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Training 
Module: 2 
& 
Orientation
Understanding the 
Definition 
Concept “Planned efforts designed to facilitate the 
acquisition of relevant skills, Knowledge 
and attitude by Organizational members”. 
Meaning 
Training is a process by which people improve their knowledge, skills 
and attitudes and use them to enhance their performance on the job. 
Training Development Education Teaching 
Basic skill 
enhancement 
specific to a job or 
task with 
immediate or short 
term application. 
Linked to the overall 
improvement of the 
employee’s knowledge, 
skill and attitude and the 
resultant behaviour over 
a longer period 
Building the ability of 
the individual to 
interpret knowledge. 
Usually linked to a 
formal qualification 
Is about 
educating people, 
sharing wisdom, 
making 
people more 
knowledgeable.
Understanding 
the Concept 
Learning 
Dimensions 
Training Development 
Meant for Operatives Executives 
Focus Current job Current and future jobs 
Scope Individual Work group+ organization 
Goal Fix current skills Future work demands 
Initiated by Management Individual 
Content Specific job related 
information 
General knowledge 
Time frame Immediate Long term
Training Needs 
Assessment 
Organizational 
analysis 
Person analysis 
Task & role 
analysis 
PERSON ANALYSIS 
ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS 1. Job 
1. Analysis of objective: short term & long term 
2. Resource utilization analysis: human, physical & financial 
3. Environmental scanning: social, economical, political, technological 
4. Organizational climate analysis: turnover & absenteeism ratio 
1. Poor performers 
2. Person potential 
TASK & ROLE 
ANALYSIS 
2. Components 
3. Operations & conditions of job 
4. Skills, knowledge, attitude 
5. Methods
Data Sources Used In Training Need Assessment 
Organizational analysis 
Organizational goals & 
objectives 
Personnel inventories 
Skills inventories 
Climate analysis 
Efficiency index 
Exit interview 
MBO 
Customer satisfaction 
survey 
Task analysis 
Job description 
Job specification 
Performance standard 
Work sampling 
Reviewing literature 
Asking questions about 
job 
Person analysis 
Performance appraisals 
Work sampling 
Interviews 
Questionnaire 
Tests 
Training progress 
Rating scales 
Diaries 
Role play 
Training Needs Assessment
Need 
Assessment 
Training & 
Development 
Objectives 
Evaluation 
Criteria 
Program 
Content 
Learning 
Principles 
Evaluation 
Actual 
Program 
Skills , 
Knowledge, 
Ability of 
workers 
The Process of Training 
Preliminary steps in preparing a Training & Development Program
Designing training and development program 
I. Who are the trainees? 
II. Who are the trainers? 
III. What techniques & methods? 
IV. What should be the level of training? 
V. What principles of learning? 
VI. Where to conduct the program? 
What principles of learning: 
Motivation 
Recognition of Individual differences 
Practice opportunities 
Reinforcement 
Feedback 
Goals 
Schedule of learning 
Meaning of material 
Transfer of learning 
Where to conduct the program: 
I. At the job itself 
II. On site but not the job 
III. Off the site
Objectives/Need/Importance or Benefits of Training 
• Better quality of work 
• Higher productivity 
• Cost reduction 
• High morale 
• Reduced supervision 
• Less learning period 
• Personal growth 
• Fewer accidents 
• Brings loyalty 
To employees 
• Self confidence 
• Safety 
• Higher earning 
• Promotion 
• adaptability 
• New skills 
• Personal growth 
To Organization
Concept of Primary Market 
“Orientation is a systematic and planned 
introduction of employees to their jobs, 
their co-workers and the organization”. 
Formal 
Informal 
Individual 
Collective 
Serial 
Disjunctive 
Investiture 
Divestiture 
Objectives of orientation Strategic choices of orientation
Contents of Orientation Or Steps of Orientation 
• Welcoming to the organization 
• Brief history and operations of the company. 
• The company’s organization structure. 
• Policies and procedure of the company. 
• Products and services of the company. 
• Location of department and employee facilities. 
• Safety measures. 
• Grievances procedures. 
• Benefits and services of employee. 
• Standing orders and disciplinary procedures. 
• Opportunities for training, promotions, transfer etc. 
• Suggestion schemes. 
• Rules and regulations.
Pros & Cons of Orientation 
• It helps to build two way communication 
• It facilitates informal relations and team work 
• Induction is helpful in supplying information about the 
organization, job, and welfare of employees 
• Proper Induction will reduce employees grievances, 
absenteeism and labor turnover 
Benefits 
• Induction helps to develop good public relations and improve 
the overall morale of employees 
• An Induction program proves that the company is taking a 
sincere interest in getting him off to a good start 
1. Employee is overwhelmed with too much information in a short time. 
2. Employee is overloaded with form to complete. 
3. Employees mistakes can damage the company. 
4. Employee is asked to perform tasks where there are high chances of failure that could 
needlessly discourage the employee. 
5. Employee is thrown into action too soon. 
6. Employee ‘s wrong perceptions because of short periods spent on each job. 
Problems
Evaluation of orientation programme 
Complete a questionnaire 
Suggestions from the employees to know their opinion 
Group discussion sessions
What is the difference between Orientation and Training?
On the Job Training 
On-the-job training (OJT) refers to new or inexperienced employees learning through 
observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behaviour. 
Training a person to learn by actually doing it. Every employee from mailroom clerk to 
company president, get on-the-job training when he or she joins a firm. 
Vestibule Training
Step by step structured training method in which a trainer 
1. Prepares a trainee with an overview of the job its purpose, and the results desired, 
2. Demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, 
3. Allows the trainee to mimic the demonstration on his or her own 
4. Employee does the job independently 
5. Follows up to provide feedback and help. 
Listing each job’s basic task, along with key points, in order to 
provide step-by-step training for employees. 
It is used in that types of jobs which consist of a logical 
sequence of steps also list a corresponding “key point” and 
best taught step-by-step process. 
Job instruction training
Apprenticeship 
and Coaching
Job Rotation Job rotation is an approach to management development 
where an individual is moved through a schedule of 
designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the 
entire operation. 
To cross-train employees in a variety of 
jobs, some trainer move a trainee from 
job to job. 
Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into 
the processes of a company, and to reduce boredom and increase job satisfaction & 
skill enhancement through job variation.
Simulation 
Training employees on actual equipments 
used on the job but conducted away from 
the actual work setting. 
One involve a 
mechanical simulator 
that replicates the 
major features of the 
work situation. Other 
is computer simulation 
often comes in the 
form of games.
Off the Job Training 
 Off the job training involves employees taking training courses away from their place of work. 
This is often also referred to as "formal training". 
 Off the job training courses might be run by the business' training department or by external 
providers. 
 Use of specialist trainers and accommodation 
 Employee can focus on the training - and not be distracted by work 
Role Plays 
• Trainees act out characters assigned to them. 
• Information regarding the situation is provided to the trainees. 
• Focus on interpersonal responses. 
• Outcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective) reactions of the other trainees. 
• The more meaningful the exercise, the higher the level of participant focus and intensity. 
Behaviour modelling is referred to as “matching” or “copying” or as “observational 
learning” or “imitation”, all of these terms implies that behaviour is learned or 
modified through the observation of some other individual.
Lectures and Video Presentation 
Training is basically incomplete without 
lecture. When the trainer begins the 
training session by telling the aim, goal, 
agenda, processes, or methods that will 
be used in training that means the trainer 
is using the lecturemethod 
Main Features of Lecture Method: 
+ Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings 
+ Less expensive 
+ Can be reached large number of people at once 
+ Knowledge building exercise 
+ Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity
Case Study 
In case study, trainees learn about 
real or hypothetical circumstances 
and the actions others take under 
those circumstances and as result 
a person can develop decision 
making skills. 
A development method in which the 
manager is presented with a written 
description of an organizational problem 
to diagnose and solve.
In-basket exercise & Business Games 
A candidate is given a list of items 
that must be addressed within a 
certain time frame. He or she is 
asked to prioritize the items and 
justify his reasons to the panel. 
It’s up to the candidate to 
determine what is important, 
and what is urgent. 
The exercise gives the 
department a snapshot of 
the candidate’s ability to 
perform the administrative 
functions of the position. 
Business game refers to games that 
are used at an educational tool for 
teaching business. Business games 
may be carried out for various 
business training such as: general 
management, finance, organizational 
behaviour, human resources, etc.
Other Methods 
• Laboratory Training: It is designed to enhance interpersonal skills and to develop 
desired behavior for future job responsibilities. 
• Action Learning: it takes place in small groups that seeks a solution to a real 
problem confronting the organization, aided by a facilitator who is either an outside 
consultant or a member of the firm’s in-house staff. OR a training technique by 
which Management trainer are allowed to work full time analyzing and solving 
problem in other department.
What do you mean by “Evaluation” of training and 
development intervention. 
“Training and Development must be regarded as both a 
cost and an investment to an organization.” 
What does the above statement means? 
What does it tells us about the need to evaluate our training 
and development intervention? 
Evaluation for training effectiveness
What do you mean by evaluation of training 
Evaluation is: 
1. The process for collecting, analyzing, and reporting information useful to decision makers in 
selecting amongst alternatives. 
2. The process of determining, to what extent the ( training) objectives are actually being 
realized. 
3. The process of providing feedback to trainers about the effectiveness of their training. 
• In summary, evaluation should try to find answers to 
three questions. 
– Is the training program effective in achieving its goals. 
– If not, what are the deficiencies in the program. 
– How can the deficiencies be remedied?

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Training & development

  • 1. Training Module: 2 & Orientation
  • 2. Understanding the Definition Concept “Planned efforts designed to facilitate the acquisition of relevant skills, Knowledge and attitude by Organizational members”. Meaning Training is a process by which people improve their knowledge, skills and attitudes and use them to enhance their performance on the job. Training Development Education Teaching Basic skill enhancement specific to a job or task with immediate or short term application. Linked to the overall improvement of the employee’s knowledge, skill and attitude and the resultant behaviour over a longer period Building the ability of the individual to interpret knowledge. Usually linked to a formal qualification Is about educating people, sharing wisdom, making people more knowledgeable.
  • 3. Understanding the Concept Learning Dimensions Training Development Meant for Operatives Executives Focus Current job Current and future jobs Scope Individual Work group+ organization Goal Fix current skills Future work demands Initiated by Management Individual Content Specific job related information General knowledge Time frame Immediate Long term
  • 4. Training Needs Assessment Organizational analysis Person analysis Task & role analysis PERSON ANALYSIS ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS 1. Job 1. Analysis of objective: short term & long term 2. Resource utilization analysis: human, physical & financial 3. Environmental scanning: social, economical, political, technological 4. Organizational climate analysis: turnover & absenteeism ratio 1. Poor performers 2. Person potential TASK & ROLE ANALYSIS 2. Components 3. Operations & conditions of job 4. Skills, knowledge, attitude 5. Methods
  • 5. Data Sources Used In Training Need Assessment Organizational analysis Organizational goals & objectives Personnel inventories Skills inventories Climate analysis Efficiency index Exit interview MBO Customer satisfaction survey Task analysis Job description Job specification Performance standard Work sampling Reviewing literature Asking questions about job Person analysis Performance appraisals Work sampling Interviews Questionnaire Tests Training progress Rating scales Diaries Role play Training Needs Assessment
  • 6. Need Assessment Training & Development Objectives Evaluation Criteria Program Content Learning Principles Evaluation Actual Program Skills , Knowledge, Ability of workers The Process of Training Preliminary steps in preparing a Training & Development Program
  • 7. Designing training and development program I. Who are the trainees? II. Who are the trainers? III. What techniques & methods? IV. What should be the level of training? V. What principles of learning? VI. Where to conduct the program? What principles of learning: Motivation Recognition of Individual differences Practice opportunities Reinforcement Feedback Goals Schedule of learning Meaning of material Transfer of learning Where to conduct the program: I. At the job itself II. On site but not the job III. Off the site
  • 8. Objectives/Need/Importance or Benefits of Training • Better quality of work • Higher productivity • Cost reduction • High morale • Reduced supervision • Less learning period • Personal growth • Fewer accidents • Brings loyalty To employees • Self confidence • Safety • Higher earning • Promotion • adaptability • New skills • Personal growth To Organization
  • 9. Concept of Primary Market “Orientation is a systematic and planned introduction of employees to their jobs, their co-workers and the organization”. Formal Informal Individual Collective Serial Disjunctive Investiture Divestiture Objectives of orientation Strategic choices of orientation
  • 10. Contents of Orientation Or Steps of Orientation • Welcoming to the organization • Brief history and operations of the company. • The company’s organization structure. • Policies and procedure of the company. • Products and services of the company. • Location of department and employee facilities. • Safety measures. • Grievances procedures. • Benefits and services of employee. • Standing orders and disciplinary procedures. • Opportunities for training, promotions, transfer etc. • Suggestion schemes. • Rules and regulations.
  • 11. Pros & Cons of Orientation • It helps to build two way communication • It facilitates informal relations and team work • Induction is helpful in supplying information about the organization, job, and welfare of employees • Proper Induction will reduce employees grievances, absenteeism and labor turnover Benefits • Induction helps to develop good public relations and improve the overall morale of employees • An Induction program proves that the company is taking a sincere interest in getting him off to a good start 1. Employee is overwhelmed with too much information in a short time. 2. Employee is overloaded with form to complete. 3. Employees mistakes can damage the company. 4. Employee is asked to perform tasks where there are high chances of failure that could needlessly discourage the employee. 5. Employee is thrown into action too soon. 6. Employee ‘s wrong perceptions because of short periods spent on each job. Problems
  • 12. Evaluation of orientation programme Complete a questionnaire Suggestions from the employees to know their opinion Group discussion sessions
  • 13. What is the difference between Orientation and Training?
  • 14.
  • 15. On the Job Training On-the-job training (OJT) refers to new or inexperienced employees learning through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behaviour. Training a person to learn by actually doing it. Every employee from mailroom clerk to company president, get on-the-job training when he or she joins a firm. Vestibule Training
  • 16. Step by step structured training method in which a trainer 1. Prepares a trainee with an overview of the job its purpose, and the results desired, 2. Demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, 3. Allows the trainee to mimic the demonstration on his or her own 4. Employee does the job independently 5. Follows up to provide feedback and help. Listing each job’s basic task, along with key points, in order to provide step-by-step training for employees. It is used in that types of jobs which consist of a logical sequence of steps also list a corresponding “key point” and best taught step-by-step process. Job instruction training
  • 18. Job Rotation Job rotation is an approach to management development where an individual is moved through a schedule of designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the entire operation. To cross-train employees in a variety of jobs, some trainer move a trainee from job to job. Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a company, and to reduce boredom and increase job satisfaction & skill enhancement through job variation.
  • 19. Simulation Training employees on actual equipments used on the job but conducted away from the actual work setting. One involve a mechanical simulator that replicates the major features of the work situation. Other is computer simulation often comes in the form of games.
  • 20. Off the Job Training  Off the job training involves employees taking training courses away from their place of work. This is often also referred to as "formal training".  Off the job training courses might be run by the business' training department or by external providers.  Use of specialist trainers and accommodation  Employee can focus on the training - and not be distracted by work Role Plays • Trainees act out characters assigned to them. • Information regarding the situation is provided to the trainees. • Focus on interpersonal responses. • Outcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective) reactions of the other trainees. • The more meaningful the exercise, the higher the level of participant focus and intensity. Behaviour modelling is referred to as “matching” or “copying” or as “observational learning” or “imitation”, all of these terms implies that behaviour is learned or modified through the observation of some other individual.
  • 21. Lectures and Video Presentation Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecturemethod Main Features of Lecture Method: + Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings + Less expensive + Can be reached large number of people at once + Knowledge building exercise + Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity
  • 22. Case Study In case study, trainees learn about real or hypothetical circumstances and the actions others take under those circumstances and as result a person can develop decision making skills. A development method in which the manager is presented with a written description of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve.
  • 23. In-basket exercise & Business Games A candidate is given a list of items that must be addressed within a certain time frame. He or she is asked to prioritize the items and justify his reasons to the panel. It’s up to the candidate to determine what is important, and what is urgent. The exercise gives the department a snapshot of the candidate’s ability to perform the administrative functions of the position. Business game refers to games that are used at an educational tool for teaching business. Business games may be carried out for various business training such as: general management, finance, organizational behaviour, human resources, etc.
  • 24. Other Methods • Laboratory Training: It is designed to enhance interpersonal skills and to develop desired behavior for future job responsibilities. • Action Learning: it takes place in small groups that seeks a solution to a real problem confronting the organization, aided by a facilitator who is either an outside consultant or a member of the firm’s in-house staff. OR a training technique by which Management trainer are allowed to work full time analyzing and solving problem in other department.
  • 25. What do you mean by “Evaluation” of training and development intervention. “Training and Development must be regarded as both a cost and an investment to an organization.” What does the above statement means? What does it tells us about the need to evaluate our training and development intervention? Evaluation for training effectiveness
  • 26. What do you mean by evaluation of training Evaluation is: 1. The process for collecting, analyzing, and reporting information useful to decision makers in selecting amongst alternatives. 2. The process of determining, to what extent the ( training) objectives are actually being realized. 3. The process of providing feedback to trainers about the effectiveness of their training. • In summary, evaluation should try to find answers to three questions. – Is the training program effective in achieving its goals. – If not, what are the deficiencies in the program. – How can the deficiencies be remedied?