SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Funaria : External morphology and
internal structure of axis
Dhole N. A.
Department of Botany,
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
Classification of Funaria:
Division : Bryophyta
Class : Bryopsida
Subclass : Bryidae
Order : Funariales
Family : Funariaceae
Type : Funaria
1. Plant body is gametophytic, and each gametophore consists of
rhizoids, ‘stem’ and ‘leaves’ .
2. Each gametophore is slender, erect and attains a height of 1 to 3 cm
or more.
3. Rhizoids arise from the base of the ‘stem’ in the form of tufts.
4. Each rhizoid is branched, filamentous, multicellular and contains
oblique septa.
5. Rhizoids are colourless when young but at maturity they become
brown coloured.
6. Rhizoids, if present on exposed axis, develop chlorophyll.
Ref. https://www.biologydiscussion.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/image-554.png
7. Function of rhizoids are absorption and fixation.
8. ‘Stem’ or axis is slender, erect, branched or unbranched and covered by
the ‘leaves.’
9. Apical tufts of ‘leaves’ are arranged on the ‘axis’ spirally in 3/8 type of
phyllotaxy.
10. Each leaf is sessile, ovate with entire margin and acute apex. Each leaf
contains a midrib.
11. In a mature gametophore, the lower few leaves are small, membranous
and called scaly leaves; middle bigger, green leaves are called foliage leaves;
and uppermost compactly arranged leaves are called perichaetial leaves.
https://www.biologydiscussion.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/clip_image004-44.jpg
• The adult gametophyte (gametophore) is differentiated into rhizoids, axis
or ‘stem’ and ‘leaves’.
• Rhizoids arise from the base of the axis.
• They are slender, branched, and multicellular and have oblique septa.
• Axis is 1-3 cm. high, upright, slender and branched. Each branch is extra
axillary i.e., arise below a leaf. Leaves are sessile, oblong-ovate with entire
margin, pointed apex and are arranged spirally on the branches and
‘stem’.
• Each ‘leaf’ is traversed by a single mid rib.
• ‘Leaves’ are borne in 1/3 phyllotaxy which becomes 3/8 at maturity.
Internal Structure:
1. Axis or ‘stem’
The transverse section (T. S.) of axis can be differentiated into three distinct
regions:
(i) Epidermis
(ii) Cortex
(iii) Central conducting strand or central cylinder.
(i) Epidermis:
• It is the outer most single layered protective covering consisting of small
tangentially elongated chlorophyll bearing cells. Cuticle and stomata are
absent.
(ii) Cortex:
It is present between the epidermis and conducting tissue. It is made up to
parenchymatous cells.
Younger part of the cortex contains chloroplasts but in the older part they
are lacking.
At maturity few outer layers of cortex become thick walled and are reddish
brown in colour but those of the inner layers become thin walled.
(iii) Central Conducting Strand:
It is made up of long, narrow thin walled dead cells which lack protoplasm.
These cells are now commonly called as hydroids.
Conducting strand besides providing a certain amount of mechanical
support, functions in the upward conduction of water and solutes.
2. Leaf:
• Transverse section (T. S.) of ‘leaf’ shows a well-defined midrib with two
lateral wings. Except the midrib region, the ‘leaf’ is composed of single
layer of parenchymatous polygonal cells.
• The cells contain many large and prominent chloroplasts.
• The central part of the mid rib has narrow conducting strand of thick
walled cells which help in conduction.
References:
• https://www.biologydiscussion.com/bryophyta/features-of-funaria-
with-diagram-bryophyta/54320
• https://www.biologydiscussion.com/botany/bryophytes/life-cycle-of-
funaria-with-diagram-bryopsida/53931
Thank you

More Related Content

What's hot

Riccia ppt
Riccia ppt Riccia ppt
Riccia ppt
sumitachoudhary
 
Fossil gymnosperms
Fossil gymnospermsFossil gymnosperms
Fossil gymnosperms
Praveen Koushley
 
Albugo
AlbugoAlbugo
Anthoceros
AnthocerosAnthoceros
Anthoceros
SyedaFari2
 
Heterospory and seed habit
Heterospory and seed habitHeterospory and seed habit
Heterospory and seed habit
gohil sanjay bhagvanji
 
Morphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of Marchantia
Morphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of MarchantiaMorphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of Marchantia
Morphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of Marchantia
SankritaShankarGaonk
 
Chara
CharaChara
Notothylas by p.n
Notothylas by p.nNotothylas by p.n
Notothylas by p.n
priyankanagal
 
Pellia
PelliaPellia
Pellia
Sangeeta Das
 
Vaucheria
VaucheriaVaucheria
Vaucheria
Tahir Shahzad
 
Marchantia ppt
Marchantia pptMarchantia ppt
Marchantia ppt
sumitachoudhary
 
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes
Stelar evolution in PteridophytesStelar evolution in Pteridophytes
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes
Jayakara Bhandary
 
Life cycle of gnetum
Life cycle of gnetumLife cycle of gnetum
Anthoceros botany
Anthoceros botanyAnthoceros botany
Anthoceros botany
MANSI
 
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANY
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANYStelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANY
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANY
ANJALIJAYAN6
 
5 2 -pinus
5   2 -pinus5   2 -pinus
5 2 -pinus
VelmuruganRaj2
 
Selaginella
SelaginellaSelaginella
Selaginella
SyedaFari2
 
Rhynia
RhyniaRhynia
Puccinia graminis
Puccinia graminisPuccinia graminis
Puccinia graminis
SyedaFari2
 
Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Lycopodium
Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of LycopodiumStructure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Lycopodium
Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Lycopodium
SankritaShankarGaonk
 

What's hot (20)

Riccia ppt
Riccia ppt Riccia ppt
Riccia ppt
 
Fossil gymnosperms
Fossil gymnospermsFossil gymnosperms
Fossil gymnosperms
 
Albugo
AlbugoAlbugo
Albugo
 
Anthoceros
AnthocerosAnthoceros
Anthoceros
 
Heterospory and seed habit
Heterospory and seed habitHeterospory and seed habit
Heterospory and seed habit
 
Morphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of Marchantia
Morphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of MarchantiaMorphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of Marchantia
Morphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of Marchantia
 
Chara
CharaChara
Chara
 
Notothylas by p.n
Notothylas by p.nNotothylas by p.n
Notothylas by p.n
 
Pellia
PelliaPellia
Pellia
 
Vaucheria
VaucheriaVaucheria
Vaucheria
 
Marchantia ppt
Marchantia pptMarchantia ppt
Marchantia ppt
 
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes
Stelar evolution in PteridophytesStelar evolution in Pteridophytes
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes
 
Life cycle of gnetum
Life cycle of gnetumLife cycle of gnetum
Life cycle of gnetum
 
Anthoceros botany
Anthoceros botanyAnthoceros botany
Anthoceros botany
 
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANY
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANYStelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANY
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANY
 
5 2 -pinus
5   2 -pinus5   2 -pinus
5 2 -pinus
 
Selaginella
SelaginellaSelaginella
Selaginella
 
Rhynia
RhyniaRhynia
Rhynia
 
Puccinia graminis
Puccinia graminisPuccinia graminis
Puccinia graminis
 
Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Lycopodium
Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of LycopodiumStructure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Lycopodium
Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Lycopodium
 

Similar to 7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis

Bryopsida – funaria
Bryopsida – funariaBryopsida – funaria
Bryopsida – funaria
vaishalidandge3
 
Taxus
TaxusTaxus
Taxus
kaslinsas
 
psilotum as a pteridophytes living fossils.pptx
psilotum as a pteridophytes living fossils.pptxpsilotum as a pteridophytes living fossils.pptx
psilotum as a pteridophytes living fossils.pptx
Omekhan1
 
Psilotum
PsilotumPsilotum
Psilotum
SyedaFari2
 
psilotum.pptx
psilotum.pptxpsilotum.pptx
psilotum.pptx
jntuhcej
 
Marsilea details
Marsilea detailsMarsilea details
Marsilea details
rasikapatil26
 
bryopsida general characters in detail.ppt
bryopsida general characters in detail.pptbryopsida general characters in detail.ppt
bryopsida general characters in detail.ppt
babu kakumanu
 
Life cycle of_funaria-jb
Life cycle of_funaria-jbLife cycle of_funaria-jb
Life cycle of_funaria-jb
Jayakara Bhandary
 
Life cycle of_funaria
Life cycle of_funariaLife cycle of_funaria
Life cycle of_funaria
Jayakara Bhandary
 
Plant tissue 1
Plant tissue 1Plant tissue 1
Plant tissue 1
ManojDas87
 
Vegetative characters of equisetum
Vegetative characters of equisetumVegetative characters of equisetum
Vegetative characters of equisetum
Sijo A
 
Pteris : features, anatomy, morphology and lifecycle
Pteris : features, anatomy, morphology and lifecyclePteris : features, anatomy, morphology and lifecycle
Pteris : features, anatomy, morphology and lifecycle
Cherry
 
structure and function in plants
structure and function in plantsstructure and function in plants
structure and function in plants
mandalina landy
 
structure and function in plants
structure and function in plantsstructure and function in plants
structure and function in plants
mandalina landy
 
Psilotum
PsilotumPsilotum
Funaria botany
Funaria botanyFunaria botany
Funaria botany
MANSI
 
Pteridophytes
PteridophytesPteridophytes
Pteridophytes
Alen Shaji
 
Anatomy of root
Anatomy of rootAnatomy of root
Anatomy of root
GunmalaGugalia
 
selaginella species characters and distribution .pptx
selaginella species characters and distribution .pptxselaginella species characters and distribution .pptx
selaginella species characters and distribution .pptx
SHUBHAMDOUND1
 
Adiantum.pptx(intoduction,species,reproduction)
Adiantum.pptx(intoduction,species,reproduction)Adiantum.pptx(intoduction,species,reproduction)
Adiantum.pptx(intoduction,species,reproduction)
lalimaevane17
 

Similar to 7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis (20)

Bryopsida – funaria
Bryopsida – funariaBryopsida – funaria
Bryopsida – funaria
 
Taxus
TaxusTaxus
Taxus
 
psilotum as a pteridophytes living fossils.pptx
psilotum as a pteridophytes living fossils.pptxpsilotum as a pteridophytes living fossils.pptx
psilotum as a pteridophytes living fossils.pptx
 
Psilotum
PsilotumPsilotum
Psilotum
 
psilotum.pptx
psilotum.pptxpsilotum.pptx
psilotum.pptx
 
Marsilea details
Marsilea detailsMarsilea details
Marsilea details
 
bryopsida general characters in detail.ppt
bryopsida general characters in detail.pptbryopsida general characters in detail.ppt
bryopsida general characters in detail.ppt
 
Life cycle of_funaria-jb
Life cycle of_funaria-jbLife cycle of_funaria-jb
Life cycle of_funaria-jb
 
Life cycle of_funaria
Life cycle of_funariaLife cycle of_funaria
Life cycle of_funaria
 
Plant tissue 1
Plant tissue 1Plant tissue 1
Plant tissue 1
 
Vegetative characters of equisetum
Vegetative characters of equisetumVegetative characters of equisetum
Vegetative characters of equisetum
 
Pteris : features, anatomy, morphology and lifecycle
Pteris : features, anatomy, morphology and lifecyclePteris : features, anatomy, morphology and lifecycle
Pteris : features, anatomy, morphology and lifecycle
 
structure and function in plants
structure and function in plantsstructure and function in plants
structure and function in plants
 
structure and function in plants
structure and function in plantsstructure and function in plants
structure and function in plants
 
Psilotum
PsilotumPsilotum
Psilotum
 
Funaria botany
Funaria botanyFunaria botany
Funaria botany
 
Pteridophytes
PteridophytesPteridophytes
Pteridophytes
 
Anatomy of root
Anatomy of rootAnatomy of root
Anatomy of root
 
selaginella species characters and distribution .pptx
selaginella species characters and distribution .pptxselaginella species characters and distribution .pptx
selaginella species characters and distribution .pptx
 
Adiantum.pptx(intoduction,species,reproduction)
Adiantum.pptx(intoduction,species,reproduction)Adiantum.pptx(intoduction,species,reproduction)
Adiantum.pptx(intoduction,species,reproduction)
 

More from Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar

Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptxUltra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions
Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functionsUltrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions
Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptxUltrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptxUltrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functionsUltrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functionsUltra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
2. Marchantia distribution and external features
2. Marchantia distribution and external features2. Marchantia distribution and external features
2. Marchantia distribution and external features
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
1. General characters of bryophytes
1. General characters of bryophytes1. General characters of bryophytes
1. General characters of bryophytes
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
Economic importance of viruses and bacteriaEconomic importance of viruses and bacteria
Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Plant nutrition minor elements
Plant nutrition minor elementsPlant nutrition minor elements
Plant nutrition minor elements
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Plant nutrition major elements
Plant nutrition major elementsPlant nutrition major elements
Plant nutrition major elements
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ascent of sap and transpiration
Ascent of sap and transpirationAscent of sap and transpiration
Ascent of sap and transpiration
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Plant water relation
Plant water relationPlant water relation
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficitDiffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 

More from Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar (20)

Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptxUltra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
 
Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions
Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functionsUltrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions
Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions
 
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptxUltrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
 
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptxUltrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
 
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functionsUltrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functions
 
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functionsUltra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
 
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
 
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
 
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
 
2. Marchantia distribution and external features
2. Marchantia distribution and external features2. Marchantia distribution and external features
2. Marchantia distribution and external features
 
1. General characters of bryophytes
1. General characters of bryophytes1. General characters of bryophytes
1. General characters of bryophytes
 
Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
Economic importance of viruses and bacteriaEconomic importance of viruses and bacteria
Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
 
Plant nutrition minor elements
Plant nutrition minor elementsPlant nutrition minor elements
Plant nutrition minor elements
 
Plant nutrition major elements
Plant nutrition major elementsPlant nutrition major elements
Plant nutrition major elements
 
Ascent of sap and transpiration
Ascent of sap and transpirationAscent of sap and transpiration
Ascent of sap and transpiration
 
Plant water relation
Plant water relationPlant water relation
Plant water relation
 
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficitDiffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
 
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
 

Recently uploaded

cathode ray oscilloscope and its applications
cathode ray oscilloscope and its applicationscathode ray oscilloscope and its applications
cathode ray oscilloscope and its applications
sandertein
 
IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE AND ITS BENIFITS.pptx
IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE  AND ITS BENIFITS.pptxIMPORTANCE OF ALGAE  AND ITS BENIFITS.pptx
IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE AND ITS BENIFITS.pptx
OmAle5
 
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
by6843629
 
Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf
PirithiRaju
 
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart AgricultureAlternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
International Food Policy Research Institute- South Asia Office
 
Farming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptx
Farming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptxFarming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptx
Farming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptx
Frédéric Baudron
 
Mechanisms and Applications of Antiviral Neutralizing Antibodies - Creative B...
Mechanisms and Applications of Antiviral Neutralizing Antibodies - Creative B...Mechanisms and Applications of Antiviral Neutralizing Antibodies - Creative B...
Mechanisms and Applications of Antiviral Neutralizing Antibodies - Creative B...
Creative-Biolabs
 
Anti-Universe And Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe
Anti-Universe And Emergent Gravity and the Dark UniverseAnti-Universe And Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe
Anti-Universe And Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe
Sérgio Sacani
 
fermented food science of sauerkraut.pptx
fermented food science of sauerkraut.pptxfermented food science of sauerkraut.pptx
fermented food science of sauerkraut.pptx
ananya23nair
 
23PH301 - Optics - Optical Lenses.pptx
23PH301 - Optics  -  Optical Lenses.pptx23PH301 - Optics  -  Optical Lenses.pptx
23PH301 - Optics - Optical Lenses.pptx
RDhivya6
 
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defectsThe binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
Sérgio Sacani
 
Microbiology of Central Nervous System INFECTIONS.pdf
Microbiology of Central Nervous System INFECTIONS.pdfMicrobiology of Central Nervous System INFECTIONS.pdf
Microbiology of Central Nervous System INFECTIONS.pdf
sammy700571
 
Clinical periodontology and implant dentistry 2003.pdf
Clinical periodontology and implant dentistry 2003.pdfClinical periodontology and implant dentistry 2003.pdf
Clinical periodontology and implant dentistry 2003.pdf
RAYMUNDONAVARROCORON
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of ProteinsGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
Areesha Ahmad
 
_Extraction of Ethylene oxide and 2-Chloroethanol from alternate matrices Li...
_Extraction of Ethylene oxide and 2-Chloroethanol from alternate matrices  Li..._Extraction of Ethylene oxide and 2-Chloroethanol from alternate matrices  Li...
_Extraction of Ethylene oxide and 2-Chloroethanol from alternate matrices Li...
LucyHearn1
 
ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...
ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...
ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...
Advanced-Concepts-Team
 
HUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdf
HUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdfHUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdf
HUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdf
Ritik83251
 
CLASS 12th CHEMISTRY SOLID STATE ppt (Animated)
CLASS 12th CHEMISTRY SOLID STATE ppt (Animated)CLASS 12th CHEMISTRY SOLID STATE ppt (Animated)
CLASS 12th CHEMISTRY SOLID STATE ppt (Animated)
eitps1506
 
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
ABHISHEK SONI NIMT INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL AND PARAMEDCIAL SCIENCES , GOVT PG COLLEGE NOIDA
 
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptxPhysiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
fatima132662
 

Recently uploaded (20)

cathode ray oscilloscope and its applications
cathode ray oscilloscope and its applicationscathode ray oscilloscope and its applications
cathode ray oscilloscope and its applications
 
IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE AND ITS BENIFITS.pptx
IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE  AND ITS BENIFITS.pptxIMPORTANCE OF ALGAE  AND ITS BENIFITS.pptx
IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE AND ITS BENIFITS.pptx
 
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
 
Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf
 
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart AgricultureAlternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
 
Farming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptx
Farming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptxFarming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptx
Farming systems analysis: what have we learnt?.pptx
 
Mechanisms and Applications of Antiviral Neutralizing Antibodies - Creative B...
Mechanisms and Applications of Antiviral Neutralizing Antibodies - Creative B...Mechanisms and Applications of Antiviral Neutralizing Antibodies - Creative B...
Mechanisms and Applications of Antiviral Neutralizing Antibodies - Creative B...
 
Anti-Universe And Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe
Anti-Universe And Emergent Gravity and the Dark UniverseAnti-Universe And Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe
Anti-Universe And Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe
 
fermented food science of sauerkraut.pptx
fermented food science of sauerkraut.pptxfermented food science of sauerkraut.pptx
fermented food science of sauerkraut.pptx
 
23PH301 - Optics - Optical Lenses.pptx
23PH301 - Optics  -  Optical Lenses.pptx23PH301 - Optics  -  Optical Lenses.pptx
23PH301 - Optics - Optical Lenses.pptx
 
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defectsThe binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
 
Microbiology of Central Nervous System INFECTIONS.pdf
Microbiology of Central Nervous System INFECTIONS.pdfMicrobiology of Central Nervous System INFECTIONS.pdf
Microbiology of Central Nervous System INFECTIONS.pdf
 
Clinical periodontology and implant dentistry 2003.pdf
Clinical periodontology and implant dentistry 2003.pdfClinical periodontology and implant dentistry 2003.pdf
Clinical periodontology and implant dentistry 2003.pdf
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of ProteinsGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
 
_Extraction of Ethylene oxide and 2-Chloroethanol from alternate matrices Li...
_Extraction of Ethylene oxide and 2-Chloroethanol from alternate matrices  Li..._Extraction of Ethylene oxide and 2-Chloroethanol from alternate matrices  Li...
_Extraction of Ethylene oxide and 2-Chloroethanol from alternate matrices Li...
 
ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...
ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...
ESA/ACT Science Coffee: Diego Blas - Gravitational wave detection with orbita...
 
HUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdf
HUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdfHUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdf
HUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdf
 
CLASS 12th CHEMISTRY SOLID STATE ppt (Animated)
CLASS 12th CHEMISTRY SOLID STATE ppt (Animated)CLASS 12th CHEMISTRY SOLID STATE ppt (Animated)
CLASS 12th CHEMISTRY SOLID STATE ppt (Animated)
 
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
 
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptxPhysiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
 

7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis

  • 1. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis Dhole N. A. Department of Botany, Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
  • 2. Classification of Funaria: Division : Bryophyta Class : Bryopsida Subclass : Bryidae Order : Funariales Family : Funariaceae Type : Funaria
  • 3. 1. Plant body is gametophytic, and each gametophore consists of rhizoids, ‘stem’ and ‘leaves’ . 2. Each gametophore is slender, erect and attains a height of 1 to 3 cm or more. 3. Rhizoids arise from the base of the ‘stem’ in the form of tufts. 4. Each rhizoid is branched, filamentous, multicellular and contains oblique septa. 5. Rhizoids are colourless when young but at maturity they become brown coloured. 6. Rhizoids, if present on exposed axis, develop chlorophyll.
  • 5. 7. Function of rhizoids are absorption and fixation. 8. ‘Stem’ or axis is slender, erect, branched or unbranched and covered by the ‘leaves.’ 9. Apical tufts of ‘leaves’ are arranged on the ‘axis’ spirally in 3/8 type of phyllotaxy. 10. Each leaf is sessile, ovate with entire margin and acute apex. Each leaf contains a midrib. 11. In a mature gametophore, the lower few leaves are small, membranous and called scaly leaves; middle bigger, green leaves are called foliage leaves; and uppermost compactly arranged leaves are called perichaetial leaves.
  • 7. • The adult gametophyte (gametophore) is differentiated into rhizoids, axis or ‘stem’ and ‘leaves’. • Rhizoids arise from the base of the axis. • They are slender, branched, and multicellular and have oblique septa. • Axis is 1-3 cm. high, upright, slender and branched. Each branch is extra axillary i.e., arise below a leaf. Leaves are sessile, oblong-ovate with entire margin, pointed apex and are arranged spirally on the branches and ‘stem’. • Each ‘leaf’ is traversed by a single mid rib. • ‘Leaves’ are borne in 1/3 phyllotaxy which becomes 3/8 at maturity.
  • 8. Internal Structure: 1. Axis or ‘stem’ The transverse section (T. S.) of axis can be differentiated into three distinct regions: (i) Epidermis (ii) Cortex (iii) Central conducting strand or central cylinder.
  • 9. (i) Epidermis: • It is the outer most single layered protective covering consisting of small tangentially elongated chlorophyll bearing cells. Cuticle and stomata are absent.
  • 10. (ii) Cortex: It is present between the epidermis and conducting tissue. It is made up to parenchymatous cells. Younger part of the cortex contains chloroplasts but in the older part they are lacking. At maturity few outer layers of cortex become thick walled and are reddish brown in colour but those of the inner layers become thin walled. (iii) Central Conducting Strand: It is made up of long, narrow thin walled dead cells which lack protoplasm. These cells are now commonly called as hydroids. Conducting strand besides providing a certain amount of mechanical support, functions in the upward conduction of water and solutes.
  • 11. 2. Leaf: • Transverse section (T. S.) of ‘leaf’ shows a well-defined midrib with two lateral wings. Except the midrib region, the ‘leaf’ is composed of single layer of parenchymatous polygonal cells. • The cells contain many large and prominent chloroplasts. • The central part of the mid rib has narrow conducting strand of thick walled cells which help in conduction.