cell to be used for energy and growth. 2.Autolytic Action • Cell organelles that need to be ridden are covered by vesicles or vacuoles by the process of autophagy to form autophagosome. • The autophagosome is then destroyed by the action of lysosomal enzymes. • Processes in which lysosomes play crucial roles include: a. Heterophagy • The taking into the cell of exogenous material by phagocytosis or pinocytosis and the digestion of the ingested material after fusion of the newly formed vacuole with a lysosome.
  • 17. b. Autophagy • A normal physiological process that deals with the destruction of cells in the body. It is essential for maintaining homeostasis, for normal functioning by protein degradation, turnover of destroyed cell organelles for new cell formation c. Extracellular Digestion • Primary lysosomes secrete hydrolases outside by exocytosis resulting in degradation of extracellular materials. • Eg. Saprophytic fungi d. Autolysis • It refers to the killing of an entire set of cells by the breakdown of the lysosomal membrane. It occurs during amphibian and insect metamorphosis. e. Fertilization • The acrosome of the sperm head is a giant lysosome that ruptures and releases enzymes on the surface of the egg. This provides the way for sperm entry into the egg by digesting the egg membrane.
  • 18. References: • https://www.britannica.com/science/lysosome • https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/lysosomes/ • https://microbenotes.com/lysosomes-structure-enzymes-types- functions/