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TOOLS AND METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
MS. MONIKA PATEL
Asst. Lecturer
JIHS
The word data is a pleural form of the word datum which means
information that is systematically collected in the course of the
study.
Data are observable and measurable facts that provide information
about the phenomenon under study.
Data collection is the process by which the researcher collects the
information needed to answer the research problem.
DATA
DATA sources
PRIMARY SOURCES
SECONDARY SOURCES
INTERNAL
SOURCES
(Private
documents)
EXTERNAL SOURCES
(Public documents)
Published Sources Unpublished Sources
People, objects,
programmes,
institutions, etc
 Biographies
 Diaries
 Letters
 Memories
 Journals &
magazines
 Newspaper
 Government
reports
 Statistical
abstracts
 Census reports
 Mass
communication
 Communication
reports
 Unpublished
thesis
 Unpublished
dissertation and
reports
 Officials or
patients record
SELECTION OF METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
The nature of phenomenon under study  Distribution of target population
Type of research subjects  Time frame of the study
The type of research study  Literacy levels of the study
Purpose of research study
 Availability of resources and
manpower
Size of study samples
 Researcher knowledge level &
competence
METHOD & TOOLS OF DATA COLLECTION
• METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION-
The various steps or strategies used for gathering and
analysing data in research investigations are known as
the method of data collection.
TECHNIQUE OF DATA COLLECTION-
The means of gathering data with the use of specific tools
that are used in given methods are known as techniques of data
collection
TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION-
a research instruments is a device used to measure the concept of
interest in a research projects that a researcher uses to collect data.
S.NO.
TYPES OF METHODS/
TECHNIQUES
TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION
1. Interview
 Interview Schedule
 Opinionnaire
2. Questioning
 Questionnaire
 Opinionaire
 Attitude Scale/ Composite Scales (Likert
Scale/ Semantic Differential Scale)
 Visual Analogue Scale
3. Observation
 Rating Scales
 Checklists
 Anecdotes
 Videotapes/ Films
 Closed Circuit TV
4. Biophysiological Methods
 In Vivo Biophysiological Methods
 In Vitro Biophysiological Methods
5. Other Methods
 Projective Techniques
 Q-Sorts
 Vignettes
INTERVIEW METHOD
DEFINITION
1) Interview method is a method of data collection in which
one person (interviewer) asks the questions from another
person (respondent) which is conducted either face to face
or telephonically.
2) An interview is a conversation between two or more people
(interviewer & interviewee) where questions are asked by
interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee.
CHARACTERSTICS OF INTERVIEW
• The participants, the interviewer and respondents are strangers.
• The relationship between the participants is a transitory one.
• Interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers to question put
verbally.
• Investigators records information's.
• Interviews can be conducted over telephone also.
• It is not always limited to a single respondents.
• It is not a standarized process. It can be modified according to
the situation.
BENEFITS OF INTERVIEW
 Provide in depth and detailed
information
 Permits greater depth of
response
 Data form illiterate subjects
 Higher responses
 Clarify misunderstandings
 Ask questions at several levels
 Helps to gather other
supplementary information
 Use of special devices
 Flexible and adequate
 For people who are unable to
write their responses interview
is imporatant.
Types of interview
 Structured Interview
(Directive interview)
Un-structured Interview
(Non directive interview)
Semi-structured Interview
In Depth Interview
Focused Group Interview
Telephone Interview
Interviewing process
Preparation of interview
Pre interview introduction
Developing rapport
Carrying the interview forward
Recording the interview
Closing the interview
ADVANTAGES OF INTERVIEWS
• It is useful to obtain information about people feelings,
perceptions and opinions.
• It allow more detailed questions to be asked.
• High responses rate is achieved
• Respondents own words are recorded.
• Ambiguities can be clarified.
• Meanings of questions can be clarified.
DISADVANTAGES
• It is time consuming and costly.
• High degree chances of interviews bias.
questionnaire METHOD
DEFINITION
• A questionnaire is a structured instruments consisting a series
of questions prepared by researcher that a research subject is
asked to complete, to gather data form individuals about
knowledge, attitude, beliefs & feelings.
• A questionnaire is a structured self report paper and pencil
instruments that a research subject is asked to complete.
TYPES OF QUESTIONNAIRE
• OPEN FORMAT QUESTIONS
Open ended questions are those questions which provide
opportunity to the respondents to express their opinions and
answer in their own way.
Examples-
• Tell me about your relationship with yours friends.
• What happened at the meeting?
• How do get to work?
• Why is it that every time I talk with you, you seem irritated?
• Where do you want to be in five years?
CLOSED FORMAT QUESTIONS-
These questions offers respondents a number of alternative
replies, from which the subjects must choose the most likely
matches the appropriate answer.
A closed ended questions refers to any questions for which a
researcher provide research participants with options from
which to choose a responses.
1. Dichotomous questions- these require the respondent to
make a choice between two responses such as yes/no or
male/female.
Example
1. Have you ever been hospitalized?
a. Yes b. No
2. Please enter you gender:
a. Male b. Female
2. Multiple choice question: these questions require respondents to
make a choice between more than two responses alternatives.
Examples
1. What is the basic functional unit of the kidney?
a. Renal cortex b. Nephron
c. Glomerulus d.Renal medulla
2. Who is known as Lady with the lamp?
A. Mother teresa b. Sarojini naidu
c. Florence nightingale d. None of these
3. Cafeteria questions- these are a special type of multiple choice
questions that ask respondents to select a response that most closely
corresponds to their views.
Examples
1. People have different view on family planning which of the
following best represent your views?
a. It is necessary to quality life.
b. It is immoral and should be totally banned.
c. It has undesirable side effects that suggests needs for caution.
d. It is immoral and should be practiced.
4. Rank order questions: these questions ask respondents to
rank their responses from most favourable to least favourable.
Example
1. What according to you is most important for your life. Rank
from most favourable to least favourable.
a. Money b. Education c. Family d. Health
5. Contingency questions: a questions that is asked further only if
the respondent gives a particular responses to previous
questions.
Examples
1. Do you have children under 18 at home?
a. No b. yes, if yes please list ages
2. Did you buy anything in the hotel shop?
a. Yes (go to Q. 10) b. no (go to Q. 13)
What did you buy in the shop?
a. Clothes b. Stationery c. Other d. Toys
6. Rating questions: these questions ask respondents to judge
something along an order dimensions. Respondents is asked to
rate a particular issue on a scale that ranges from poor to good.
They may provide a number of choices.
Examples
1. How do you rate the following
Very Poor Poor Ok Good Very Good
a) Service
b) Cleanliness
c) Parking
d) Quality of food
e) Choice of food
7. Importance questions: in this respondents are asked to rate
the importance of a particular issue, on a rating scale of 1-5. this
helps to know that the things/ issues that are important to a
respondent.
Examples-
1. Exercising every day is ………for the health.
1 2 3 4 5
Extremely
important
Very
important
Somewhat
important
Not very
important
Not at all
important
8. Likert questions: it help to know how strongly the
respondents agrees with a particular statement. These question
help to assess how respondents feels towards a certain issues/
services.
1. Person with multiple sex partners is at high risk of AIDS?
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly
agree
Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly
disagree
9. Bipolar questions- are questions that have two extreme
answers. Respondent has to mark his or her response between
two opposite ends of the scale.
Examples
What is your balance of preference here?
I like going for walks () () () () I like watching movie
10. Matrix questions: it include multiple questions and identical
response categories are assigned . Questions are placed one under
another, forming a matrix. Response categories are placed under along
the top and a list of questions down the side.
Examples
1. How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with each of the following
attributes?
Very Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied
• Staff behaviour
at the reception
• Food quality
• Speed of service
• Behaviour of the waiter
• Cost of the food items
Guidelines for designing a good questionnaire
• It must be developed exactly in accordance with study
objectives.
• It should begin with the instructions for the respondents to
provide the responses.
• The questionnaire should be concise, precise and brief.
• Language should be according to the respondents knowledge
about a particular knowledge.
• Avoid professional jargons.
• As far as possible open ended questions should be avoided.
• Avoid questions with difficult concepts.
• Controversial and ambiguous questions should be avoided.
• questions which are likely to lead too bias in the respondents
should be avoided.
ADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRE
• Cost effective.
• Easy to analyze.
• Less time and energy to administer.
• Reduce bias.
• Used for large sample size.
DISADVANTAGES
• Not suitable for all.
• Low response rate.
• It sent by mail may be filled by someone.
• Its provide only superficial information.
• Chances of misinterpretations.
• People can lie and answer the questions vaguely.
COMPOSITE SCALE /
ATTITUDE SCALE
DEFINITION
• Composite scales are socio-psychological measurements,
which are directed towards quantifying the qualitative
attributes` such as feelings, attitude, self concepts, perceptions
and beliefs etc.
• Attitude scale is a special type of questionnaire designed to
produce scores indicating the intensity and direction
(for/against) of a person’s feelings about an object or event.
Likert scale
• Likert scale was developed by psychologists Rensis likert in 1932
as a psychological concept measurement scale.
• It scale was developed to measure the attitudes, values, and
feelings of peoples.
• Primarily original version of this scale is 5 point scales (strongly
agree, agree, uncertain, disagree or strongly disagree).
• How ever in recent times one can even observe the likert scale
with 4 point scale (strongly agree, moderately agree, disagree, and
uncertain) to 7 point scale (very strongly agree, strongly agree,
agree, uncertain, disagree, strongly disagree and very strongly
disagree).
definition
• Likert scale is a composite measurement scale used to measure
attitude, feelings and value of the people that involve
summation of scores on the set of positive and negative
declarative statements regarding measurable variables to
which respondents are asked to indicate their degree of
agreement or disagreement.
Use of likert scale
• It scales used to measure the attitudes, values, and feelings of
the people about specific concepts such as situation, peoples,
places, objects, programmes, practices, policies and so on.
• It may also be used to assess the opinions of the respondents.
• This scale is used to have quantified measurement of the
qualitative attributes of peoples such as feelings, values,
beliefs.
Likert scale examples
• Agreement
Question:
“The checkout process
was straightforward”
• Strongly Agree
• Agree
• Neither Agree Nor
Disagree
• Disagree
• Strongly Disagree
• Likelihood
Question:
“I would recommend this
product to my friends”
• Very Likely
• Likely
• Neutral
• Not Likely
• Very Unlikely
• Satisfaction
Question:
“Please rate your
satisfaction with your
recent customer
service experience:”
• Very Happy
• Somewhat Happy
• Neutral
• Not Very Happy
• Not at All Happy
• Importance
Question:
“Rank each item in
reference to its
importance to you:”
• Very Important,
• Important
• Moderately Important
• Slightly Important
• Not Important
Scoring of the likert scale
Statement Strongly
Agree
Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly
Disagree
Positive statement
Person with multiple sex
partners are at high risk of
AIDS
5 4 3 2 1
Negative statement
You can get AIDS by
sharing utensils
1 2 3 4 5
ADVANTAGES
• Easy to construct this scale.
• More reliable and valid tool to measure the psychological
variables.
• Easy to administer, since respondents only have to tick in
spaces.
• Less time consuming during construction & administration.
DISADVANTAGES
• Respondents may feel forced to answer the questions against
all pre planned items and their categories.
• Feelings of the respondents may not be fully assessed due to
researcher’s pre planned statements and categories.
• Difficulty in justifying the selection if the number of
categories and numerical assignment to these categories.
• Good attitude statements take time to construct.
SEMANTIC
DIFFERENTIAL
SCALE
SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE
• The Semantic Differential Scale is a seven-point rating scale
used to derive the respondent’s attitude towards the given object
or event by asking him to select an appropriate position on a
scale between two bipolar adjectives (such as “warm” or “cold”,
“powerful” or “weak”, etc.)
• Semantic differential scale is a type of rating scale designed to
measure the connotative meaning of objects, events and
concepts. These connotations are used to derive the respondents
attitude towards the objects, events and concepts.
USE OF SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE
• Patient satisfaction survey
• Customer satisfaction survey
• Employee survey
• Marketing survey
• Personality measurement
• Clinical psychology
SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE
likert scale
EXAMPLE OF SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE
• Assess the belief about HIV/ AIDS
HIV/ AIDS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
cure death
Social
acceptance
Affordable
treatment
Normal life
No
punishment punishment
Social
REJECTION
EXPENSIVE
treatment
MISERABLE life
ADVANTAGES OF SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL
SCALE
• It is a convenient method to assess the beliefs, attitudes and
values in quantitative form.
• Easy to administer.
• Provides reasonable valid and reliable quantitative data.
DISADVANTAGES OF SEMANTIC
DIFFERENTIIAL SCALE
• Lack of standardization of the tool.
• Time consuming to find the appropriate adjective pairs.
VISUAL
ANALOGOUS
SCALE
VISUAL ANALOGUE SCALE
• Visual "Analogue" Scale, is a psychometric response scale
that is used to measure the intensity of certain sensations and
feelings, such as pain, discomfort, anxiety, quality of sleep,
severity of clinical symptoms, functional ability and attitude
towards environmental conditions.
• This has 10 cm lines and the ends marks semantic opposites.
(alert-drowsy)
DEFINITION
• VAS is a tool that is used to assist a person in rating the
intensity of certain feelings and sensations.
• The VAS is a bipolar scale used to determine the degree of
stimuli a patient experiences. One side of the scale expresses
the absence of stimuli, while the other expresses the presence
of stimuli.
OBSERVATION
METHOD
DEFINITION
The word observation is derived from Latin word ‘observere’
which means ‘to notice’.
Observation is a technique for collecting data or acquiring
information through occurrences that can be observed through
senses with or without mechanical devices.
It is a two part process to collect data for study that includes an
observer (someone who is observing) and the observed (there
is something to observe).
USES OF OBSERVATION METHOD
• To understand an ongoing process or situation.
• To gather data on individual behaviours or interactions
between peoples.
• To know about a physical settings.
• Data collection where other methods are not possible.
Types of observation
 Structured Observation
Un-structured Observation
Participant Observation
 Non participant Observation
Structured observations
In this methods, researcher prepares
a structured or semi-structured tool
in advance to observe the
phenonmenon under study. This
helps researchers to be on track
while carrying out an observation as
well as analysis of data collected
during this method of observation
remains easy.
• Check list
• Rating scale
• Category system
UNSTRUCTURED OBSERVATIONS
This method is generally used in
qualitative studies, where observation
is made with minimally structured . It
is used for complete and nonspecific
observation of phenomenon, which is
very well known by the researcher.
• Log and field notes
• Anecdotes
• Field dairy
• Video recording
PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
Historically, field and
ethnographically researches have
been associated most strongly
with participant observations,
where observer may live or work
in field and actively participated
in ongoing activities for an
extended periods.
• Log books
• Fields notes
• Field diary
• Tape
• Video recording
NON-PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
• In this type of observation the observer works as an
eavesdropper, where an attempt is made to observe peoples
without interacting with them.
• In this techniques the observer is not a participant in the setting
but is merely viewing the situations. Peoples are observed
without their knowledge that they are being observed.
S.NO. CATEGORIES OBSERVATION METHOD
1. NARRATIVE
OBSERVATION
 Field notes
 Anecdotes
2. Sample Observation
 Rating Scales
 Checklists
 Event sampling
 Time sampling
3.
Technology assisted
observation
 Photographs
 CCTV/ Audiotapes/ Videography
ADVANTAGES
• It provides direct, real-time information on ongoing and
unfolding behavior, process, situation or event.
• It facilitates access to people and situation where
questionnaires and interviews are impossible or inappropriate
to use.
• Data collected is accurate and reliable.
• It provides access to people in real life situation.
• It improves precision of research results.
• Researcher gets current information.
DISADVANTAGES
• Hawthrone effect
• Time consuming & expensive
• Does not enhance the clear cut understanding of why people
behave as they do.
FIELD NOTES
• Field note is a qualitative notes of an observation made by a
researcher in a research setting, which includes descriptive and
reflective narrations of the observed behaviour, event, place or
person. It may even included sketches, drawing and diagrams.
• Descriptive information is factual data that is being recorded.
Includes time and date, physical setting, social environment,
descriptions of the subjects being studied and their roles in the
setting, and the impact that the observer may have had on the
environment.
ANECDOTES
• It is a brief, non-judgemental written record of an observed
incident. Anecdotes are record of what, when, where, how
event happened and what was said and done.
• An anecdotal record is a short, objective, descriptive summary
of one event or incident writing down after the event has taken
place.
DISADVANTAGES
• It is prone to bias because of halo effect, error of leniency, or
error of severity.
• If the subjects know that they are being observed, their behavior
or practices will not be natural. (Hawthorne effect)
• In covert observation there are ethical dilemmas, on the other
hand overt observation affects the validity.
• There is potential for misinterpretation.
• Lack of control over events and circumstances during
observation.
• It requires trained personnel.
RATING
SCALE
RATING SCALE
• Rating is the term used to express the opinion or judgement
regarding some performance of a person, objects, situations or
character.
• Rating scale is a tool in which the one person simply checks of
another person’s level of performance.
• Rating scale could be three point, five point, seven points or
more points.
Graphic Rating Scale
Descriptive Rating Scale
Numerical Rating Scale
Comparative Rating Scale
TYPES OF RATING SCALE
GRAPHIC RATING SCALE
• The graphic rating scale is the simplest and most popular
method for appraising performance. In this scale, the
performance is printed horizontally at various points from
lowest to highest. It included the numerical points on the scale.
• Likert Scale is a popular graphic rating scale.
EXAMPLE: To what extent staff nurse participates in clinical
conference?
1 2 3 4 5
DESCRIPTIVE RATING SCALE
• This types of rating scale does not uses number but divide the
assessment into series of verbal phrases to indicate the level of
performances.
Examples: Judge the level of performance of nursing personnel in
medical ICU
Nursing personnel
in a ward
Level of clinical performance
Very active active Moderately
active
passive
Kiran
Tara
Jasveen
karan
NUMERICAL RATING SCALE
• In these scale, each statement is generally assigned a
numerical score ranging from 1-10, or even more. It divide the
evaluation criteria into a fixed number of points. Visual Analog
Scale or a Semantic Differential Scale can be presented using a
numerical rating scale.
COMPARATIVE RATING SCALE
• In this type of rating scale, the researcher makes a judgement
about an attribute of a person by comparing it with that of a
similar another person.
ADVANTAGES OF RATING
SCALES:
• It can be used for large number of subjects.
• Easy to administer and score.
• Efficient and economical in terms of time and money.
• Helps to reduce unreliability.
• It is used to evaluate performance and skills.
DISADVANTAGES OF RATING SCALE
• Difficult to fix up rating about many aspects of an individual.
• Misuse can result in decrease in objectivity.
DISADVANTAGES
• It is prone to bias because of halo effect, error of leniency, or
error of severity.
• If the subjects know that they are being observed, their behavior
or practices will not be natural. (Hawthorne effect)
• In covert observation there are ethical dilemmas, on the other
hand overt observation affects the validity.
• There is potential for misinterpretation.
• Lack of control over events and circumstances during
observation.
• It requires trained personnel.
CHECK
LIST
CHECK LIST
• A checklist is a simple device consisting of a prepared list of
items, which are thought by the researcher to be relevant to the
problem, which is being studied. The checklist consists of a list
of items with a place to check or mark yes or no.
• A checklist is a list of all the things that you need to do,
information that you want to find out, or things that you need to
take somewhere, which you make in order to ensure that you do
not forget anything.
CHARACTERSTICS OF CHECKLISTS
• Observe one respondents at one time.
• Use only carefully prepared checklist to avoid more complex
traits.
• The observer should be trained how to observe, what to
observe, and how to record the observed behavior.
Construction of checklist
• Express each item in a clear, simple language.
• The list of items in the checklist may be continuous or divided
into groups of related items.
• Avoid negative statements whenever possible.
• Ensure that each items has clear responses: yes or no. true or
false.
• Review the items independently.
PROCEDURALCHECKLISTFORHANDWASHING
S.NO. STEPS/ TASK 1 2 3 4 5
1 Remove rings, bracelets, and watch.
2 Wet hands in clean running water. Applies soap.
3 Vigorously rub hands together in following manner
 Palms, fingers and web spaces
4  Back of hands
5  Fingers and knuckles
6  Thumbs
7  Fingertips and creases
8  Wrist and forearm up to the elbow
9 Thoroughly rinse hands in clean running water.
10 Dry hands using clean personal towel, paper towel, or allows to
air dry
.
ADVANTAGES OF CHECKLISTS
• They can be developed very easily, quickly and are relatively less
expensive.
• Their design can be highly specific and adequate.
• Checklist reduces the chances of error in observation.
• It is useful to obtain a large amount of data.
• It Saves time.
• It is useful in evaluating learning activities.
• It helps in evaluating procedural work.
• It has objectivity in evaluating characteristics.
DISADVANTAGES OF CHECK LIST
• Does not indicate quality of performance, so usefulness of
checklist is limited.
• It is very easy for certain important items to be omitted in a
checklist.
BIOPHYSIOLOGIC METHOD
BIOPHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS
• Bio-physiologic method involves the collection of bio-
physiological data from subjects by using the specialized
equipments to determine biological and physical status of
subjects.
PURPOSES OF BIO-PHYSIOLOGIC METHODS
• To study basic physiologic process
• To study physiologic outcome to nursing care
• To evaluation nursing intervention
• To study correlation of physiologic functioning with patients
problems.
TYPES OF BIO-PHYSIOLOGIC METHOD
IN- VIVO BIOPHYSIOLOGIC METHOD
IN- VITRO BIOPHYSIOLOGIC METHOD
IN- VIVO BIOPHYSIOLOGIC METHOD
• In this method, measurement are directly performed over the
organism or study subjects by using specialized instruments or
equipments.
Example
• Measurement of the BP by using sphygmomanometer.
• Cardiac conduction using ECG machine
• Temperature using thermometer
• Oxygen saturation using pulse oximeter
• In-vivo measuring instrument system involves the following 6
components
1. Stimulus
2. Subject
3. Sensory equipment (Transducers & electrodes)
4. Signal conditioning (amplifiers and signals processors)
5. Display equipment
6. Recording equipment
(Physiologic measurement are good examples of in-vivo bio-
physiologic measurement TPR, BP)
IN- VITRO BIOPHYSIOLOGIC METHOD
• It is the measurement of the bio-physiologic attributes of the
subjects, which is carried out through collection of sample of
data related to physical, bio-chemical, microbiologic,
pathologic and anatomic status by using some technical
instruments and by sending them to laboratory for their
analysis and interpretation.
• In-vitro bio-physiologic methods, measurements are carried
out outside the organism by using specialized equipments.
ADVANTAGES OF BIOPHYSIOLOGIC METHODS
• Bio-physiologic measures are relatively more accurate and
errorless.
• Provide valid measures for targeted variables.
• Easy access to most of the instruments.
DISADVANTAGES OF BIOPHYSIOLOGIC
METHODS
• Some of the instruments are very expensive.
• Requires training, knowledge and experiences.
• The results produced by the bio-physiologic measurement
instruments may be affected by the environments.
• Fear and anxiety among participants.
• Some bio-physiologic methods may have harmful effect on
participants.
OTHER METHODS
Projective
techniques
DEFINITION
• Projective techniques are methods for measuring psychologic
attributes (value, attitudes and personality) by providing
respondents with unstructured stimuli to which they respond.
• Projective test is a type of psychological test that assesses a
person’s thinking pattern, observational ability, feelings and
attitudes on the basis of responses to ambiguous test materials.
ASSOCIATION TECHNIQUE
• A techniques in which the respondents is presented
with a stimulus and asked to response with the first
words comes in mind.
Techniques-
• Word association
CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
• The subject is required to produce or construct something at
direction, usually a story or picture.
THEMATIC APPRECITATION TEST
• The Thematic Apperception test is a type of projective test that
involves describing ambiguous scenes. Its evaluate a person's
patterns of thought, attitudes, observational capacity, and
emotional responses to ambiguous test materials.
• The TAT includes 32 picture cards depicting a variety of scenes
depicting characters that may include men, women, children,
and human subjects altogether. The scenes explore a number of
themes including those related to sexuality, aggression, failure,
success, and relationships. Respondents are asked what they
think the picture represents.
• The Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test consists of 24 cartoon
pictures, each portraying two persons in a frustrating situation.
Each picture contains two "speech balloons," a filled one for the
"frustrator" or antagonist, and a blank one for the frustrated person,
or protagonist. The subject is asked to fill in the blank balloon with
his or her response to the situation, and the responses are scored in
relation to a number of psychological defense mechanisms.
ROSENZWEIG TEST
RORSCHACH TEST
• The Rorschach inkblot test is a type of projective psychological
test created in 1921 by a Swiss psychologist named Hermann
Rorschach. It utilized to assess personality and emotional
functioning.
• The Rorschach test consists of 10 inkblot images, some of which
are black, white, or gray and some of which are color.
• The test shows each of the ten cards to the respondent. During the
test, the subject is provided with each of the ten cards, one by one.
• The subject is then asked to describe what he or she thinks the
card looks like. Test-takers are allowed to hold the cards in any
position they may want, whether it is upside down or sideways.
• The respondents are free to interpret the image however they
want. Once the subject has provided a response, the psychologist
will then ask additional questions to get the subject to further
elaborate on his or her initial impressions.
HOLTZMAN INKBLOT TEST (HIT)
• The Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT), also known as the
Holtman Inkblot Test, is an inkplot test aimed at detecting
personality.
• It was first introduced in 1961 as a projective personality test
similar to the Rorschach.
• The Holtzman Inkblot Test was invented as an attempt to
address some controversial issues surrounding the Rorschach
Inkblot Test.
TOMKINS-HORN PICTURE ARRANGEMENT
TEST
• This test is designed for group administration with 25 plates,
each containing three sketches that may be arranged in
different ways to portray sequences, which participants
consider reasonable. Write a sentence for each of three
pictures to tell a story.
COMPLETION TECHNIQUES
Completion projective technique supply the subjects
with stimulus that is incomplete and the subject is
required to complete it as he/she wishes.
• Sentences completion test
• Story completion test
EXPRESSIVE TECHNIQUE
• This technique generally concentrate on the way in which
something is constructed by the subjects, as against on what it
represents.
ORDERING CHOICE
• This type of projective techniques is most frequently used in
quantitative researches. This techniques is generally used
informally
MISCELLANEOUS TYPE
• Drawing a picture
• Creating families
• Using fantasy and day dreams
• Clay modelling
ADVANTAGES OF PROJECTIVE
TECHNIQUES
DISADVANTAGES OF PROJECTIVE
TECHNIQUES
Q-Sorts
Q-Sorts
• Q-Sorts was developed in 1930 by a British physicist-
psychologist William Stephenson. The idea behind the
development of this methods was to inquire into the
subjectivity of human mind.
DEFINITION
• Q-Sorts are the powerful tools in which the participants
are presented with card arrangement. In this techniques,
participants are provided pre-written cards with words,
phrases or statements and are asked to arrange theses
cards in an order along with specific bipolar dimension.
There are approximately 60-100 such cards that can be
sorted out in 9-11 piles with few numbers of cards
placed in each piles.
ADVANTAGES OF Q-SORTS
• Provide in depth study of small sample populations.
• No needs of the participants to be randomly selected.
DISADVANTAGES OF Q-SORTS
• It takes much time.
• Not cost effective
• Small sample can be studied.
• Can not be use to test hypothesis.
VIGNETTES
VIGNETTES
• In order to explore people’s beliefs, perceptions and meaning
about some particular situations vignettes as a valuable
techniques.
• The vignette techniques is a method that can elicit perceptions,
opinions, beliefs and attitudes from responses or comments to
stories depicting scenarios and situations.
• Vignettes are short scenarios in written or pictorial form,
intended to elicit responses to typical scenarios.
USES OF VIGNETTES
• Tapping general beliefs and attitudes.
• Sensitive topics exploration
• Comparisons of perceptions of disparate groups
• Used in focus group discussions.
ADVANTAGES OF VIGNETTES
• Allow face to face contacts with respondents.
• Give opportunity to explore topics in depth.
• Make it easy for respondents to reply to the concerned topics.
• Provide detailed data.
DISADVANTAGES
• Cover limited sample size.
• Volume of information can be difficult to record, very large.
PROCEDURE
OF
DATA COLLECTION
DATA COLLECTION STEPS
Defining the data to be collected
Selecting appropriate method of data collection
Selecting or developing data collection instruments
Try out of data collection instruments and procedure
Developing data collection supportive forms and procedure
Training of data collectors
Inform local authority for data collection and obtain due permissions
Data collection and data management
VALIDITY OF
RESEARCH
TOOL
DEFINITION
• Validity of an instruments refers to the degree to which an
instruments measures what it is supposed to measuring.
• Validity is the appropriateness, completeness and usefulness of
an attribute measuring research instruments.
RELIABILITY
RELIABILITY
• Reliability is the degree of consistency with which attributes or
variables are measured by an instruments.
• Reliability pertains to the consistency of a measures. A test is
thought to be reliable if we get the same result in a repeated
manner.
• Reliability is defined as the ability of an instruments to create
reproducible results. A tool can only be considered reliable if
it measures an attribute with similar result on repeated use.
MEASURING OF RELIABILITY
• Stability
• Internal consistency
• equivalence
STABILITY
• The stability of reliability means research instruments provide same
results when used consecutively for two or more times.
• Statistical calculation (Test-retest Method)
It is used for questionnaire, observation, check list, rating scales, and
physiological measurements tools.
• Interpretation of results (-1.00 through 0.0 and +1.00)
+1.00 score indicate perfect reliability
0 score indicated no reliability
Above 0.70 indicate acceptable level of reliability
INTERNAL CONSISTENCY
• Internal consistency also known as homogeneity. It ensures
that all the sub parts of a research instruments measure the
same characteristics.
• A research tool can only be considered internally consistent if
all the subparts of the tool are measuring the same
characteristics of the phenomena.
• Statistical calculation (Split-Half Method)
EQUIVALENCE
• This is also known as inter rater or inter observer reliability.
Which is estimated by the administration of tool to observe a
single event simultaneously and independently by two or more
trained observers.
Number of agreements
No. of agreements + no. of disagreements
r =
THANKYOU

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Tools and methods of data collection

  • 1. TOOLS AND METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION MS. MONIKA PATEL Asst. Lecturer JIHS
  • 2. The word data is a pleural form of the word datum which means information that is systematically collected in the course of the study. Data are observable and measurable facts that provide information about the phenomenon under study. Data collection is the process by which the researcher collects the information needed to answer the research problem. DATA
  • 3. DATA sources PRIMARY SOURCES SECONDARY SOURCES INTERNAL SOURCES (Private documents) EXTERNAL SOURCES (Public documents) Published Sources Unpublished Sources People, objects, programmes, institutions, etc  Biographies  Diaries  Letters  Memories  Journals & magazines  Newspaper  Government reports  Statistical abstracts  Census reports  Mass communication  Communication reports  Unpublished thesis  Unpublished dissertation and reports  Officials or patients record
  • 4.
  • 5. SELECTION OF METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The nature of phenomenon under study  Distribution of target population Type of research subjects  Time frame of the study The type of research study  Literacy levels of the study Purpose of research study  Availability of resources and manpower Size of study samples  Researcher knowledge level & competence
  • 6. METHOD & TOOLS OF DATA COLLECTION • METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION- The various steps or strategies used for gathering and analysing data in research investigations are known as the method of data collection.
  • 7. TECHNIQUE OF DATA COLLECTION- The means of gathering data with the use of specific tools that are used in given methods are known as techniques of data collection TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION- a research instruments is a device used to measure the concept of interest in a research projects that a researcher uses to collect data.
  • 8. S.NO. TYPES OF METHODS/ TECHNIQUES TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION 1. Interview  Interview Schedule  Opinionnaire 2. Questioning  Questionnaire  Opinionaire  Attitude Scale/ Composite Scales (Likert Scale/ Semantic Differential Scale)  Visual Analogue Scale 3. Observation  Rating Scales  Checklists  Anecdotes  Videotapes/ Films  Closed Circuit TV 4. Biophysiological Methods  In Vivo Biophysiological Methods  In Vitro Biophysiological Methods 5. Other Methods  Projective Techniques  Q-Sorts  Vignettes
  • 10. DEFINITION 1) Interview method is a method of data collection in which one person (interviewer) asks the questions from another person (respondent) which is conducted either face to face or telephonically. 2) An interview is a conversation between two or more people (interviewer & interviewee) where questions are asked by interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee.
  • 11. CHARACTERSTICS OF INTERVIEW • The participants, the interviewer and respondents are strangers. • The relationship between the participants is a transitory one. • Interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers to question put verbally. • Investigators records information's. • Interviews can be conducted over telephone also. • It is not always limited to a single respondents. • It is not a standarized process. It can be modified according to the situation.
  • 12. BENEFITS OF INTERVIEW  Provide in depth and detailed information  Permits greater depth of response  Data form illiterate subjects  Higher responses  Clarify misunderstandings  Ask questions at several levels  Helps to gather other supplementary information  Use of special devices  Flexible and adequate  For people who are unable to write their responses interview is imporatant.
  • 13. Types of interview  Structured Interview (Directive interview) Un-structured Interview (Non directive interview) Semi-structured Interview In Depth Interview Focused Group Interview Telephone Interview
  • 14. Interviewing process Preparation of interview Pre interview introduction Developing rapport Carrying the interview forward Recording the interview Closing the interview
  • 15. ADVANTAGES OF INTERVIEWS • It is useful to obtain information about people feelings, perceptions and opinions. • It allow more detailed questions to be asked. • High responses rate is achieved • Respondents own words are recorded. • Ambiguities can be clarified. • Meanings of questions can be clarified.
  • 16. DISADVANTAGES • It is time consuming and costly. • High degree chances of interviews bias.
  • 18. DEFINITION • A questionnaire is a structured instruments consisting a series of questions prepared by researcher that a research subject is asked to complete, to gather data form individuals about knowledge, attitude, beliefs & feelings. • A questionnaire is a structured self report paper and pencil instruments that a research subject is asked to complete.
  • 19. TYPES OF QUESTIONNAIRE • OPEN FORMAT QUESTIONS Open ended questions are those questions which provide opportunity to the respondents to express their opinions and answer in their own way.
  • 20. Examples- • Tell me about your relationship with yours friends. • What happened at the meeting? • How do get to work? • Why is it that every time I talk with you, you seem irritated? • Where do you want to be in five years?
  • 21. CLOSED FORMAT QUESTIONS- These questions offers respondents a number of alternative replies, from which the subjects must choose the most likely matches the appropriate answer. A closed ended questions refers to any questions for which a researcher provide research participants with options from which to choose a responses.
  • 22. 1. Dichotomous questions- these require the respondent to make a choice between two responses such as yes/no or male/female. Example 1. Have you ever been hospitalized? a. Yes b. No 2. Please enter you gender: a. Male b. Female
  • 23. 2. Multiple choice question: these questions require respondents to make a choice between more than two responses alternatives. Examples 1. What is the basic functional unit of the kidney? a. Renal cortex b. Nephron c. Glomerulus d.Renal medulla 2. Who is known as Lady with the lamp? A. Mother teresa b. Sarojini naidu c. Florence nightingale d. None of these
  • 24. 3. Cafeteria questions- these are a special type of multiple choice questions that ask respondents to select a response that most closely corresponds to their views. Examples 1. People have different view on family planning which of the following best represent your views? a. It is necessary to quality life. b. It is immoral and should be totally banned. c. It has undesirable side effects that suggests needs for caution. d. It is immoral and should be practiced.
  • 25. 4. Rank order questions: these questions ask respondents to rank their responses from most favourable to least favourable. Example 1. What according to you is most important for your life. Rank from most favourable to least favourable. a. Money b. Education c. Family d. Health
  • 26. 5. Contingency questions: a questions that is asked further only if the respondent gives a particular responses to previous questions. Examples 1. Do you have children under 18 at home? a. No b. yes, if yes please list ages 2. Did you buy anything in the hotel shop? a. Yes (go to Q. 10) b. no (go to Q. 13) What did you buy in the shop? a. Clothes b. Stationery c. Other d. Toys
  • 27. 6. Rating questions: these questions ask respondents to judge something along an order dimensions. Respondents is asked to rate a particular issue on a scale that ranges from poor to good. They may provide a number of choices. Examples 1. How do you rate the following Very Poor Poor Ok Good Very Good a) Service b) Cleanliness c) Parking d) Quality of food e) Choice of food
  • 28. 7. Importance questions: in this respondents are asked to rate the importance of a particular issue, on a rating scale of 1-5. this helps to know that the things/ issues that are important to a respondent. Examples- 1. Exercising every day is ………for the health. 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely important Very important Somewhat important Not very important Not at all important
  • 29. 8. Likert questions: it help to know how strongly the respondents agrees with a particular statement. These question help to assess how respondents feels towards a certain issues/ services. 1. Person with multiple sex partners is at high risk of AIDS? 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly agree Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly disagree
  • 30. 9. Bipolar questions- are questions that have two extreme answers. Respondent has to mark his or her response between two opposite ends of the scale. Examples What is your balance of preference here? I like going for walks () () () () I like watching movie
  • 31. 10. Matrix questions: it include multiple questions and identical response categories are assigned . Questions are placed one under another, forming a matrix. Response categories are placed under along the top and a list of questions down the side. Examples 1. How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with each of the following attributes? Very Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied • Staff behaviour at the reception • Food quality • Speed of service • Behaviour of the waiter • Cost of the food items
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  • 34. Guidelines for designing a good questionnaire • It must be developed exactly in accordance with study objectives. • It should begin with the instructions for the respondents to provide the responses. • The questionnaire should be concise, precise and brief. • Language should be according to the respondents knowledge about a particular knowledge.
  • 35. • Avoid professional jargons. • As far as possible open ended questions should be avoided. • Avoid questions with difficult concepts. • Controversial and ambiguous questions should be avoided. • questions which are likely to lead too bias in the respondents should be avoided.
  • 36. ADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRE • Cost effective. • Easy to analyze. • Less time and energy to administer. • Reduce bias. • Used for large sample size.
  • 37. DISADVANTAGES • Not suitable for all. • Low response rate. • It sent by mail may be filled by someone. • Its provide only superficial information. • Chances of misinterpretations. • People can lie and answer the questions vaguely.
  • 39. DEFINITION • Composite scales are socio-psychological measurements, which are directed towards quantifying the qualitative attributes` such as feelings, attitude, self concepts, perceptions and beliefs etc. • Attitude scale is a special type of questionnaire designed to produce scores indicating the intensity and direction (for/against) of a person’s feelings about an object or event.
  • 40. Likert scale • Likert scale was developed by psychologists Rensis likert in 1932 as a psychological concept measurement scale. • It scale was developed to measure the attitudes, values, and feelings of peoples. • Primarily original version of this scale is 5 point scales (strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree or strongly disagree). • How ever in recent times one can even observe the likert scale with 4 point scale (strongly agree, moderately agree, disagree, and uncertain) to 7 point scale (very strongly agree, strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree, strongly disagree and very strongly disagree).
  • 41. definition • Likert scale is a composite measurement scale used to measure attitude, feelings and value of the people that involve summation of scores on the set of positive and negative declarative statements regarding measurable variables to which respondents are asked to indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement.
  • 42. Use of likert scale • It scales used to measure the attitudes, values, and feelings of the people about specific concepts such as situation, peoples, places, objects, programmes, practices, policies and so on. • It may also be used to assess the opinions of the respondents. • This scale is used to have quantified measurement of the qualitative attributes of peoples such as feelings, values, beliefs.
  • 43. Likert scale examples • Agreement Question: “The checkout process was straightforward” • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree Nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree
  • 44. • Likelihood Question: “I would recommend this product to my friends” • Very Likely • Likely • Neutral • Not Likely • Very Unlikely
  • 45. • Satisfaction Question: “Please rate your satisfaction with your recent customer service experience:” • Very Happy • Somewhat Happy • Neutral • Not Very Happy • Not at All Happy
  • 46. • Importance Question: “Rank each item in reference to its importance to you:” • Very Important, • Important • Moderately Important • Slightly Important • Not Important
  • 47. Scoring of the likert scale Statement Strongly Agree Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly Disagree Positive statement Person with multiple sex partners are at high risk of AIDS 5 4 3 2 1 Negative statement You can get AIDS by sharing utensils 1 2 3 4 5
  • 48. ADVANTAGES • Easy to construct this scale. • More reliable and valid tool to measure the psychological variables. • Easy to administer, since respondents only have to tick in spaces. • Less time consuming during construction & administration.
  • 49. DISADVANTAGES • Respondents may feel forced to answer the questions against all pre planned items and their categories. • Feelings of the respondents may not be fully assessed due to researcher’s pre planned statements and categories. • Difficulty in justifying the selection if the number of categories and numerical assignment to these categories. • Good attitude statements take time to construct.
  • 51. SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE • The Semantic Differential Scale is a seven-point rating scale used to derive the respondent’s attitude towards the given object or event by asking him to select an appropriate position on a scale between two bipolar adjectives (such as “warm” or “cold”, “powerful” or “weak”, etc.) • Semantic differential scale is a type of rating scale designed to measure the connotative meaning of objects, events and concepts. These connotations are used to derive the respondents attitude towards the objects, events and concepts.
  • 52. USE OF SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE • Patient satisfaction survey • Customer satisfaction survey • Employee survey • Marketing survey • Personality measurement • Clinical psychology
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  • 55. EXAMPLE OF SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE • Assess the belief about HIV/ AIDS HIV/ AIDS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 cure death Social acceptance Affordable treatment Normal life No punishment punishment Social REJECTION EXPENSIVE treatment MISERABLE life
  • 56. ADVANTAGES OF SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE • It is a convenient method to assess the beliefs, attitudes and values in quantitative form. • Easy to administer. • Provides reasonable valid and reliable quantitative data.
  • 57. DISADVANTAGES OF SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIIAL SCALE • Lack of standardization of the tool. • Time consuming to find the appropriate adjective pairs.
  • 59. VISUAL ANALOGUE SCALE • Visual "Analogue" Scale, is a psychometric response scale that is used to measure the intensity of certain sensations and feelings, such as pain, discomfort, anxiety, quality of sleep, severity of clinical symptoms, functional ability and attitude towards environmental conditions. • This has 10 cm lines and the ends marks semantic opposites. (alert-drowsy)
  • 60. DEFINITION • VAS is a tool that is used to assist a person in rating the intensity of certain feelings and sensations. • The VAS is a bipolar scale used to determine the degree of stimuli a patient experiences. One side of the scale expresses the absence of stimuli, while the other expresses the presence of stimuli.
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  • 66. DEFINITION The word observation is derived from Latin word ‘observere’ which means ‘to notice’. Observation is a technique for collecting data or acquiring information through occurrences that can be observed through senses with or without mechanical devices. It is a two part process to collect data for study that includes an observer (someone who is observing) and the observed (there is something to observe).
  • 67. USES OF OBSERVATION METHOD • To understand an ongoing process or situation. • To gather data on individual behaviours or interactions between peoples. • To know about a physical settings. • Data collection where other methods are not possible.
  • 68. Types of observation  Structured Observation Un-structured Observation Participant Observation  Non participant Observation
  • 69. Structured observations In this methods, researcher prepares a structured or semi-structured tool in advance to observe the phenonmenon under study. This helps researchers to be on track while carrying out an observation as well as analysis of data collected during this method of observation remains easy. • Check list • Rating scale • Category system
  • 70. UNSTRUCTURED OBSERVATIONS This method is generally used in qualitative studies, where observation is made with minimally structured . It is used for complete and nonspecific observation of phenomenon, which is very well known by the researcher. • Log and field notes • Anecdotes • Field dairy • Video recording
  • 71. PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION Historically, field and ethnographically researches have been associated most strongly with participant observations, where observer may live or work in field and actively participated in ongoing activities for an extended periods. • Log books • Fields notes • Field diary • Tape • Video recording
  • 72. NON-PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION • In this type of observation the observer works as an eavesdropper, where an attempt is made to observe peoples without interacting with them. • In this techniques the observer is not a participant in the setting but is merely viewing the situations. Peoples are observed without their knowledge that they are being observed.
  • 73. S.NO. CATEGORIES OBSERVATION METHOD 1. NARRATIVE OBSERVATION  Field notes  Anecdotes 2. Sample Observation  Rating Scales  Checklists  Event sampling  Time sampling 3. Technology assisted observation  Photographs  CCTV/ Audiotapes/ Videography
  • 74. ADVANTAGES • It provides direct, real-time information on ongoing and unfolding behavior, process, situation or event. • It facilitates access to people and situation where questionnaires and interviews are impossible or inappropriate to use. • Data collected is accurate and reliable. • It provides access to people in real life situation. • It improves precision of research results. • Researcher gets current information.
  • 75. DISADVANTAGES • Hawthrone effect • Time consuming & expensive • Does not enhance the clear cut understanding of why people behave as they do.
  • 76. FIELD NOTES • Field note is a qualitative notes of an observation made by a researcher in a research setting, which includes descriptive and reflective narrations of the observed behaviour, event, place or person. It may even included sketches, drawing and diagrams. • Descriptive information is factual data that is being recorded. Includes time and date, physical setting, social environment, descriptions of the subjects being studied and their roles in the setting, and the impact that the observer may have had on the environment.
  • 77. ANECDOTES • It is a brief, non-judgemental written record of an observed incident. Anecdotes are record of what, when, where, how event happened and what was said and done. • An anecdotal record is a short, objective, descriptive summary of one event or incident writing down after the event has taken place.
  • 78. DISADVANTAGES • It is prone to bias because of halo effect, error of leniency, or error of severity. • If the subjects know that they are being observed, their behavior or practices will not be natural. (Hawthorne effect) • In covert observation there are ethical dilemmas, on the other hand overt observation affects the validity. • There is potential for misinterpretation. • Lack of control over events and circumstances during observation. • It requires trained personnel. RATING SCALE
  • 79. RATING SCALE • Rating is the term used to express the opinion or judgement regarding some performance of a person, objects, situations or character. • Rating scale is a tool in which the one person simply checks of another person’s level of performance. • Rating scale could be three point, five point, seven points or more points.
  • 80. Graphic Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Scale Numerical Rating Scale Comparative Rating Scale TYPES OF RATING SCALE
  • 81. GRAPHIC RATING SCALE • The graphic rating scale is the simplest and most popular method for appraising performance. In this scale, the performance is printed horizontally at various points from lowest to highest. It included the numerical points on the scale. • Likert Scale is a popular graphic rating scale. EXAMPLE: To what extent staff nurse participates in clinical conference? 1 2 3 4 5
  • 82. DESCRIPTIVE RATING SCALE • This types of rating scale does not uses number but divide the assessment into series of verbal phrases to indicate the level of performances. Examples: Judge the level of performance of nursing personnel in medical ICU Nursing personnel in a ward Level of clinical performance Very active active Moderately active passive Kiran Tara Jasveen karan
  • 83. NUMERICAL RATING SCALE • In these scale, each statement is generally assigned a numerical score ranging from 1-10, or even more. It divide the evaluation criteria into a fixed number of points. Visual Analog Scale or a Semantic Differential Scale can be presented using a numerical rating scale.
  • 84. COMPARATIVE RATING SCALE • In this type of rating scale, the researcher makes a judgement about an attribute of a person by comparing it with that of a similar another person.
  • 85. ADVANTAGES OF RATING SCALES: • It can be used for large number of subjects. • Easy to administer and score. • Efficient and economical in terms of time and money. • Helps to reduce unreliability. • It is used to evaluate performance and skills.
  • 86. DISADVANTAGES OF RATING SCALE • Difficult to fix up rating about many aspects of an individual. • Misuse can result in decrease in objectivity.
  • 87. DISADVANTAGES • It is prone to bias because of halo effect, error of leniency, or error of severity. • If the subjects know that they are being observed, their behavior or practices will not be natural. (Hawthorne effect) • In covert observation there are ethical dilemmas, on the other hand overt observation affects the validity. • There is potential for misinterpretation. • Lack of control over events and circumstances during observation. • It requires trained personnel. CHECK LIST
  • 88. CHECK LIST • A checklist is a simple device consisting of a prepared list of items, which are thought by the researcher to be relevant to the problem, which is being studied. The checklist consists of a list of items with a place to check or mark yes or no. • A checklist is a list of all the things that you need to do, information that you want to find out, or things that you need to take somewhere, which you make in order to ensure that you do not forget anything.
  • 89. CHARACTERSTICS OF CHECKLISTS • Observe one respondents at one time. • Use only carefully prepared checklist to avoid more complex traits. • The observer should be trained how to observe, what to observe, and how to record the observed behavior.
  • 90. Construction of checklist • Express each item in a clear, simple language. • The list of items in the checklist may be continuous or divided into groups of related items. • Avoid negative statements whenever possible. • Ensure that each items has clear responses: yes or no. true or false. • Review the items independently.
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  • 92. PROCEDURALCHECKLISTFORHANDWASHING S.NO. STEPS/ TASK 1 2 3 4 5 1 Remove rings, bracelets, and watch. 2 Wet hands in clean running water. Applies soap. 3 Vigorously rub hands together in following manner  Palms, fingers and web spaces 4  Back of hands 5  Fingers and knuckles 6  Thumbs 7  Fingertips and creases 8  Wrist and forearm up to the elbow 9 Thoroughly rinse hands in clean running water. 10 Dry hands using clean personal towel, paper towel, or allows to air dry .
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  • 95. ADVANTAGES OF CHECKLISTS • They can be developed very easily, quickly and are relatively less expensive. • Their design can be highly specific and adequate. • Checklist reduces the chances of error in observation. • It is useful to obtain a large amount of data. • It Saves time. • It is useful in evaluating learning activities. • It helps in evaluating procedural work. • It has objectivity in evaluating characteristics.
  • 96. DISADVANTAGES OF CHECK LIST • Does not indicate quality of performance, so usefulness of checklist is limited. • It is very easy for certain important items to be omitted in a checklist.
  • 98. BIOPHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS • Bio-physiologic method involves the collection of bio- physiological data from subjects by using the specialized equipments to determine biological and physical status of subjects.
  • 99. PURPOSES OF BIO-PHYSIOLOGIC METHODS • To study basic physiologic process • To study physiologic outcome to nursing care • To evaluation nursing intervention • To study correlation of physiologic functioning with patients problems.
  • 100. TYPES OF BIO-PHYSIOLOGIC METHOD IN- VIVO BIOPHYSIOLOGIC METHOD IN- VITRO BIOPHYSIOLOGIC METHOD
  • 101. IN- VIVO BIOPHYSIOLOGIC METHOD • In this method, measurement are directly performed over the organism or study subjects by using specialized instruments or equipments. Example • Measurement of the BP by using sphygmomanometer. • Cardiac conduction using ECG machine • Temperature using thermometer • Oxygen saturation using pulse oximeter
  • 102. • In-vivo measuring instrument system involves the following 6 components 1. Stimulus 2. Subject 3. Sensory equipment (Transducers & electrodes) 4. Signal conditioning (amplifiers and signals processors) 5. Display equipment 6. Recording equipment (Physiologic measurement are good examples of in-vivo bio- physiologic measurement TPR, BP)
  • 103. IN- VITRO BIOPHYSIOLOGIC METHOD • It is the measurement of the bio-physiologic attributes of the subjects, which is carried out through collection of sample of data related to physical, bio-chemical, microbiologic, pathologic and anatomic status by using some technical instruments and by sending them to laboratory for their analysis and interpretation. • In-vitro bio-physiologic methods, measurements are carried out outside the organism by using specialized equipments.
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  • 106. ADVANTAGES OF BIOPHYSIOLOGIC METHODS • Bio-physiologic measures are relatively more accurate and errorless. • Provide valid measures for targeted variables. • Easy access to most of the instruments.
  • 107. DISADVANTAGES OF BIOPHYSIOLOGIC METHODS • Some of the instruments are very expensive. • Requires training, knowledge and experiences. • The results produced by the bio-physiologic measurement instruments may be affected by the environments. • Fear and anxiety among participants. • Some bio-physiologic methods may have harmful effect on participants.
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  • 111. DEFINITION • Projective techniques are methods for measuring psychologic attributes (value, attitudes and personality) by providing respondents with unstructured stimuli to which they respond. • Projective test is a type of psychological test that assesses a person’s thinking pattern, observational ability, feelings and attitudes on the basis of responses to ambiguous test materials.
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  • 113. ASSOCIATION TECHNIQUE • A techniques in which the respondents is presented with a stimulus and asked to response with the first words comes in mind. Techniques- • Word association
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  • 115. CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES • The subject is required to produce or construct something at direction, usually a story or picture.
  • 116. THEMATIC APPRECITATION TEST • The Thematic Apperception test is a type of projective test that involves describing ambiguous scenes. Its evaluate a person's patterns of thought, attitudes, observational capacity, and emotional responses to ambiguous test materials. • The TAT includes 32 picture cards depicting a variety of scenes depicting characters that may include men, women, children, and human subjects altogether. The scenes explore a number of themes including those related to sexuality, aggression, failure, success, and relationships. Respondents are asked what they think the picture represents.
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  • 118. • The Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test consists of 24 cartoon pictures, each portraying two persons in a frustrating situation. Each picture contains two "speech balloons," a filled one for the "frustrator" or antagonist, and a blank one for the frustrated person, or protagonist. The subject is asked to fill in the blank balloon with his or her response to the situation, and the responses are scored in relation to a number of psychological defense mechanisms. ROSENZWEIG TEST
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  • 120. RORSCHACH TEST • The Rorschach inkblot test is a type of projective psychological test created in 1921 by a Swiss psychologist named Hermann Rorschach. It utilized to assess personality and emotional functioning.
  • 121. • The Rorschach test consists of 10 inkblot images, some of which are black, white, or gray and some of which are color. • The test shows each of the ten cards to the respondent. During the test, the subject is provided with each of the ten cards, one by one. • The subject is then asked to describe what he or she thinks the card looks like. Test-takers are allowed to hold the cards in any position they may want, whether it is upside down or sideways. • The respondents are free to interpret the image however they want. Once the subject has provided a response, the psychologist will then ask additional questions to get the subject to further elaborate on his or her initial impressions.
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  • 123. HOLTZMAN INKBLOT TEST (HIT) • The Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT), also known as the Holtman Inkblot Test, is an inkplot test aimed at detecting personality. • It was first introduced in 1961 as a projective personality test similar to the Rorschach. • The Holtzman Inkblot Test was invented as an attempt to address some controversial issues surrounding the Rorschach Inkblot Test.
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  • 125. TOMKINS-HORN PICTURE ARRANGEMENT TEST • This test is designed for group administration with 25 plates, each containing three sketches that may be arranged in different ways to portray sequences, which participants consider reasonable. Write a sentence for each of three pictures to tell a story.
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  • 127. COMPLETION TECHNIQUES Completion projective technique supply the subjects with stimulus that is incomplete and the subject is required to complete it as he/she wishes.
  • 130. EXPRESSIVE TECHNIQUE • This technique generally concentrate on the way in which something is constructed by the subjects, as against on what it represents.
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  • 134. ORDERING CHOICE • This type of projective techniques is most frequently used in quantitative researches. This techniques is generally used informally
  • 135. MISCELLANEOUS TYPE • Drawing a picture • Creating families • Using fantasy and day dreams • Clay modelling
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  • 143. Q-Sorts • Q-Sorts was developed in 1930 by a British physicist- psychologist William Stephenson. The idea behind the development of this methods was to inquire into the subjectivity of human mind.
  • 144. DEFINITION • Q-Sorts are the powerful tools in which the participants are presented with card arrangement. In this techniques, participants are provided pre-written cards with words, phrases or statements and are asked to arrange theses cards in an order along with specific bipolar dimension. There are approximately 60-100 such cards that can be sorted out in 9-11 piles with few numbers of cards placed in each piles.
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  • 146. ADVANTAGES OF Q-SORTS • Provide in depth study of small sample populations. • No needs of the participants to be randomly selected.
  • 147. DISADVANTAGES OF Q-SORTS • It takes much time. • Not cost effective • Small sample can be studied. • Can not be use to test hypothesis.
  • 149. VIGNETTES • In order to explore people’s beliefs, perceptions and meaning about some particular situations vignettes as a valuable techniques. • The vignette techniques is a method that can elicit perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudes from responses or comments to stories depicting scenarios and situations. • Vignettes are short scenarios in written or pictorial form, intended to elicit responses to typical scenarios.
  • 150. USES OF VIGNETTES • Tapping general beliefs and attitudes. • Sensitive topics exploration • Comparisons of perceptions of disparate groups • Used in focus group discussions.
  • 151. ADVANTAGES OF VIGNETTES • Allow face to face contacts with respondents. • Give opportunity to explore topics in depth. • Make it easy for respondents to reply to the concerned topics. • Provide detailed data.
  • 152. DISADVANTAGES • Cover limited sample size. • Volume of information can be difficult to record, very large.
  • 154. DATA COLLECTION STEPS Defining the data to be collected Selecting appropriate method of data collection Selecting or developing data collection instruments Try out of data collection instruments and procedure Developing data collection supportive forms and procedure Training of data collectors Inform local authority for data collection and obtain due permissions Data collection and data management
  • 156. DEFINITION • Validity of an instruments refers to the degree to which an instruments measures what it is supposed to measuring. • Validity is the appropriateness, completeness and usefulness of an attribute measuring research instruments.
  • 158. RELIABILITY • Reliability is the degree of consistency with which attributes or variables are measured by an instruments. • Reliability pertains to the consistency of a measures. A test is thought to be reliable if we get the same result in a repeated manner. • Reliability is defined as the ability of an instruments to create reproducible results. A tool can only be considered reliable if it measures an attribute with similar result on repeated use.
  • 159. MEASURING OF RELIABILITY • Stability • Internal consistency • equivalence
  • 160. STABILITY • The stability of reliability means research instruments provide same results when used consecutively for two or more times. • Statistical calculation (Test-retest Method) It is used for questionnaire, observation, check list, rating scales, and physiological measurements tools. • Interpretation of results (-1.00 through 0.0 and +1.00) +1.00 score indicate perfect reliability 0 score indicated no reliability Above 0.70 indicate acceptable level of reliability
  • 161. INTERNAL CONSISTENCY • Internal consistency also known as homogeneity. It ensures that all the sub parts of a research instruments measure the same characteristics. • A research tool can only be considered internally consistent if all the subparts of the tool are measuring the same characteristics of the phenomena. • Statistical calculation (Split-Half Method)
  • 162. EQUIVALENCE • This is also known as inter rater or inter observer reliability. Which is estimated by the administration of tool to observe a single event simultaneously and independently by two or more trained observers. Number of agreements No. of agreements + no. of disagreements r =
  • 163.