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Ultra-structure and functions of
Chloroplast
Dhole N. A.
Department of Botany,
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
Chloroplast:
• The word chloroplast is derived from the Greek words chloros, which means
green, and plastes, which means “the one who forms”.
• Chloroplasts are membrane-bound plastids that contain a network of
membranes embedded into a liquid matrix and harbor the photosynthetic
pigment called chlorophyll.
• It is this pigment that imparts a green color to plant parts and serves to
capture light energy.
• Chloroplasts can be found in the cells of the mesophyll in plant leaves.
• There are usually 30-40 per mesophyll cells.
https://alevelbiology.co.uk/notes/chloroplasts-structure-and-functions/
Chloroplast Morphology:
 Its size and shape vary from species to species. In higher plants
chloroplast are generally biconvex or planoconvex.
 However, in different plant cells, it may have various shapes such as
filamentous, saucer, ovoid, discoid, spheroid, star-like girdle-shaped,
spiral ribbon-like, reticulate, or cup-shaped.
 The size of the chloroplast is generally measured at about 5-10 µm in
diameter and 2-3 µm in thickness.
 The chloroplast of cells of polyploid and shade plants are
comparatively larger than the chloroplast of cells of diploid and sun
plants.
Structure of Chloroplasts:
• Chloroplasts found in higher plants are generally biconvex or planoconvex shaped.
• Chloroplasts can be found in the cells of the mesophyll in plant leaves.
• In different plants chloroplasts have different shapes, they vary from spheroid,
filamentous saucer-shaped, discoid or ovoid shaped.
• They are vesicular and have a colorless center.
• Some chloroplasts are in shape of club, they have a thin middle zone and the ends
are filled with chlorophyll.
• In algae a single huge chloroplast is seen that appears as a network, a spiral band
or a stellate plate.
• The size of the chloroplast also varies from species to species and it is constant for
a given cell type.
• In higher plants, the average size of chloroplast is 4-6 µ in diameter and 1-3 µ in
thickness.
.
 Outer membrane – It is a semi-porous membrane and is permeable to
small molecules and ions, which diffuses easily. The outer membrane
is not permeable to larger proteins.
 Intermembrane Space – It is usually a thin intermembrane space
about 10-20 nanometers and it is present between the outer and the
inner membrane of the chloroplast.
 Inner membrane – The inner membrane of the chloroplast forms a
border to the stroma. It regulates passage of materials in and out of
the chloroplast. In addition of regulation activity, the fatty acids, lipids
and carotenoids are synthesized in the inner chloroplast membrane.
Stroma-
 Stroma is a alkaline, aqueous fluid which is protein rich and is present
within the inner membrane of the chloroplast.
 The space outside the thylakoid space is called the stroma.
 The chloroplast DNA chlroplast ribosomes and the thylakoid sytem,
starch granules and many proteins are found floating around the
stroma.
Thylakoid System-
•The thylakoid system is suspended in the stroma.
•The thylakoid system is a collection of membranous sacks called
thylakoids.
•The chlorophyll is found in the thylakoids and is the sight for the
process of light reactions of photosynthesis to happen.
•The thylakoids are arranged in stacks known as grana.
•Each granum contains around 10-20 thylakoids.
Types of Pigments
1. Chlorophyll
• Chlorophyll is a green pigment located within the chloroplast. More
specifically, it is found in the thylakoid membranes.
• The chlorophyll consists of 75% of chlorophyll a and 25% of chlorophyll b.
• The chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight and the synthesis of food
molecules in the chloroplast.
2. Carotenoids
• Carotenoids are the pigments present in chlorophylls which are located in the
thylakoid membrane. Pigments like yellow and orange are present in it.
• Carotenoids are related to vitamin A.
• They are important because they can absorb a certain wavelength of light
that can not be absorbed by chlorophylls.
• Carotenoids are involved in a function known as photoprotection.
3. Xanthophylls
• The carotenoids are carotenes and xanthophylls. Xanthophylls are present in
the brown and green algae.
4. Phycobilin
• Phycobilin is found only in red algae and Cyanobacteria. It has a relatively
narrow distribution.
• Phycoerythrin and phycocyanin are other accessory pigments belonging to
this family.
• Phycoerythrin makes red algae commonly red and phycocyanin causes
the Cyanobacteria to appear blue-green.
Functions of Chloroplast:
 Absorption of light energy and conversion of it into biological energy.
 Production of NAPDH2 and evolution of oxygen through the process of
photolysis of water.
 Production of ATP by photophosphorylation. NADPH2 and ATP are the
assimilatory powers of photosynthesis. Transfer of CO2 obtained from
the air to 5 carbon sugar in the stream during dark reaction.
 Breaking of 6-carbon atom compound into two molecules of
phosphoglyceric acid by the utilization of assimilatory powers.
 Conversion of PGA into different sugars and store as stratch. The
chloroplast is very important as it is the cooking place for all the green
plants. All heterotrophs also depend on plasts for this food.
 In plants all the cells participate in plant immune response as they lack
specialized immune cells.
 The chloroplasts with the nucleus and cell membrane and ER are the
key organelles of pathogen defense.
 The most important function of chloroplast is to make food by the
process of photosynthesis.
 Food is prepared in the form of sugars. During the process of
photosynthesis sugar and oxygen are made using light energy, water,
and carbon dioxide.
 Light reactions takes place on the membranes of the thylakoids.
 Chloroplasts, like the mitochondria use the potential energy of the H+
ions or the hydrogen ion gradient to generate energy in the form of
ATP.
 The dark reactions also known as the Calvin cycle takes place in the
stroma of chloroplast.
 Production of NADPH2 molecules and oxygen as a result of photolysis
of water.
 By the utilization of assimilatory powers the 6-carbon atom is broken
into two molecules of phosphoglyceric acid.
References:
• https://alevelbiology.co.uk/notes/chloroplasts-structure-and-
functions/
• https://www.toppr.com/guides/biology/cell-the-unit-of-
life/chloroplast-definition-structure-functions/
• https://www.britannica.com/science/chloroplast
• https://microbenotes.com/chloroplasts-structure-and-functions/
• https://byjus.com/biology/chloroplasts/
Thank you

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Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx

  • 1. Ultra-structure and functions of Chloroplast Dhole N. A. Department of Botany, Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
  • 2. Chloroplast: • The word chloroplast is derived from the Greek words chloros, which means green, and plastes, which means “the one who forms”. • Chloroplasts are membrane-bound plastids that contain a network of membranes embedded into a liquid matrix and harbor the photosynthetic pigment called chlorophyll. • It is this pigment that imparts a green color to plant parts and serves to capture light energy. • Chloroplasts can be found in the cells of the mesophyll in plant leaves. • There are usually 30-40 per mesophyll cells.
  • 4. Chloroplast Morphology:  Its size and shape vary from species to species. In higher plants chloroplast are generally biconvex or planoconvex.  However, in different plant cells, it may have various shapes such as filamentous, saucer, ovoid, discoid, spheroid, star-like girdle-shaped, spiral ribbon-like, reticulate, or cup-shaped.  The size of the chloroplast is generally measured at about 5-10 µm in diameter and 2-3 µm in thickness.  The chloroplast of cells of polyploid and shade plants are comparatively larger than the chloroplast of cells of diploid and sun plants.
  • 5. Structure of Chloroplasts: • Chloroplasts found in higher plants are generally biconvex or planoconvex shaped. • Chloroplasts can be found in the cells of the mesophyll in plant leaves. • In different plants chloroplasts have different shapes, they vary from spheroid, filamentous saucer-shaped, discoid or ovoid shaped. • They are vesicular and have a colorless center. • Some chloroplasts are in shape of club, they have a thin middle zone and the ends are filled with chlorophyll. • In algae a single huge chloroplast is seen that appears as a network, a spiral band or a stellate plate. • The size of the chloroplast also varies from species to species and it is constant for a given cell type. • In higher plants, the average size of chloroplast is 4-6 µ in diameter and 1-3 µ in thickness. .
  • 6.  Outer membrane – It is a semi-porous membrane and is permeable to small molecules and ions, which diffuses easily. The outer membrane is not permeable to larger proteins.  Intermembrane Space – It is usually a thin intermembrane space about 10-20 nanometers and it is present between the outer and the inner membrane of the chloroplast.  Inner membrane – The inner membrane of the chloroplast forms a border to the stroma. It regulates passage of materials in and out of the chloroplast. In addition of regulation activity, the fatty acids, lipids and carotenoids are synthesized in the inner chloroplast membrane.
  • 7. Stroma-  Stroma is a alkaline, aqueous fluid which is protein rich and is present within the inner membrane of the chloroplast.  The space outside the thylakoid space is called the stroma.  The chloroplast DNA chlroplast ribosomes and the thylakoid sytem, starch granules and many proteins are found floating around the stroma.
  • 8. Thylakoid System- •The thylakoid system is suspended in the stroma. •The thylakoid system is a collection of membranous sacks called thylakoids. •The chlorophyll is found in the thylakoids and is the sight for the process of light reactions of photosynthesis to happen. •The thylakoids are arranged in stacks known as grana. •Each granum contains around 10-20 thylakoids.
  • 9. Types of Pigments 1. Chlorophyll • Chlorophyll is a green pigment located within the chloroplast. More specifically, it is found in the thylakoid membranes. • The chlorophyll consists of 75% of chlorophyll a and 25% of chlorophyll b. • The chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight and the synthesis of food molecules in the chloroplast.
  • 10. 2. Carotenoids • Carotenoids are the pigments present in chlorophylls which are located in the thylakoid membrane. Pigments like yellow and orange are present in it. • Carotenoids are related to vitamin A. • They are important because they can absorb a certain wavelength of light that can not be absorbed by chlorophylls. • Carotenoids are involved in a function known as photoprotection.
  • 11. 3. Xanthophylls • The carotenoids are carotenes and xanthophylls. Xanthophylls are present in the brown and green algae. 4. Phycobilin • Phycobilin is found only in red algae and Cyanobacteria. It has a relatively narrow distribution. • Phycoerythrin and phycocyanin are other accessory pigments belonging to this family. • Phycoerythrin makes red algae commonly red and phycocyanin causes the Cyanobacteria to appear blue-green.
  • 12. Functions of Chloroplast:  Absorption of light energy and conversion of it into biological energy.  Production of NAPDH2 and evolution of oxygen through the process of photolysis of water.  Production of ATP by photophosphorylation. NADPH2 and ATP are the assimilatory powers of photosynthesis. Transfer of CO2 obtained from the air to 5 carbon sugar in the stream during dark reaction.  Breaking of 6-carbon atom compound into two molecules of phosphoglyceric acid by the utilization of assimilatory powers.  Conversion of PGA into different sugars and store as stratch. The chloroplast is very important as it is the cooking place for all the green plants. All heterotrophs also depend on plasts for this food.
  • 13.  In plants all the cells participate in plant immune response as they lack specialized immune cells.  The chloroplasts with the nucleus and cell membrane and ER are the key organelles of pathogen defense.  The most important function of chloroplast is to make food by the process of photosynthesis.  Food is prepared in the form of sugars. During the process of photosynthesis sugar and oxygen are made using light energy, water, and carbon dioxide.  Light reactions takes place on the membranes of the thylakoids.
  • 14.  Chloroplasts, like the mitochondria use the potential energy of the H+ ions or the hydrogen ion gradient to generate energy in the form of ATP.  The dark reactions also known as the Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplast.  Production of NADPH2 molecules and oxygen as a result of photolysis of water.  By the utilization of assimilatory powers the 6-carbon atom is broken into two molecules of phosphoglyceric acid.
  • 15. References: • https://alevelbiology.co.uk/notes/chloroplasts-structure-and- functions/ • https://www.toppr.com/guides/biology/cell-the-unit-of- life/chloroplast-definition-structure-functions/ • https://www.britannica.com/science/chloroplast • https://microbenotes.com/chloroplasts-structure-and-functions/ • https://byjus.com/biology/chloroplasts/