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Classification and economic importance of
Bryophytes
Dhole N. A.
Department of Botany,
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
Classification of bryophytes:
According to the latest recommendations of ICBN (International Code of
Botanical Nomenclature), bryophytes have been divided into three
classes.
1. Hepaticopsida (Liverworts)
2. Anthocertopsida (Hornworts)
3. Bryopsida (Mosses)
Class 1. Hepaticopsida:
1. Gametophytic plant body is either thalloid or foliose. If foliose, the
lateral appendages (leaves) are without mid-rib. Always dorsiventral.
2. Rhizoids without septa.
3. Each cell in the thallus contains many chloroplasts; the chloroplasts
are without pyrenoi.
4. Sex organs are embedded in the dorsal surface.
5. Sporophyte may be simple (e.g., Riccia) having only a capsule, or
differentiated into root, seta and capsule (e.g., Marchantia, Pallia and
Porella etc.)
6. Capsule lacks columella.
7. It has 4 orders:
(i) Calobryales
(ii) Jungermanniales
(iii) Spherocarpales
(iv) Marchantiales.
Class 2. Anthocerotopsida:
1. Gametophytic plant body is simple, thalloid; thallus dorsiventra
without air cambers, shows no internal differentiation of tissues.
2. Scales are absent in the thallus.
3. Each cell of the thallus possesses a single large chloroplast with a
pyrenoid.
4. Sporophyte is cylindrical only partly dependent upon gametophyte
for its nourishment. It is differentiated into bulbous foot and cylindrical
capsule. Seta is meristematic.
5. Endothecium forms the sterile central column (i.e., columella) in the
capsule (i.e. columella is present).
6. It has only one order-Anthocerotales.
Class 3. Bryopsida:
1. Gametophyte is differentiated into prostrate protonema and an erect
gametophores
2. Gametophore is foliose, differentiated into an axis (=stem) and
lateral appendages like leaves but without midrib.
3. Rhizoids multi-cellular with oblique septa.
4. Elaters are absent in the capsule of sporangium.
5. The sex organs are produced in separate branches immersed in a
group of leaves.
6. It has only three orders:
(i) Bryales,
(ii) Andriales and
(iii) Sphagnales.
Economic importance of Bryophytes:
1. Protection from soil erosion:
Bryophytes, especially mosses, form dense mats over the soil and prevent soil
erosion by running water.
2. Soil formation:
Mosses are an important link in plant succession on rocky areas. They take
part in binding soil in rock crevices formed by lichens. Growth of Sphagnum
ultimately fills ponds and lakes with soil.
3. Water retention:
Sphagnum can retain 18-26 times more water than its weight. Hence, used by
gardeners to protect desiccation of the seedling during transportation and
used as nursery beds.
4. Peat:
It is a dark spongy fossilized matter of Sphagnum. Peat is dried and cut as
cakes for use as fuel. Peat used as good manure. It overcomes soil alkalinity
and increases its water retention as well as aeration. On distillation and
fermentation yield many chemicals.
5. As food:
Mosses are good source of animal food in rocky and snow-clad areas.
6. Medicinal uses:
Decoction of Polytrichum commune is used to remove kidney and gall bladder
stones. Decoction prepared by boiling Sphagnum in water for treatment of eye
diseases. Marchantia polymorpha has been used to cure pulmonary tuberculosis.
7. Other uses:
Bryophytes arc used as packing material for fragile goods, glass wares etc. Some
bryophytes act as indicator plants. For example, Tortell tortusa grow well on soil
rich in lime.
References:
• https://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/bryophyta-features-
classification-and-economic-importance/5654
Thank you

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6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes

  • 1. Classification and economic importance of Bryophytes Dhole N. A. Department of Botany, Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
  • 2. Classification of bryophytes: According to the latest recommendations of ICBN (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature), bryophytes have been divided into three classes. 1. Hepaticopsida (Liverworts) 2. Anthocertopsida (Hornworts) 3. Bryopsida (Mosses)
  • 3. Class 1. Hepaticopsida: 1. Gametophytic plant body is either thalloid or foliose. If foliose, the lateral appendages (leaves) are without mid-rib. Always dorsiventral. 2. Rhizoids without septa. 3. Each cell in the thallus contains many chloroplasts; the chloroplasts are without pyrenoi. 4. Sex organs are embedded in the dorsal surface. 5. Sporophyte may be simple (e.g., Riccia) having only a capsule, or differentiated into root, seta and capsule (e.g., Marchantia, Pallia and Porella etc.) 6. Capsule lacks columella.
  • 4. 7. It has 4 orders: (i) Calobryales (ii) Jungermanniales (iii) Spherocarpales (iv) Marchantiales.
  • 5. Class 2. Anthocerotopsida: 1. Gametophytic plant body is simple, thalloid; thallus dorsiventra without air cambers, shows no internal differentiation of tissues. 2. Scales are absent in the thallus. 3. Each cell of the thallus possesses a single large chloroplast with a pyrenoid. 4. Sporophyte is cylindrical only partly dependent upon gametophyte for its nourishment. It is differentiated into bulbous foot and cylindrical capsule. Seta is meristematic. 5. Endothecium forms the sterile central column (i.e., columella) in the capsule (i.e. columella is present). 6. It has only one order-Anthocerotales.
  • 6. Class 3. Bryopsida: 1. Gametophyte is differentiated into prostrate protonema and an erect gametophores 2. Gametophore is foliose, differentiated into an axis (=stem) and lateral appendages like leaves but without midrib. 3. Rhizoids multi-cellular with oblique septa. 4. Elaters are absent in the capsule of sporangium. 5. The sex organs are produced in separate branches immersed in a group of leaves.
  • 7. 6. It has only three orders: (i) Bryales, (ii) Andriales and (iii) Sphagnales.
  • 8. Economic importance of Bryophytes: 1. Protection from soil erosion: Bryophytes, especially mosses, form dense mats over the soil and prevent soil erosion by running water. 2. Soil formation: Mosses are an important link in plant succession on rocky areas. They take part in binding soil in rock crevices formed by lichens. Growth of Sphagnum ultimately fills ponds and lakes with soil. 3. Water retention: Sphagnum can retain 18-26 times more water than its weight. Hence, used by gardeners to protect desiccation of the seedling during transportation and used as nursery beds. 4. Peat: It is a dark spongy fossilized matter of Sphagnum. Peat is dried and cut as cakes for use as fuel. Peat used as good manure. It overcomes soil alkalinity and increases its water retention as well as aeration. On distillation and fermentation yield many chemicals.
  • 9. 5. As food: Mosses are good source of animal food in rocky and snow-clad areas. 6. Medicinal uses: Decoction of Polytrichum commune is used to remove kidney and gall bladder stones. Decoction prepared by boiling Sphagnum in water for treatment of eye diseases. Marchantia polymorpha has been used to cure pulmonary tuberculosis. 7. Other uses: Bryophytes arc used as packing material for fragile goods, glass wares etc. Some bryophytes act as indicator plants. For example, Tortell tortusa grow well on soil rich in lime.