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The Brown Book of Design Thinking 
Editor 
Jose Berengueres 
The University College, UAE University, Al Ain, UAE. 
The College of Information Technology, UAE University, Al Ain, UAE. 
Edition 
First Edition. November 16, 2013. UAE University College, Al Ain. 
ISBN 978-1-63041-059-9 Version 27 of Oct 2014 “Nissan Edition” 
Cover Design by 
Eman Yaqoub Ahmad Rabiah 
Design 
Mariam Alfalasi, UAE University. 
Illustration 
Reem Alqamzi, UAE University. 
Copy-editing 
R. Susannah Behan. 
Text Copyright 
© Jose Berengueres 2013-2014. All Rights Reserved. 
© 
i
Artwork Copyright 
Artwork appearing in this work is subject to their corresponding 
original Copyright or Creative Commons License. Except where 
otherwise noted a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License 
applies. 
Limit of Liability 
The editor makes no representations or warranties concerning the 
accuracy or exhaustivity of the contents and theories hereby 
presented and particularly disclaim any implied warranties 
regarding merchantability or fitness for a particular use including 
but not limited to educational, industrial and academic application. 
Neither the editor or the authors are liable for any loss or profit or 
any commercial damages including but not limited to incidental, 
consequential or other damages. 
Support 
This work was supported by: 
The University College, UAE University. 
The College of Information Technology, UAE University. 
Center of Excellence for English Teaching and Learning (CETL), 
UAE University. 
UAEU 
ii
Chapter 1: Start 
This is a brown book on design thinking. 
Rather than case based, it is workshop 
based. It means that you learn by doing, 
not reading.
Course Objectives 
In this course book we will practice two skills: 
1. The workshop method propagated by the design firm ideo. 
2. How solve problems faster by applying visualization 
techniques. 
What is design thinking? 
As a thinking tool, design thinking fosters the ability to 
combine: empathy for the context of a problem, creativity in 
the generation of insights and solutions, and the skill to 
materialize those solutions through iterative prototyping. 
Taught as a course at Stanford since 2004, and with a school 
funded by Hasso Plattner (see: http://www.hpi.uni-potsdam.de/ 
willkommen.html), today design thinking impacts processes not 
only in engineering practice, but in education and across 
disciplines. Its tools are used by product and industrial design 
firms to ideate products. It is also used to solve so called 
wicked problems – problems for which neither question nor 
answer is well-defined. Typical wicked problems for 
researchers are: How to win the next Nobel prize? How to 
decrease traffic accidents? How to fix global warming? 
Goals 
The goal of this course is very simple: to master design 
thinking skills. Rather than using the traditional MBA case 
study method, this is a workshop-based course where we 
learn by doing. In each session, a thinking tool will be 
introduced and practiced. 
Outcomes 
By the end of the course the student is expected to: 
1. Have a sense of self-efficacy (creative confidence). 
2. Manage a design thinking workshop: Layout, roles, times 
and process. 
3. Effectively use of thinking tools: 
1. A3 / PDCA 
2. Root cause analysis 
3. Kaizen / 5S 
4. Waste identification 
4. Know how to Apply design thinking tools to boost research 
output. 
5. Diagnosis productive processes. 
How it is organized? 
We are now in the introduction. This chapter contains the 
crucial Marshmallow workshop, a great starting point for any 
design thinking course. The following three chapters are 
divided in sections. Each is to be “played” in a 1-2 hour 
session. We say play because the role of the teacher is 
4 
4
intended as facilitator: steering the class rather than repeating 
content. At the end of each section sometimes you might find 
comments from our classes here at UAE University. They 
contain student reflections, post-workshop analysis and 
facilitator comments. 
Jose Berengueres 
Dubai, December 15, 2013 
5 
5
Chapter 1 >Start >A Message from the Chairman 6 
Here he is. The great Warren 
Buffett. The bubbles come from 
his talk at Terry College in 
2004. Did you know that 20 
year old Warren was terrified at 
speaking in public? Terrified. 
Seems hard to believe now. 
One day he took a Dale 
Carnegie course on a subject 
that changed his life: How to 
speak in Public. 
You 
as a young man, will 
earn considerable money in 
your life-span. Let’s play a game: 
----- 
I offer to buy 10% of your potential 
future earnings. What price would 
you value your self? (Watch out... 
I might take the low ballers 
only!) 
Hint for discussion to 
Warren’s teaching: What 
price did you name? How 
much does a course on public 
speaking cost? How much 
does this course cost? 
Now 
suppose you took 
a course that improves 
yourself 10%. 
----- 
Warren Buffet 
Warren Buffet © Estate of Yousuf Karsh
Chapter 1 >Start >What is Design Thinking 7 
Hi, I 
am Dr. J. and 
this book is about 
design thinking! 
----- 
Ready? 
What is design thinking? 
Very simple. Let’s start with design. 
Some smarties think that it is how-to 
design ... well ... not exactly! 
Originally, it was way to organize a 
team of product designers so that they 
would come up with better product 
ideas. However, today it is applied to 
solve all kinds of conundrums. And 
thinking? Thinking refers to how-to 
organize your team. Think about it, 
this is not easy. In a team someone 
always wants to be the boss, big egos, 
shy people or just simply how to 
manage the information flow can be 
daunting. Design thinking is a set 
of rules and “tricks” that help you do 
all this well so you get the best out of 
your team. How? By influencing 
mindset: the way we think and work, 
hence thinking.
Chapter 1 >Start >Why a New Book? 8 
Design thinking books 
Books we love 
Why another book on design thinking? 
Less boring* than Change by Design by Tim Brown, €86.00 
cheaper than Design Thinking Research by Plattner (2014) and 
considerably shorter than the wordy Toyota Way by Liker 
(2007). This is not the typical “reference” book. This is a book 
for cowboys. For parallel thinkers, who want to learn by doing. It 
is also a great book if you plan to teach a 101 course because it 
contains views from both the student and the facilitator. 
Toyota + Ideo 
Contrary to the Stanfordian view that we use d.thinking to 
“create” value (such as in radical innovation) and that on the 
other hand we can use Lean tools (such as kaizen) to 
“optimize” that value. In this book we will introduce a different 
point of view. By the end of the book you will realize that both 
Toyota way and the Ideo way of thinking draw on two 
common core principles: 
The power of visualization 
Practice makes perfect (kaizen) 
Toyota way in the lab 
Moreover, in chapter 4.2 we will show a case study of how we 
used the Toyota way of thinking not only to boost productivity 
but to do radical innovation in a lab setting. 
*Abridged from the Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. 
You are here
Chapter 1 >Start >MindMap 9 
Case Studies 
Armed with new 
knowledge you now 
should readily “see” why 
businesses rise and fall 
Toyota Way 
From Toyota we will 
learn tools to “see” 
better 
Ideo Way 
From ideo we will 
learn the workshop 
method
Chapter 1 >Start >The Marshmallow Workshop 10 
►Workshop: This 18 minute workshop is a 
great start point for any design class because 
there is no better way to learn than by doing. 
Tom Wujec has organized this workshop over 
50 times and he discovered amazing things 
about humans... For example, Did you know 
that 5 year old kids outperform MBA’s? 
After doing the workshop a universal 
principle, that at Toyota has been known for 
ages, should be clear: 
More Prototypes, 
More Quality 
Hi! I 
invented this 
workshop 
----- 
Peter Skillman 
Yeah but who 
made it famous? 
----- 
Tom Wujec 
Design Thinking IBLC124 room C60034 UAE Univeristy, Al Ain.
Chapter 1 > Start >The Marshmallow Workshop 11 
Recap 
I did this workshop for the undergrads of 2012 twice. The first 
time the average height was 17 inches. The second time I 
added one senior student to each undergrad group. What 
happened? The senior students overtook “leadership” of the 
process, the undergrads retrenched inwards (respect for 
authority). The average height went down to 5 inches. It was a 
sobering moment. Every one felt bad. At Zara (the fast fashion 
world) they know that: 
When interviewed by a Harvard team about their success a 
Zara director says: 
“The secret of our company success is just that, that a 22 
year old employee can freely say how she sees things to 
the top manager, we do not have any other secret.” (Planeta 
Zara) 
What you need to know 
What happens when they add a material incentive to the 
workshop? Can you generalize? (Ariely, 2006) 
What does it mean to find the marshmallow in each project? 
(hidden assumptions). 
Do more prototypes really equal more quality? 
What is the risk of working for a long time without feedback? 
What are the three reasons kindergarten kids outperform 
MBAs? 
11 
What is the Y axis in 
your life? 
0 1 2 3 
Number of prototypes
Chapter 1 > Start >The Marshmallow Workshop 12 
The Three Man United Marshmallows 
(Abridged from Harvard Business Review, Elberse 2013) 
that helped man-u to win more 
matches than the rest: (1) Special 
purpose training to score in the last 
minutes of a match. (2) Visualize the team 
four years ahead in the future to manage 
player life-cycle and replacement. 
Player days 
Sir Alex Ferguson (1941) started his career as a striker 
in regional Scottish league. He never really managed to 
get a regular position in spite of scoring 20 goals. In fact, he 
fell out with his coach at St. Johnstone club where he was 
playing. In 1966, after having transferred several times 
between clubs he became the top scorer of the Scottish 
regional league. However, in 1974 he ended his player career 
with the bitter taste. 
Alex as a trainer 
The same year he quit playing, at age of 32 he signed up as 
part time coach of a club called East Stirlingshire where he 
gained a reputation of being a cold-hearted disciplinarian. A 
token: At the beginning, he would show up every day at the 
club at 7am. Finally, the rest of employees got the message. 
Under his leadership, he transformed the team in a positive 
way. The quality of the game improved. 
Later he would also transform Mirren 
and Aberdeen with the same 
results. In 1986, after 12 years 
of uninterrupted success, he 
was invited to join Man U as 
manager. 
Three Marshmallows 
12 
(3)Take a step back. 
----- 
Alex Ferguson 
Photo by Austin Osuide.
Chapter 1 > Start >The Marshmallow Workshop 13 
Aha moment, a step back 
Ferguson was a micromanager. One day Alex Ferguson, who 
hardly ever delegated the training session command, was 
confronted by his number two in a cafe. 
Number 2 - “I don’t know why you brought me here. You 
don’t let me do anything.” 
Alex - “That is not true” (he protested) 
But deep down Alex knew that his number two was right. So he 
let him try. A few days later he fully delegated the training 
supervision to his number 2. He sat down in the bench and 
watched the training. To take a step back from the 
training allowed him to take an observer role. 
Then something amazing happened: He realized 
things that usually escaped him when he was 
absorbed in hands-on training: 
New subtle patterns on players appeared; he could see which 
player was injured even if the player thought he was fine, 
he could see changes in players moods and then he could talk 
to the player and find out if the cause was family problem or 
something else, he discovered a big marshmallow! 
Luck? No. Motivation? No. Training! 
Man U has overturned most games in the final minutes of a 
game than any other Premier League team. What is the real 
reason? Luck? Values? Motivation? No. Alex prepared the 
team for those special occasions when a team is losing the 
game and there are only few minutes left. He made the team 
do special purpose training for such situations. 
Visualizing life cycle of players 
Ferguson had discovered a third marshmallow. He was very 
good at visualizing how the team would be in 4 years time and 
he planned accordingly. He was very good at discarding 
players that would enter decline, but always kept a couple of 
old cats on payroll so the culture could be transferred from the 
old generation to the new one. 
13 
!
14 
50 
37.5 
25 
12.5 
0 
Life-cycle of a player 
Decline 
phase 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 
Performance 
Age 
Number of goals per year 
Buy 
low 
Sell 
high 
70 
52.5 
35 
17.5 
0 
Team performance projection (example) 
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 
Perfromance Forecast 
Year 
Valencia Jones Lindegaard Gea Giggs
15 
The power of step back. For more see 
back-up man in the next chapter. For a 
similar story of step-back technique in a 
soccer team check out page 135 of The Ten 
faces of Innovation by Kelley and Littman 
(2008). 
Just 3 
Ferguson didn’t have to 
discover lots of 
marshmallows in his life 
span to be ultra-successful. 
Great minds 
think alike!
Chapter 2: The Ideo Way 
Karen Endicott/Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth
Connecting the dots - What is the function of the whiteboard? It is a shared 
memory space that facilitates connections between: gathered facts, ideas 
and cognitive processes. 
17 
Solution 
Photo by Karen Endicott/Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth
18
Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >Ideo 19 
This is the 
ideo office! 
►Ideo. Founded 1977 Palo Alto, CA. Designed 
first Apple silicone wrapped ball mouse. 
► Charlie Rose interviews David Kelly - father of 
design thinking. In his 20s David had invented 
“toilet occupied” sign for passenger planes while 
working at Boeing. However, he was not quite 
satisfied with life. One day he enrolled a design 
class at Stanford. He loved the fact that they 
combined art + technology. Later his pal, Steve 
Jobs would ask him to design the first Apple 
mouse, and so ideo was born. In the interview Kelly 
is to blame for a $17 mouse, a vertical Colgate 
tube and Pringles. The key points are: 
1. Diverse people building on others ideas 
(Cross, 2012). 
2. It is hard to find people from different 
culture backgrounds that can do (1) well. 
3. Understand users through observing them: 
first hand empathic observation. 
4. A follow up interview by BloombergTV is here. 
D. Kelley / Ideo 
In my 20s I was 
an unwed, frustrated 
engineer. One day I took a 
design class at Stanford and it 
changed my life. 
---- 
D. Kelley
Chapter 2 > The Ideo Way >Ideo 20 
Behaviorism in historical perspective 
The CBS interview reveals a simple truth, that design thinking 
is about designing taking into account human behavior. 
Today, this seems so natural. But was it in 1977? For reference 
Psychology as a field was only invented in 1879, brainstorming 
in 1941, and B.F. Skinner ideas on behavior were not 
disseminated before 1968, and then only until 1978 the 
Behaviorism field had a journal of its own. 
Skinner influence on Kelley 
Before Skinner it was accepted that the 
emotions, behavior and actions of a man came 
from his inside from his inner thought 
processes, inner attitudes, “His nature” and so 
on. After all, where else could they come from? 
However, Skinner did not think that was very 
scientific thinking. He conceded that one’s state of mind 
was the cause of behavior, but what drives the mind? 
According to Skinner humans believe that we act 
autonomously but in reality the environment is what shapes 
our behavior. Skinner proposed that the environment had a 
much greater effect on the individual than previously thought. 
In particular, he proposed that to improve human race we need 
focus on creating better environments, rather than better 
people. Because good environments will conduce to good 
people. 
How does this connect to design thinking? 
Very simple. If you want your designers to 
produce better solutions give them a better thinking 
environment! 
20 
Skinner’s idea was considered ‘radical’ 
at the time. 
Who 
you are is defined 
by your behavior. 
So let’s make environments 
that are conducive to 
greatness. 
------ 
BF Skinner 
Aha! 
moment
Chapter 2 > The Ideo Way >Ideo 21 
To learn more 
For a deeper discussion refer to Chapter 47 of 50 Psychology 
Classics by Tom Buttler-Bowdown and Beyond freedom and 
dignity by B.F. Skinner, published in 1971. 
Additionally, Skinner had some “radical” views on education. 
As a token: in 1968, The Technology of Teaching, BF Skinner 
has a chapter on why teachers fail (p. 93–113): he says that 
teachers have not been given an in-depth understanding of 
teaching and learning. Rings a bell? 
Note of 2014.3.25 
“Fail faster to succeed 
sooner” -relate to students 
delaying putting the 
marshmallow on top 
because of fear it will crash 
the spaghetti tower. 
21
Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >The d.school Gift Workshop 22 
A Workshop about Empathy 
► A step forward from the marshmallow 
workshop, and an indispensable preparation 
before your next challenge, the goal here is 
to redesign the giving-a-gift experience. This 
workshop works on your empathy skills that 
you will use to understand users’ needs while 
you reconnect with your creative self. The 
secret to a productive workshop is to step 
out of the comfort zone by pairing with 
someone outside your circle of friends. In the 
video the course is facilitated by George 
Kembel and Jeremy Utley of the d.school. 
Materials available at the course site. 
►d.school at Stanford University, CA. is the brainchild 
of David Kelley and was funded thanks to $5M from 
Mr. Plattner. 
d.School Stanford University
Gift experience workshop review. Student prototypes Sept 23 2013 @ UAEU 23 
Sketch phase. Try to generate as many crazy radical ideas as possible.
24 
Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >The Shopping Cart Workshop 
This 1999 ABC video features how ideo 
redesigns the shopping cart in two weeks. It 
is a great way to learn how to do a 
workshop. Lets take notes on the 5 “steps” 
they mention. Then pay close attention to 
the layout. In the room nothing is casual: 
the cramped table, Peter standing, Kelley in 
the corner leaning back and quiet, the wall 
behind. 
Steps 
(1) Gather facts & knowledge 
(2) Share facts with team (define) 
(3) Brainstorm 
(4) Build-on others ideas 
(5) Prototype & iterate 
Workspace influence on thinking behavior 
Layout shapes thinking 
Did you know that how you set up a 
room, colors, illumination, background 
music and other “details” can greatly 
affect how your brain thinks? 
(Meyers-Levy, 2007) 
Chairs with 
wheels 
Table 
The Toolkit 
In 2012 Ideo released a pdf called 
toolkit for educators. It is a step by 
step rationalized guide to their 
“workshop” method. It contains tips, 
checklists, how to organize a fact 
gathering field-trip, etc. 
Wall 
The 
Backup 
man 
The Expert 
The Facilitator
Chapter 2 > The Ideo Way > The Shopping Cart Workshop 25 
The Author explains the role of the facilitator. Oct 15th 2014. 
25
Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >Examples of How Workspace Shapes Behaviour 26 
I changed 
peoples lives 
through 
spaces 
Rosemary Martinez. ENFP. Textile and Interior 
design. Mexico. “Design for impact” 
AR218 Hotel Rooftop, Mexico DF, in August 20th, 2014 
Listen to the Interview 
Recorded at AR218 Hotel Rooftop, Mexico DF, in August 
17th, 2014 
Early life 
“My Grand-Dad was a telegraphist. After the 
Spanish Civil War ended, the fascists put seven 
death sentences on its head - Mostly for being 
a free thinker. His son - my dad - had no future 
in Spain, being the son of who he was, so 
emigrated to the UK. He found a job at Marconi 
where he even filled several patents. We 
landed in Mexico in July 20th 1969 - the same 
day man was landing on the Moon, so no one 
came to receive us at the airport.” 
When I ask students 
what influences their 
behavior the most: their 
inner self or the 
environment, most say 
the inner self. Then I 
show them Rosemary
Chapter 2 > The Ideo Way > Examples of How Workspace Shapes Behaviour 27 
27 
Listen to the Teenager Room 
Project 
Recorded at AR218 Hotel Rooftop, Mexico DF, 
in August 17th, 2014 
“How could he 
study in such 
chaos?” 
---- 
RM 
Teenager Room Project 
Space shapes 
behavior 
Case #1
28 
Marie’s Room Marie’s Room 
Recorded at AR218 Hotel Rooftop, Mexico 
DF, in August 17th, 2014 
Listen to the Maid Story 
Recorded at AR218 Hotel Rooftop, Mexico 
DF, in August 17th, 2014 
Marie was shy and 
had mediocre grades. We 
re decorated her room. A few 
months later he had become the 
social center of her class. 
------ 
Rosemary M. 
Space shapes 
behavior 
Case #2
Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >The Why Boring Classes Workshop 29 
Workshop time 
Now it is time to do your own workshop. 
Pick a topic that motivates students 
such as... Why are classes so boring? 
Why people do not recycle? Assign 
expert roles to each student on 
relevant topics such as: 
1. How do they do it in other countries 
2. Interview end users on the topic 
3. Interview policy makers on the topic 
... 
Then give students one week to go on a 
first hand fact finding and data 
gathering mission. One week later: 
Divide students in groups of 9 max, 
assign one student as a facilitator to 
each group. Make sure to follow exactly 
the ideo shopping cart table layout. The 
teacher will act as backup man and 
advices the facilitator if they naturally 
drift off course. The background music 
of the gift workshop is great to help shy 
students talk. At the end demand a one 
powerpoint solution proposal to the 
problem and tell your students that it 
will be sent to the provost! We did this 
Photos of the “Why boring classes” workshop, 25 Sep’13 @UAEU 
workshop and after 90 minutes some 
groups had reached the flow state of 
intellectual exhilaration. After time was 
up, some didn’t want to leave the room 
and continued discussing. That is a 
good sign.
Chapter 2 > The Ideo Way >The Why Boring Classes Workshop 30 
The Student’s Reflection (unabridged) 
By Naama Alshamshi 
It was fun working in a real workshop. When you actually 
do something it gives you a deeper understanding than if 
you read hundreds of books about it. While working in 
this workshop, I personally realized how little things you might 
not notice can affect the production of the workshop things like 
the seats arrangements and the work table. Because if the 
table was huge and seating were far from each other the 
expert won’t be able to communicate in the way they should. 
Aisha Alshamshi says: I learnt the importance of doing the 
homework and coming prepared, because it 
gives you a good understanding the problem you 
want to solve, it also makes you see the 
problem from several angles, which helps find 
the best solution. Aisha also said that working 
in a diverse group of people was a good 
experience; it allows you to see how different 
people think, and different thoughts help to solve 
the problem. 
Mouza Almuhairi agrees with Aisha and says that she 
realized how working with a team can be more 
productive, because you see the same problem but 
from different angles. She also says that this 
workshop helped her develop my teamwork skills, 
because you learn to respect people’s ideas and 
opinion without criticizing. 
Being the facilitator is fun, but hard at the same 
time, because you should keep the group 
working according to the time schedule. Even 
though we went over time in our workshop but 
the facilitator can’t allow that in big workshops 
because in the business world time is money. 
#1 
Learn by 
Doing 
On that topic Ohoud Alkaabi listed controlling time as one of 
the things she learned in this workshop, alongside 
sharing ideas and group work. She also said 
that she learned how to use the design 
process to dive into real life problems. 
Like the problem we discussed in our 
workshop which was the problem of “boring 
classes” in the university. Yassmin Albraiki 
said that she learned that there are many ways 
to solve this problem, like adding activity-based 
classes will help break the routine which is the main reason 
for boring classes. She said that she is now confident that we 
can solve any problem when u analyze it with a group and 
share your ideas and opinion. 
Another student agrees with that: 
Islam Abuwatfa said that 
sharing the ideas and working 
together produce better work, 
she also learned that team 
work is much better than 
#5 
Preparation 
is 
Everything 
30 
#3 
Deadlines 
kill procrastination 
#4 
More 
is More 
#2 
Space 
shapes 
behavior
Chapter 2 > The Ideo Way >The Why Boring Classes Workshop 31 
individual work, as a team or a group we 
were able to come up with more ideas, 
and better ones. And I am sure we 
will use these tips we learned in 
future workshop either in the university 
or in the work fields. 
Group A facilitator, 
Naama Al Shamshi 
----- 
Comments from the backup-man (Dr. J.) 
There are 4 ways to express an idea: 
Speech 
Writing 
Sketching (2D Prototyping) 
A 3D Prototype 
Each one has its advantages and activates different brain 
areas that can help you “see” things that other mediums of 
expression cannot convey. As Tim Brown says in his book 
Change by Design, there are stories you can only 
explain by drawing. So lets use it more! (Brown, 2012) 
31 
#6 
Check the 
next page for 
self-efficacy 
90 minute workshop results 
“Activity based classes” and “Color Therapy” were two 
of the best ideas proposed to combat boredom in the 
class 
Note to self 
Send to the students a 
copy of Guy 
Kawasaki’s 10-20-30 
rule video on how to 
do great slides 
Note 
Majors from Engineering 
have a harder time 
exercising “empathy”
Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >Self-efficacy 32 
►In this deep talk, Kelley cites a colleague from 
Stanford, the professor Albert Bandura and the 
concept of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is the belief 
that you can change the World by doing that what 
you are “set” to do in it. In other words, a “sense” 
that you are on Earth to accomplish a mission and 
the confidence that you can do it. 
People that discover self-efficacy usually quit their 
jobs and do what they believe they have to do 
(helping the poor in Africa, building an iPhone, 
making a 3D movie). While not all of them become 
rich or famous here are some examples: Mother 
Theresa, Steve Jobs, Albert Edison, Elon Musk, 
Warren Buffet, George Soros, Viktor Frankl, 
Lennon, to them life was meaningless if they 
cannot accomplish their mission. For example, 
Elon Musk’s mission is to go to Mars. Did you find 
► Albert Bandura. Worked in Alaska. Now professor at 
Stanford. Formalized the idea of self-efficacy. 
When I was young I 
was very poor, so in summer I 
took a tough job in the Alaskan 
tundra. This changed my life. 
Observing my peers’ drink & gamble 
subculture opened my mind. Now I am 
the fourth most famous psychologist. 
----- 
A. Bandura 
Photo by Pajares, F. Albert Bandura your mission yet?
33 
This is Alex Bogusky. 
He is a high-profile example of 
self-efficacy. Alex has won every 
award you can win in advertising. One 
day he quit everything to help a small 
impoverished community. 
----- 
http://thenakedbrand.com 
BloombergTV 
Fast Company cover of June 2010
10/26/13 Ideo's David Kelley: How Did I Get Here? - Businessweek 
34 
http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-10-24/ideos-david-kelley-how-did-i-get-here 
www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-10-24/ideos-david-kelley-how-did-i-get-here 10/12 
Everyone should get a 
terminal disease once. It helps 
find your self-efficacy. I found mine: 
to help others find their creative 
confidence. 
----- 
David Kelley, 
cancer survivor. 
Charlie Rose interview 
I grew 
up in a DIY 
culture.
Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >The Recycle Workshop 35 
01►After the Why Boring 90 minute workshop now you are ready 
for a full 1 week/2 sessions workshop. In spite of not yet having 
power tools such as Toyota’s 5 Whys or A3/PDCA, this is a great 
workshop to engage in preparation and facilitation. So. Why do 
people not recycle? 
Collect data 
► Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE. Founded 1971. 
GDP per capita: $29,877. HDI: Very high. (2011) 
03►Debriefing - Share collected data. 
An outcome of the session should be what 
additional data is needed or missing at the 
current stage and what action steps will be 
taken to get it. 
Prototype 
Day 1 Day 2 
Collect data 
Start 
Pitch time! 
02►Briefing - In UAE on only 10% of pet 
bottles are being recycled and only 12% of 
the parents advise their kids to recycle. In 
Japan? 70% of PET bottles are recycled. In 
USA? 30% (Berengueres, 2012)
36 
Debriefing session: post-it wall evolution 
Debriefing session, minute 5
37 
Evolution of the post-it wall during session 1 
Wall of post-it
Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >The Obesity Workshop 38 
UAE Univeristy, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi 
Emirate, UAE. Workshop of 2014. 
Overweight rate:60% 
Obesity Workshop 
We did this workshop in Oct. 2014. We had to restart it 3 times because 
the students failed to gather relevant data for the brainstorming session. 
So I decided to show them photos of the previous recycle workshops so 
they could see the kind of data they are expected to bring. We also 
screened the movie “Fed Up!” - Which breaks away the pre conception 
that obesity is related to calorie intake. No good data no good 
brainstorming.
39 
Evolution of the post-it wall during session 1 
Final prototype group A minute 75 session 3
Chapter 3: The Toyota Way 
` 
The Toyota Way - Tools to “see” 
Did you know that many of the core design thinking principles were being used by the 
Japanese in the 1970s? Visualization, time management, Genchi-Gembutsu and iterative 
prototyping. From Toyota we will learn not only about the respect for the individual but 
thinking tools that make you smarter. 
Many of ideo’s methods 
such as empowering a team 
by controlling criticism, had 
been practiced by the 
Japanese since 1970 
Both ideo and Toyota 
use time and deadlines 
to keep teams motivated. 
(Note: FANUC x10 speed 
clock story)
Recap of the Chapter: The Ideo Way 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kWPKV7Lmb8A&list=UURW9hIrr6kHOj5zkp1Udo_g 
Why we learn from Toyota in DesignThinking class... 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TdwqQ0CnHlM&list=UURW9hIrr6kHOj5zkp1Udo_g#t=184 
41 
41
Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >Brief History of Toyota 42 
►This is a documentary clip by Toyota. It is 
presented by Alec Murdoch - who was a speaker 
for Toyota USA. The full online version is here. 
The point of the video is the stellar moment 
where: 
“A son decides to invent an automatic loom to 
free her mum from tedious weaving work” 
This scene synthesizes the Toyota ethos: Why it 
exists and its purpose in life. Replacing a boring 
job with automation (aka autonomation) was just 
one step. However, they did not stop there. In 
their drive to improve they stumbled upon some 
awesomely productive principles and tools that 
later became what is known as the Toyota 
Production System (TPS). 
► Toyota. Founded 1918 by Sakichi Toyoda. 
Location: Global. 
A Toyota Kyushu factory tour organized by tikitabi.com
When did Toyota become famous? The 1973 oil-shock 
What the video omits is that no one was paying attention to 
Toyota until the second oil shock came. 
“The first time that TPS gets public awareness is during the fall 
of 1973 right after the first oil shock. From that time are the 
mythical pictures of Japanese homemaker’s scrambling in 
supermarkets for a WC paper roll. Due to the shock, WC-paper 
became scarce in Japan. The scenes are depicted in 
some films of the era. That year many companies logged red 
numbers in their Profit/Loss statements, but not Toyota. In fact, 
that year Toyota boasts yet again record profits. It is then that 
many companies realize that there might be something to be 
learned about Toyota’s TPS. Many consider the possibility of 
copying Toyota. The first TPS consultants are born. 
Management consultants at Chubu Seisanrenmei create TPS 
kenkyukai (study group) where even Taiichi Ohno himself 
would give some talks. It is in the second half of the 70s when 
the perception that the idea that Toyota’s production 
technique multi-product mini-batch is efficient diffuses through 
the Japanese industrial tissue.” (p 27, Berengueres, 2007) 
Toxic environments* for innovation - Toyota Today 
However, the reader should not be fooled into thinking that 
nowadays Toyota is a great place for inventive people. It is 
not. Today’s Toyota is as a toxic environment for creativity as 
GM, or Samsung. 
43 
43 
Notwithstanding the video, 
at the end the NUMMI 
factory was an economic 
failure and closed. It its now 
owned by Tesla Motors - 
where the electric car 
revolution is happening 
*Toxic environments for 
innovation (Esslinger, 2009) 
Toyota USA assembly line. Photo by carenthusiast.com
Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >Waste 44 
Waste 無駄 
The seven kinds
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >Waste 45 
Seven kinds of waste found in the workplace 
1. Overproduction 
This is the number one source 
of waste. It is the waste that 
stems from believing that 
producing in big batches is 
more efficient than producing 
in small batches. Huge costs 
are incurred in unsold items. 
2. Waste due to Superfluous 
Waste due to the existence of 
unnecessary things: such as 
personnel, machines, and 
inadequate machines. Little 
savings add up over time. 
3. No flow 
It is the waste due to the lack 
of flow. Stop and go in 
production and/or suboptimal 
line layout, lack of synchronization, changeover times. 
4. Operational 
Waste of doing unnecessary 
work. Due to ignorance, lack 
o f t r a i n i n g , l a c k o f 
technological expertise, lack of 
planning and/or automation. 
5. Waste of Movement 
These comprise a l l the 
movements done during a 
work shift that do not add 
value: Ex. a bolt picked up 
from an unnecessarily low 
45 
What is the true cost of 
storing? 
How much did we save 
here? 
Lack of training is a big 
source of mistakes. Photo: 
The Simpsons (c) News 
Corp. 
Spaghetti diagrams. Same machines, two layouts. 
Where would you rather work?
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >Waste 46 
recipient, transportation. Compared to a straight line production 
layout, a u-cell layout reduces the time spent by workers on 
walking anywhere from 2xL to 1xL, this can add up to 4 to 6 km per 
day in a typical factory. This Kitchen Kaizen video by Gemba 
Academy illustrates how to measure improvements in movement 
economy. 
6. Defect Production 
It is the waste due to production of defects caused by: lack of 
training, not enough poka-yoke, quality controls, and poor and 
inadequate maintenance of machinery. In 2010 Toyota recalled 
more cars than it had produced. The cost of the recalls is not 
disclosed. 
7. Overstock 
It is the waste related to the cost of maintaining oversized 
! 
warehouses that act as a buffer between poorly communicated 
processes. Additionally, one pernicious effect of overstock is that it 
hides problems. 
46 
A Toyota recall according to The Guardian 
How overstock hides problems. (Berengueres, 2007) 
!
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >Waste 47 
Added Value versus non-value-added Activity 
A typical breakdown of how time is spent to make a product: Time 
can be spent doing things that add value or that do not add value: 
When optimizing operations, most of the time managers focus on 
the green part. For example, buying a faster machine. 
However, the big savings opportunity is reducing resources spent 
in the non-value-added activity because it is simply put: larger. 
47 
Time 
Non Value Added activities Value 
Added 
Non Value Added activities Value 
Added 
Value 
Added 
Non Value Added 
Savings of 
30% 
30% 
sav 
ings 
Value 
Added 
Non Value Added savings 
Photo by Steve 
Jurvenston
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >Waste 48 
The Nissan turnaround case 
When Beirut-born Carlos Ghosn arrived at Nissan 
circa 1999, Nissan was losing money. What had 
been one of the flagships of Japanese car-making 
knew how to make cars but could not 
manage to make a profit anymore. It did not 
take long for the triple digit IQ CEO to figure out 
was wrong. For one he was appalled that a 
plant manager proudly reported that he had raised the 
productivity to a new record, while he did not know what the costs 
his efforts to the company as a whole were (cost of storage, cost of 
raw materials, labour). This was a sign of clear dysfunction: 
engineers, purchase managers, designers, and sales people were 
not working with the same goal. Carlos had to cut costs and cut 
them fast. To solve this he forced various types of employees to 
work together in cross-functional teams. For 
example in a meeting when designing a new 
door for a car, there would be various 
employees from different parts of the 
organization so all costs could be 
represented/optimized. This means not 
only purchasing costs, but assembly costs, 
48 
Genchi Genbutsu? Carlos Ghosn at Nissan’s 
Honmoku Wharf, a logistics hub about 10 km 
southeast of Nissan’s global headquarters in 
Yokohama, July 16, 2011. Picture by Bertel 
Schmitt. 
Ghosn stars in the movie The revenge of the 
electric car by Paine (2011). 
#2 
Don’t waste time 
being diplomatic, 
there is no time! 
#1 
Cross-functional 
teams
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >Waste 49 
warranty costs, customer points of view, etc. He also forced the 
Japanese managers to use English to communicate. This is what 
happened: while a manger in speaking in Japanese would talk very 
politely and say his opinion very diplomatically in long sentences, 
when forced to use English he would be ruthless, direct and clear 
(time saving). Five years later, from near bankruptcy, Nissan 
improved its operating profit (EBIT, or 
earnings before interest and taxes) 
from negative to 9% (Magee, 2003). 
Even if your workplace is not 
a factory, and you do not 
produce cars, Can you tell 
where is the most waste in 
your surroundings? 
Carlos interview where he explains cross functional: 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yChtop17sd8 
49 
is my goal at 
NISSAN? 
I am having fun! 
Carlos Ghosn 
WBS TVTokyo 
2013 
What 
---- 
2007 
Carlos G. Nissan ceo pay in Millions 
0 2.25 4.5 6.75 9 
Cross-functional 
teams? Of course! Isn’t 
that common sense?
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way > Waste 50 
50
Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >The Five Whys 51 
なぜなぜ5回 
The Five Whys Method
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >The Five Whys 52 
Itsutsu no Naze means in Japanese The Five Why’s. It is an 
expression born in Toyota that has been popularized recently 
by popular magazines such as R25. It is a technique based on 
searching relentlessly for the root cause of problems (it 
requires stepping out of the comfort zone). It also means that if 
we want to solve a problem properly in a permanent manner it 
is necessary to focus on the root cause not in its sprawling 
branches. Example problem: 
 Boy, I have a headache... 
❓Why does it ache? Because I have a cold. 
❌ Solution: Take an Aspirin. Wrong! 
Meanwhile at Toyota’s... 
 I have a headache... 
$ Why? Because I have a cold. 
% Why did you catch a cold? Because yesterday I 
spent time in the cold. 
& Why? Because I didn’t take my coat. 
' Why? Because I didn’t think that it 
would be so cold outside. 
( Why? Because in the morning I 
don’t check the weather forecast. (✅ ) 
Solution: 
Install a thermometer in the balcony and watch it before 
going out. The intake of an aspirin is just a superficial 
countermeasure. The thermometer, on the other hand, 
would solve the problem permanently. However, it requires 
two things: The creation of a rule (watch the thermometer 
before going out) and discipline. As in real factories, success 
depends on how motivated and disciplined the workforce is. 
Why five and not another number? It is curious but at Toyota 
they wonder the same. It turns out that if one asks repeatedly 
five seems to be the magic number of steps. Itsutsu no naze is 
a powerful tool that can help to solve problems for a long term. 
52
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >The Five Whys 53 
Why do we catch colds? The body is 
continuously generating antibodies that 
must be replaced continuously in its war 
against microbes. The microbes try 
continuously to invade our warm body. 
When it is cold, the body stops 
manufacturing antibodies as an energy 
saving measure. If the cold period is 
long, the defense level drops and the risk 
of infection rises. 
53
Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >A3 / PDCA 54 
A3 / PDCA
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >A3 / PDCA 55 
P.D.C.A stands for Plan-Do-Check-Act. It is also known as the 
Deming circle. The virtue of P.D.C.A is not in the Planning, 
Doing, Checking or Acting but in the separation of Planning 
from Doing, Doing from Checking and Checking from Acting. It 
is a methodology that ensures that a change to a process such 
as one improvement is isolated from the following change. If 
you change a process very often, as in kaizen/continuous 
improvement, the hygiene of your process might suffer. If 
changes are applied randomly or not managed properly it can 
be hard to track which of them improved the 
process and which didn't. PDCA solves this 
by: 
1. Plan = Think of one potential improvement 
2. Do = Try it 
3. Check = Measure the “effects” 
4. Act = Adjust. Evaluate. Fully implement the 
proposed change OR discard change. 
5. Go to step 1 and repeat cycle. 
The A3 restriction 
Tracking a PDCA initiative can be done by 
using the A3 method. A3 method is very 
simple: you need to be able to display all the 
information regarding your project in one 
single A3 size paper. This space restriction will help you focus 
on the essential information only. The A3 method can be seen 
as a reporting method. The idea is to access all the essential 
information regarding a project with a single look. A3 reporting 
is commonplace in Toyota and at many other Japanese 
corporations. 
Note: Since the Japanese language is twice as dense as 
English you might need to use smaller 8-point size typeface to 
be on an equal density footing. Summarizing: A3/PDCA is 
about quantifying the effects of change and the time-evolution 
55 
PDCA according to Johannes Vietze.
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >A3 / PDCA 56 
of the change process itself. The ultimate goal is to have total 
control over the change process so it leads to steady and 
reliable improvements. This cannot be insured if one change is 
not separated from the other changes. The following figure is 
an example of a famous PDCA example by Staffan Nottaberg. 
How–to A3 Report and Value Stream Mapping 
A3 Report is a way to implement Deming’s PDCA (Plan-Do- 
Check-Act). Toyota uses it in meetings for problem solving and 
to restrict information overload. 
Here goes the example: 
Briefing: We have a family that gets stressed during the 
morning, there are three daughters. 
Here is how a Toyota man would solve and organize the 
information using A3/PDCA: 
In Theme section write: Stress free morning procedures. 
In Background whatever info you collected, for example: 
School starts at 8.20. The children need to sleep for as long as 
possible. They must leave home at 7.45 to catch the school 
bus. 
In Current Condition: Lack of time almost every morning. 
Stress creates bad atmosphere in family. 
The so-called Value stream map of the morning activities 
might help you visualize the problems. It indicates that value 
adding processes only are 17 out of 45 minutes, the rest 
seems wasted time. 
Goal: Ready to leave for the bus within 45 minutes without 
stress. 
56 
Value stream map according to Staffan Nottaberg.
57 
The A3 method according to Staffan Nottaberg.
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >A3 / PDCA 58 
Let’s assume that the father investigates why T2, for instance, 
is so long and finds out... 
Root Cause Analysis (using Five Why’s) 
Why stress? Because a considerable amount of time is 
spent on T2. 
Why is so much time spent on T2? 
Because Samantha (one of the daughters) has to wait 
for the hairbrush. 
Why does she have to wait? 
Because her sisters use the hairbrush. 
Countermeasures 
(Try to define who is responsible for what action) 
1. Mother buys two more hairbrushes. Due Friday. 
2. Father reserves space for new hairbrushes, when they are 
not used. Due Saturday. 
3. Father will measure if T2 decreases after (1) and (2) is 
done. 
Effect Confirmation (try to be visual, charts): Try to 
measure the effect of the countermeasures... Does the stress 
decrease over a week or not? Find and use a key 
performance indicator. For example: dBA noise levels, how 
many minutes late they are, or survey of the daughters’ 
happiness. 
Follow-up Actions: Did the countermeasure work? If yes, 
adopt it. Mother will buy another two hairbrushes. It’s a backup 
in case of one ordinary is lost. Due Tuesday. As always for 
every task define clear responsibility of who when what. 
More A3 Samples 
58 
A Microsoft Excel based A3 PDCA.
59 
A3 from 2012 class - How to prevent car accidents.
60 
2013 Fall A3 / PDCA 
How to discipline children?
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >A3 / PDCA 61 
The Student’s Reflection (unabridged) 
Ohoud Alkaabi 
I think that A3/PDCA helps me to solve 
complex problems in an easy way. However, 
I can solve the problem by following (Plan, Do, 
Check, Act) and in only one paper. It has developed 
my thinking to find the best solutions, and 
imp r o v eme n t s wi t h safe-to-fail 
experimentation (methodology), so it's 
really awesome. 
#1 
A3 
Less is more 
Aisha Al Shamshi 
The A3/PDCA helped me to solve problems in 
a really fun and interesting way and how we wrote the tiny 
steps to get to the main idea and write down the best solution 
of the problems, and the most important thing about the A3/ 
PDCA is that it helps us in solving the problems of the layout. 
So by the A3/PDCA which has all of these details. 
#4 
Seek the 
Root cause 
Naama Al Shamshi 
I believe that the A3/PDCA is very helpful, 
not only that it helps you summarize 
and display the problem and the solution 
in a fun, interesting way, but what is more 
important it helps you identify the problem first, 
by using the 5 whys for example, you may found 
out that a simple problem is bigger and deeper than you think. 
It helps you get to the root of the problem, because cutting the 
branches won’t kill the problem, but finding out the real cause 
will. 
The A3/PDCA also helps you solve your problems by easy 
steps, it allows you to classify what you know, what you need 
to know and the goal you want to reach. By doing that you can 
view the problem in hand as small pieces rather than a huge 
one so it get easier to find a solution to it. 
Plus when doing the counter measure and the 
effect you can see which solutions work and 
which don’t, or which solutions could cause 
other problems. 
61 
#2 
Fail safe 
#3 
Step by 
step solves 
easier 
#5 
Check what 
works and what 
does not
Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >The Five S / 5S 62 
The Five S / 5S 
(ごエス、ごーエス)
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >The Five S / 5S 63 
Historical Origins of 5S 
5S is a “slogan” used in kaizen initiatives of the workplace in 
service and industry sectors to increase efficiency. 
5S is named after 
整理(せいり、Seiri) 
Throw away superfluous things (put down seldom used 
ones,...) 
整頓(せいとん、Seiton) 
Every tool must have its designed place and be returned 
to that place after use. 
清掃(せいそう、Seisou) 
Clean, clean and clean. 
清潔(せいけつ、Seiketsu) 
If you make any change in the workplace, make sure it is 
easy to follow by making a standard, or rule. 
躾(しつけ、Shitsuke) 
Build a culture of rule obedience. 
5S in the class 
Now you are ready to do 5S. A class is a perfect place. 
Seiri: Let the students clear the desks of superfluous objects, 
purses, wallets... 
Seiton: Are the mobiles, papers and pens on the desk aligned 
or placed at random orientations? Let the students align all the 
objects on the desk. Do they look smarter? 
Seiso: Can we clean any dirt in the room? 
Seiketsu: If the previous three initiatives are liked by the 
students why not make them a rule? 
Shitsuke: Lets think about how to enforce the rule so it is 
effective. 
We can also do 5S by organizing a 5S-kaizen drive: 
Organize a kaizen drive 
There are three golden rules on how to successfully carry out a 
kaizen-5S drive: 
When there is a 5S activity (such as a meeting) all the 
employees from the boss to the newest employees are 
engaged and on an equal footing. 
Things are decided by consensus. Consensus rules. 
63
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >The Five S / 5S 64 
Desk before and after seiton. 
Desk before and after seiton part II. 
The directives of Kaizen committees’ actions must be 
followed up by controls and inspections. 
64 
Someone left Doritos on my desk. 
What is a long term solution? 
Standardizing solutions. 
How to make people follow the 
standards? 
Same table, 
smarter looks!
65 
5S map by u-note.me (in Japanese) http://u-note.me/note/47485926
66 
5S map according to Strategos Inc. Consultants.
Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >The Five S / 5S 67 
5S in more detail 
Seiri. Seiri should be the first S. If you cannot do Seiri you 
won’t succeed with any of he other S’s. Seiri is related to the 
concept of muda. Definition – Seiri is about discriminating the 
superfluous things from the strictly necessary things needed to 
perform a task, job or project. In this way the work environment 
is simplified, things are found faster, it is harder to make 
mistakes and productivity increases. Seiri = using the trash bin. 
Seiton. Seiton is the second S. It means to align things. 
Definition – Seiton means to have the work environment 
ordered and tidy (everything labelled...) so that anybody that 
needs something (for example, a tool) does not waste time 
looking for it. Seiton means providing a place for things to be 
stored. In the previous photo a small pot for pencils is added to 
keep a pencil/s in place. 
Seiso. Seiso (to clean). It comprises those measures to 
prevent and avoid dirtying. The aim of seiso is to kill the 
generation of dirt at source. Example: someone left Doritos on 
the table. A brilliant seiso measure is to attach a vacuum 
cleaner to an electric saw or grinding machine so that waste is 
collected instantly. Killing the source of dirt. 
Seiketsu. It means Standardize. It is the fourth S. It means to 
try to make the improvements of the preceding S’s permanent 
and sustainable. Establishing rules is a great way to 
encourage good habits. Works better if the employees are 
involved as stakeholders. A poster can serve as a reminder 
that no Doritos are allowed, that the pen should be returned to 
a pot and that a clip should bound loose cards. 
Shitsuke. The rules that the own employees have decided 
should be respected and obeyed without exceptions. Shitsuke 
is about the battle for the minds and hearts of the employees. 
Displaying a poster with the new rules is a great way to 
encourage good habits every day. 
67
Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >Comparison of Ideo versus Toyota 68 
Core Principle TOYOTA IDEO 
Started 1918 ( with Pokayoke) 1977 (with the Apple mouse) 
Less is more (time) Instill “sense of urgency” to 
battle complacency 
Skillful use of deadlines 
Human centered Ergonomy respect Empathy for user 
Empowerment Any worker can stop the line Hire people good at building on others 
ideas 
Visualization solves most 
problems 
Kanban, A3, tackt time displays, 
Visual Management, Andon 
Post-it everywhere, the whiteboard as 
a communication medium 
Standardize Standardization of tasks,5S, 
Kanban, rule obedience 
The “standard” toolkit 
Practice makes perfect Kaizen, PDCA, humility in 
prototyping 
Iterative prototyping
Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >On the Importance of Seeing 69 
What did this two high-achievers have in common? 
Larry Bird - three times NBA 
Most Valuable Player. Three 
times NBA winner. Barcelona’92 
Dream team member. Photo by 
Steve Lipofsky. 
Manfred von Richthofen - WWI 
respected flying ace. He defeated 
more than 100 enemy planes in 
battle. When he died Allied 
squadrons stationed nearby 
presented memorial wreaths, 
one of which was inscribed with 
the words, "To Our Gallant and 
Worthy Foe".
70 
Visual Acuity 
Larry’s visual acuity was tested 
once by NASA. He scored one of 
the highest scores ever. 
(BloombergTV - 
Game Changers) 
Why did von Richthofen defeat so 
many enemy planes even though he 
was flying a red plane? He could spot 
enemy planes before they spotted him, 
and then adopt a winning tactic. 
Tools such as Genchi-Genbutsu 
and Five Why’s can help 
you to “see” better
Chapter 4: Case Studies 
Eri Nobeashi / Comptoir Des Cotonniers Japan 
Key point 
To test skills in real 
world
Chapter 4 >Case Studies >The Five Dollar Workshop 72 
►Tina Seelig, Executive director 
of the Stanford Technology 
Ventures Program. 
Did 
you know that 
humor is always based 
on reframing a situation? 
You can be more creative by 
reframing a problem. 
------- 
Tina Seelig 
►In this video you can see what Tina’s 
students do as part of her workshop courses at 
Stanford. I like this video because it does not 
explain how to be entrepreneurial, it shows 
how her students became so. The talk is 
based on her 2009 book, What I Wish I Knew 
When I Was 20. Love Tina? Her lectures are 
online at the Stanford e-corner & her iTunesU 
channel. 
Hey! 
Briefing - Each group is handed an envelope 
with 5 dollars, or with 10 clips or with a pack of 
Didn’t I say that 
post it notes. Your mission: you have five days 
in 1968!? 
to create as much value as possible from this 
------- 
initial seed capital / investment. Now you have 
Edward de Bono 
the tools such as the ideo toolkit to organize 
knowledge and have the know-how to organize 
workshops. After five days Stanford students 
came back with an average of 400 dollars, 
others come back with something much more 
TEDx Stanford. Photo by Tamer Shabani important: a newfound self-efficacy.
Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Five Dollar Workshop 73 
What you need to know 
1. No Problem, no opportunity, no business, no fun. 
2. Something leads to something, nothing leads to nothing 
(Danny Choo). 
3. Make your own luck. 
An example of make your own luck 
Zappos objective is to hire positive people 
because positive people are better at customer 
service. Interview: The applicant is given a task, to find the 
mistakes and typos in a (fake) newspaper. The newspaper 
contains a headline that reads: “I you read this stop the 
exercise and claim $400 from the interviewer.” People who 
consider themselves lucky usually find the headline and get 
$400. (Hsieh, 2010) 
Workshop time 
In contrast to Tina, we did not hand out clips or post-it packs. 
We gave each group two fridge magnets from Daiso store. We 
told them that they had four hours to start a business to make 
as much money as they could. 
Two days later the students presented their experiences in a 
three minute pitch. I was blown away. 
Group A 
Group A collected $236 by going to the UAE Maqam campus 
university canteen and challenging students to beat them to a 
mind game based on a National Geographic TV episode. 
73 
Group A earned $236 in 4 hours by means of a mind 
game. They iterated three business ideas and settings.
Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Five Dollar Workshop 74 
Group B 
Group B audaciously refused the magnets and demanded 
real money in seed investment (as they had seen in Tina’s 
first workshop). So we lent them AED 50 ($10). Group B 
invested money in raw materials and came back with AED 
840.00 ($228). They decided to manufacture and sell their 
own bracelet designs and they repaid the loan! 
The Student’s Reflection (unabridged) 
By Naama Al Shamshi 
Making our own luck, and turning a nothing into a something 
are things we heard from Professor Tina Seelig, but we 
didn’t know how to actually translate it into our lives, into our 
own luck. On Monday we were given a challenge by Mr. 
Jose, he gave each group a pair of magnets and we were 
asked to make money out of it. This might sounds crazy, 
believe me it was. 
We had no clue how to start, or where to start, one thing we 
did know was that the magnets were the limit and we can’t 
go over it. We tried brain storming while playing with the 
magnets in our hands, and I remembered a trick I saw on 
TV once, and it’s a trick related to a condition called 
“overconfident brain”, it’s a game where you place an object 
on the table and two people place their hands a little bit 
above the object and one of the hands higher than the other, 
74 
Group B decided to market handmade bracelets. One of the 
team members skipped the lecture: She was in the canteen 
selling the merchandise!
Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Five Dollar Workshop 75 
both player race to catch the object, the higher one should give 
the sign to start because he is a bit far from the object. We 
knew that we can use that trick for our advantage, because 
due to that condition in the brain the first player, which will 
always be one of us, always wins. 
We spent 2 hours experimenting different prototypes of how to 
start, at first we would walk up to the girls and offer to draw 
some picture for them for free if they won the game and they 
will have to pay for the picture if they lost, it worked; but 
drawing took much time and effort so we kept changing and 
improving the idea. 
After the 2 hours we realized that what we really can offer to 
the girls is “knowledge” instead of just playing the trick we 
would ask the girl “Do you think you are smart of stupid?” 
most of the girls answered smart, then we said that we have 
an experiment that can prove that you are not as smart as you 
think you are, but this information isn’t free unless you win in 
the next game, after losing of course we explained to the girls 
that the reason they lost was the overconfident brain, and we 
gave them different examples of this condition, after the mini 
lecture we would ask the girls to play for us, but 
we didn’t set a fixed price, we asked 
them to pay whatever they want, one 
girl paid Dhs 80 because she loved the 
information so much, that’s around 
21.78 US dollars. 
We spent 3 hours working in the canteen 
in 2 groups of 3, and we collected a total of Dhs 
867.75 that’s about 236.20 US dollars, which is 
pretty amazing! 
We walked out of this challenge as winners, not 
only that we collected more money than any 
other group in the class, but more or less we learnt 
valuable things from experiencing this ourselves. 
We gained confidence, walking up to total strangers and 
asking for money in this weird way we needed courage and 
confidence, we leant what kind of girls were willing to pay more 
and which type wouldn’t pay anything at all, it was hard at first 
but after a few rejections you know if you should talk to the 
next girl or you should pass and move to the next one. 
Furthermore, while experimenting different prototypes we knew 
that if we had one table or a stand and waited for girls to come 
over, no one will, every girl is like a potato sack of money 
waiting for us, so we have to go and get it. 
Aisha A. Ahmed Alshamshi said about her experience: 
“I leant that there is an opportunity to start a business from 
zero, nothing is impossible, and I learnt that there is no limit 
for creativity, no limit for innovation and of course no limit for 
MONEY. I also gained confidence by talking and explaining 
to stranger girls in a friendly way. Finding the best way to 
start a conversation with different type of girls was the 
toughest part. I think that we won because we tried several 
75 
Never 
limit your max 
revenue. 
GroupA 
collected $236 
Stanford’s average 
is $200.
Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Five Dollar Workshop Patie n 7c6e , 
prototypes, worked hard, we were a very fun and awesome 
team, and we used unusual idea which kept the girls 
interested.” 
Ohoud Al Kaabi also learnt a lot from working in this 
challenge: 
“I have learned that to be successful you need basic skills 
Such as patience, communication, thinking, and analysis. 
Firstly, I find difficult to communicate with people and failure, 
but failure is an important part because it's helps me to 
learning from life. And I have learned from my mistakes 
through the many opportunities that I faced it and taking 
risks. As I have become more successful at the end. I 
thought I won because I learned how to manage my work 
and how to earn the money easily. So, just think and think 
then improve it in your life, it was really an amazing and 
awesome experience :).” 
When expressing what she has learnt Awatef Obaid Alketbi 
said: 
“I learnt how to earn a lot of money easily and tricky by 
basic resource. We have many opportunities 
that allow us to be successful and we have to 
study our environment to identify these 
opportunities. Working with others to increase 
our opportunity for success and I think this is 
the reason why we won.” 
It’s been a wonderful experience, we learnt so 
much about how to think and work fast and 
effective, but I think the most important things we learnt 
were about ourselves, and the things we are capable of, we 
found out some hidden talents and gained more confidence, 
now we know how to measure our success by more than just 
the amount of money we earned. 
76 
communication, 
thinking, and 
analysis. 
Sell 
something that 
has low cost like 
knowledge. 
The 
magnets and the 
arbitrary four hour time 
limit was just a mental 
excuse to help you step out 
of you comfort zone.
Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Five Dollar Workshop 77 
Reflection 
At the beginning I was very weary of throwing the students into 
the challenge of this workshop. However, given the outcome, I 
am glad we did. Tina’s workshop is a great complement to a 
design thinking course because it offers the opportunity for 
students gain confidence quickly. After the workshop finished, 
one student confessed to me that she could not sleep for one 
night because he was trying to brain-storm a good business 
idea in time for the looming deadline. Nevertheless, Tina’s 
workshop role-model influence on students has been very 
easy to assess. After we conducted her workshop here at 
UAEU I noticed that students not officially enrolled were 
attending the lecture. Then I spotted one of them reading an 
ebook with a familiar title... What I Wish I Knew When I Was 
20. 
77 
Tina’s 
Five Dollar workshop 
is probably one of the major 
contributions to the field of 
creative self-confidence. 
------ 
The author. 
Note: Tina Seelig’s works 
about entrepreneurship 
were developed 
independently of Ideo 
and Toyota.
78 
Your Failings 
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Your Life in years 2013 2014 
No risk, 
no fun? 
? 
Failings 
No failings 
Make a Fail Resume 
Make a resume that highlights your failings rather than 
your successes. This exercise, proposed by Tina Seelig, is 
a great tool to help you asses wether you are failing in to a 
comfort zone “black-hole-of-death” or not. 
“I did not realize I had not been doing things I love for a 
few years now” - said Naama Al Shamsi. “Before I used to 
draw manga, and do lots of other things but when I wrote 
the resume I realized I had stopped.” Naama’s fail resume 
highlight was during her childhood. She and a friend drew 
some manga books by themselves and they started a sort 
of manga-kisa: They put the manga on display in their 
house garden and invited other neighborhood kids to read 
them for 1 Dhs (20 USD cents) per session. They collected 
about 5 Dhs before the books were stolen. 
Black hole illustration: Wired.com
Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Five Dollar Workshop 79 
Reflection 
Students love to make video resumes rather than writing one. 
Setting up a 60 second limit will help standardize.Exchange 
Exchange Student at The Bielefeld Summer Block course 
Student - I don’t like Computer Science... :( 
Author - So, what are you going to do about it? 
S - I will finish the last one year and then figure out what to do 
with my life... 
... 
A - You will never be a high paid CS engineer if you don’t like 
to program at least 12 hours a day. 
S - I don’t know what to do. My eyes are getting bad of looking 
at screen. I just try to do the minimum effort to pass the 
course. 
A - Well you know that you don’t like: CS. Now step out of your 
comfort zone and start looking for what you want to do in life. 
S - But I don’t know 
A - Do u do any part-time? Maybe your destiny is to be a super 
star barman!! 
S - I don’r know. 
A - How do you know if you are not genchi gembutsu? Ok. I 
want you to go this sushi restaurant manager and ask him if 
you can work as a waiter. Now! 
... 
S - They asked me if I speak German. 
A - And. 
S - I didn’t learn German yet. 
A - You have been 2 years here and you do not speak German 
yet? I want you to start learning German language next week. 
79
Chapter 4 >Case Studies >The Fast Fashion World: Zara 80 
Inditex is an example of a laser focused 
company. It is based in the Celtic Northwestern 
rural region of Spain where time is slow and 
there is little industry. Some argue that its 
success is due to the informal network of 
homemakers that provided a highly skilled 
workforce of competitive tailoresses. More 
conventionally, at HBR they decided that the 
secret should be in the management of the 
company. One thing that will shock you about 
Zara is how they decide what fashion to 
produce. Zara employees are always on the 
look out for new trends. They constantly 
“observe” the customers that visit Zara shops. 
Then they inform the HQ in Arteixo what fashion 
they think will sell (empowerment). Inditex is so 
focused they do not waste time talking to 
journalists. This is the only documentary on 
Inditex from within. Produced by Canal+ in 2002, 
by Josep Serra Mateu and Maria Ruiz 
Calzado. 
► Inditex. Founded 1975. Arteixo, Galicia. Success 
formula: give the customer what they wear & want. 
45 27 
Outlier designer team: Socorro, Loreto, María y María Jesús, and the model Tere. 
El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU. More photos.
81 
High fashion Basics 
50% 
50% 
El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU 
External garment shops such as this one, must comply with an ethical code of no exploitation. Sometimes they skip it, as it was 
recently discovered in a fire in Bangladesh. Inditex product mix is 50% high added value garments 50% basics.
82 
These cabins are used to negotiate and meet with suppliers. This is the 
same system used at Wall-Mart. 
Inditex’s lobby. 
Baggage full of sample garments. 
Supplier. 
El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU
83 
An employee choosing what models will be used for 
the coming online shop. 
El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU
84 
A logistic store in Arteixo. Here they prepare orders; 
from conception to hanger it takes three weeks. Every 
shop in 86 countries receives garments twice a week. 
El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU 
Munich 
Tokyo 
Melbourne 
Barcelona 
Mountain View 
Shanghai
85 
A 'call center' for online shopping. Zara was criticized for its tardiness to offer 
online shopping. The Zara iPhone App was designed by @AdriaMontiel. 
Clear wall. 
El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU
86 
Eight out of ten employees are women. They stitch the 
prototypes El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU for each design. 
High skill labour
87 
Inditex precuts all the garments and then sends it to 700 
nearby companies that do the assembly of skirts, shirts and 
other models. Fill factor of PC: 70%. Human 
88%. Difference human-PC = +12%. 
How much do we save with her 
Tetris skills? 
Fill factor 
PC Her 
0 0.225 0.45 0.675 0.9 
PC 
Her 
used area wasted 
0 250 500 750 1000 
Salary: € 35,000/year. Her job: Fit the patterns in the roll of 
garment; optimize wasted garment between patterns. Fill 
factor: PC: 70%, her: 88%. 
Wasted gap. 
Garment cutter robot. 
Salary (€) -35,000 
Social security -25,000 
Savings 12% on 
108,000,000 
900Mill 
Net savings 107,040,000 
Leg of a pant. 
Think time! Lets 
calculate how much € 
we save. Assume Inditex 
purchases €900 Mil. of 
garment rolls per year. 
Planeta Zara
88 
Designer 
Junior 
Designer 
Designer Designer Model 
At Zara designers never work alone. In the next table sales 
representatives from shops of France, Middle East, Australia 
and USA are waiting to review their prototypes and give immediate feedback. No prototype will 
go into production without the approval of those who know the customer. Even when designers 
meet with providers to purchase garments someone from the shop will be present to provide 
firsthand input from the shop. The idea of cross-functional teams must have come naturally to 
Amancio Ortega: since the start of his career in a little shop, he worked as a tailor and sales clerk. 
Sales 
Sales 
Sales 
Sales 
Sales
Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Fast Fashion World: Zara 89 
Floor design comparison (a Just-in-Time example at Zara) 
Shop A 
A big storage room lets you ship less often. However, how 
much added value does the storage area generate? None. 
Shop B 
A smaller storage room means that shippings must be twice 
more frequent. Shipping cost x2. 
89 
Shopping 
area 
Storage 
area 
Shopping 
area 
Strge. 
area 
Cost of shipping 
Cost of storage area rent 
50 
37.5 
25 
12.5 
0 
Total costs 
0.5 
4 
16 
Number of shippings to store each month 
Shop A 
Shop B 
Cost 
leader
Chapter 4 >Case Studies >The Microwave Workshop 90 
►Hugo’s facilitated this 
m i c r o w a v e o v e n 
workshop in Tokyo Institute 
of Technology around 2006. 
Workshop: You have been hired by a 
microwave oven brand. Recently, due to 
Chinese competition, the oven margins are 
paper thin so the survival of the company might 
very well depend on you coming up with a new 
oven design for which customers want to pay 
more. 
Innovation Matrix (IM). In this workshop we 
practice a mapping-tool called innovation 
matrix (IM). The IM helps to formalize and 
organize functional relations between: 
market needs 
technology 
product features 
This way to display information will help you to: 
perform a functional analysis of the product 
discover unmet customer needs 
inspire new features 
►Zurich. Hugo Tschirky is Professor Emeritus of 
Business Management at the Swiss Federal 
Institute of Technology (ETH). 
The Innovation 
Matrix is a knowledge 
discovery tool. 
------- 
Hugo Tschirsky 
Microwave Illustration by Scientific American.
Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Microwave Workshop 91 
Warming-up 
If you developed empathy skill in during the gift workshop you 
will see that a microwave is not one oven. It is multiple ovens, 
depending on who uses it. 
To a Geek’s an 
microwave oven 
looks like this: 
To an Statistician it looks like this: 
This is what a Parent-with-kids primary brain sees when u 
show him a microwave oven: 
The Cleaner’s oven: 
91
Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Microwave Workshop 92 
A microwave from a Systems point of view: 
A microwave oven from a sales man point of view: 
The microwave oven was introduced to the American public in 
1967: http://www.smecc.org/microwave_oven.htm 
Innovation Matrix How-to 
1. Draw a matrix format by rows 
1. Write the market needs (Why people buy ovens) 
2. Product functions (heat, boil...) 
3. Technologies behind those functions (Magnetron, 
LCD...) 
4. Basic Science field supporting those technologies. (RF, 
IC) 
2. Link concepts 
1. Clarify 
2. Seek deep truths 
3. Use 5 Whys if needed 
Once your product is clear and mapped out... 
3. Innovate 
Now that you have a clear picture of relationships between 
value, customer needs, costs and technology. You are in a 
better position to innovate either by: 
1. Brainstorming 
2. Planning an ideo style shopping cart workshop 
3. Edward deBono creativity tools 
92
93 
Need hot-milk ready for breakfast 
Need to bake a birthday cake 
Innovation Matrix Example 
Appliances that make you feel better 
Melting Defrost Alert 
FastHeating 
Magnetron 
Human need for 
feedback 
IC / 
Timer 
Antenna 
Radio Frequency basic tech 
Timer 
Need to save time 
Metal 
Bell 
IC Sound 
Engineering 
LCD 
need for mobility 
Market 
Needs 
Wants 
- - - 
Product 
function 
- - - 
Technology 
- - - 
Field 
? 
Faraday Cage 
Healthy diet 
Abridged from Hugo’s workshop 2006
Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Microwave Workshop 94 
94 
Team A Matrix day one
95 
Team A Matrix day two (some 
reordering, new relations)
Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Microwave Workshop 96 
96 
Light and 
oven window seem two 
unrelated technologies in an 
oven. However, they serve a 
common need: The need to 
check for mistakes! 
Aha! 
Functional Innovation example 
Cost of (Window +Light) > 
Cost of (X)? 
Consider the cost of a window + light. Their sole 
purpose is now clear. Can X do their function 
better, cheaper? Lets find X!
97 
IM 
can help clarify 
why people buy 
your product 
Team B Matrix day one
98 
Team B Matrix day two, (Now on a more practical horizontal position)
99 
Key point 
IM can help you 
clarify relationships 
between your product 
and your customers. 
“Why they buy.” 
< 
Aha 
Did you know some 
people buy 
microwaves because 
they don’t have space 
for an oven?
100 
? 
now 1967 1923 
Wa l k m a n / i Po d t h i n k i ng
Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Microwave Workshop 101 
Prototypes Back-up man Reflection 
160 minutes of IM activity helped clarify what the product is 
about. However, when it came to propose new designs doing 
actual prototyping job gave students a renewed energy. They 
prototyped ideas that could / had not imagined at all while 
doing brainstorming in step 3 IM. (But, we knew that from Tim 
Brown’s book, there are some things that can only be 
explained by doing a physical prototype) 
Students’s Reflection 
Comparing IM to the ideo method, they both do the same 
“work”. Obviously, IM is systematic and more rational. Ideo 
does what IM does without realizing that what they do is a 
mapping. On the other side, IM does not take into account 
team work dynamics, layout or process. Combining both 
seems to be promising. 
Innovation Matrix 
+ 
Ideo Workshop method 
___________________ 
Rational & creative product design process 
101
102 
What functional is 
all about 
Outdated GUI 
Heating box Externalized GUI
103 
ppl buy microwaves to save 
time. Does this GUI really 
help you save time? 
Some ppl buy microwaves to 
save space. But only 1% of 
dishes are square!? 
ppl buy microwaves to 
heat something, not to 
heat something during-a-certain- 
amount-of-time. 
more functional 
thinking examples 
Wasted footprint 
Mi crowave s have 
b e ll s to f u l f i l l a 
function, what is a more 
functional “bell”? 
?
Chapter 4 >Case Studies >Applying Five Whys to boost R&D 104 
►Tokyo Institute of Technology. Tokyo, Japan. Case: How we used Five 
Whys to solve a wicked 
problem and to boost 
R&D 
Wicked. 
Back in 2005 I was a PhD 
candidate at TokyoTech. One day in a 
meeting, my supervisor told me that Dr. 
Hirose (lab next door) had asked him if our lab 
could build a better climbing robot for the 
police. I said: “We can do it!” 
----- 
(I had never climbed before and let alone no 
idea how to make a robot climb either)
Chapter 4 > Case Studies >Applying Five Whys to boost R&D 105 
A wicked problem 
In 2005, I was a PhD candidate at Tokyo Institute of 
Technology. I had just randomly read a famous article from 
Nature. The article had clarified for the first time how gecko’s 
can hang on walls. A guy in the USA had cut a gecko toe 
and had confirmed that gecko use a force of 
adhesion called Van Der Waals: a kind of micro 
level electrostatic force. (Autumm, 2002) 
Incredible but true: Until that year 2000 no one in 
the whole adhesive industry had cared to 
investigate that wonder of nature. So I printed the 
article. Incidentally, I had been reading about 5S and 
5Whys. So I spent over a week with my colleague Mr. Obata 
asking Why Why Why those hairs are triangle base shaped. 
Why? To me it made no sense from a cost benefit analysis 
perspective unless, of course there was a good reason ... but 
the problem was that we could not guess what was the reason 
nor the function or purpose of such impossible shape. 
Using Five Why 
Anyway we decided to apply the Five Whys and after about 
two weeks and reading many papers we came across a paper 
that measured how much energy a gecko spent climbing. It 
turned out that geckos spend very little energy when climbing 
walls (according to R. Full lab at Stanford). Bang! Could it be 
that the triangle shape was related to energy expenditure? 
That was the number one suspect, but How? Well, the obvious 
course of action would be to make hairs of different shapes 
and see which one more efficient, but how to make them? 
Micro fabricating is expensive even if you are in Tokyo. Dead 
end. In another paper we read that when gecko walks they 
detach each foot by peeling. This 
made sense: peeling a scotch tape 
105 
Gecko foot close up. Autumn et al. PNAS. September 17, 
2002, vol. 99 no. 19. 12255. 
Triangle 
shapes! 
Why?
Chapter 4 > Case Studies >Applying Five Whys to boost R&D 106 
from a wall is easier than detaching a strip all at once. So what 
we had according to the energy efficiency hypothesis is: 
△ hair + peeling motion ⇒ more efficient than other 
shapes such as ⃝ base. 
How to check if the triangle hairs are more efficient than 
circular ones? Since the assumptions so far were purely 
mechanical, (and we had no other means), we decided that 
this principle should hold true regardless of 
the attraction force type: magnetic, gravity, 
electrostatic... Since we didn’t have 
enough funds (only $6000 from Titech 
VBL) to build a Van der Waals based 
prototype we decided to go with 
magnetic force (Force substitution 
hypothesis). From basic mechanics we 
also knew that whatever principle was 
favoring a triangle shape it should scale 
with size too. From here we build 
magnetic prototypes of gecko foot with 
about 100 hairs. 
106 
Depiction of force Moments at play when detaching 
a gecko hair. (Berengueres, 2007). © IOP 
Publishing. Reproduced by permission of IOP 
Publishing. All rights reserved. 
Triangle shapes. 
Why? 
Why? Must be 
easier to detach by 
peeling motion 
(Energy efficiency 
hypothesis) 
Why? Footprint 
asymmetry decreases 
peak forces 
Aha! 
Energy efficiency 
in climbing systems is 
related to peak forces only! 
Wicked 
problem solved!
Chapter 4 > Case Studies >Applying Five Whys to boost R&D 107 
This was great because it was cheap and you could really see 
what was going on when it attaches and detaches from a wall. 
(iron only walls). We could see the mechanics, stresses, 
moments; we could feel the forces with our bare hands without 
using expensive machines. We tested 
the peeling motion, how it attaches and 
detaches and... 
The Aha! moment 
When the shape was triangular it turns 
out a hair is twice as easy to detach 
by peeling motion than if it is 
circular! As it turns out peak 
detachment force is a very good 
p r e d i c t o r o f c l imb i n g e n e r g y 
expenditure video. 
Reflection 
Thanks to 5Whys we produced about 7 
papers, won a Materials Research 
Society prize, we were featured in 
Nature news and filed a patent. 
Using Analogy of cheap magnets 
instead of expensive Van Der Waals 
force is a typical creativity trick 
(analogy). If you are interested to be 
more creative Edward de Bono books 
explain the main creativity skills (lateral 
thinking, six thinking hats). However, 
107 
Comparison of two footprints by the minimum 
energy path. (Berengueres, 2007). © IOP 
Publishing. Reproduced by permission of IOP 
Publishing. All rights reserved. 
de Bono’s books 
pioneered thinking 
methods.
Chapter 4 > Case Studies >Applying Five Whys to boost R&D 108 
there is no substitute for persistence and serious work. A 
token: At the time I was sleeping in the lab 4 out of 7 days and 
showering in the university shower. A sign that you are on the 
right research track is when you find something that cannot be 
explained by common sense principles. 
Follow-up 
Soon after we decided to build Spiderman magnetic 
gloves. To do this we decided to use artificial 
deadlines to motivate us and add to the sense of crisis 
(Toyota). Deadlines worked very well for us. However, the best 
deadlines were the ones that are real, for example an IEEE 
IROS conference deadline. Another ideo/kaizen tool we 
heavily used was iterative prototyping. Even though it seems 
very wasteful to over prototype, rather than planning in big 
steps, we felt that it was the right way to do things, a little 
humble step every time. (See the fable of the Tortoise and the 
Hare.) 
Ken using gecko principles to climb as efficiently as 
possible. To date this is the most energy efficient, 
human-size climbing system ever developed. 
(Berengueres, 2006). © IEEE. 
108
Chapter 5: To Learn More 
Karen Endicott/Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth
Links to Multimedia 
1. Warm up #1 - Sir Ken Robinson on Creativity http:// 
w w w. t e d . c o m / t a l k s / 
ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity.html 
2. Warm up #2 - Three ideo projects: Dilbert, Prada and 
Submarine by David Kelley: The future of design is 
human centered https://www.youtube.com/watch? 
v=eXndL3TNCmo 
3. The Marshmallow challenge video h t t p : / / 
marshmallowchallenge.com/ 
4. Charlie Rose interviews David Kelley for CBS 60 
Minutes http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/? 
id=50138327n 
5. Ideo Shopping cart project for ABC nightlife, 
www.youtube.com/embed/M66ZU2PCIcM 
6. Charlie Rose/ BloombergTV follow up interview on 
‘creative confidence’ book http://www.bloomberg.com/ 
video/-creative-confidence-charlie-rose-10-29- 
XkkPiqBVT16wi8VLB~EB3w.html 
7. D. Kelley timeline by Bloomberg BusinessWeek, http:// 
www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-10-24/ideos-david- 
kelley-how-did-i-get-here 
8. d.School 90 minute G i f t workshop, h t t p : / / 
dschool.stanford.edu/dgift/ 
9. I d e o Wo r k s h o p To o l k i t p d f h t t p : / / 
designthinkingforeducators.com/ 
10.How to interview http://dschool.stanford.edu/dgift/chart-a- 
new-course/ 
11.Bandura Talk by Kelley http://www.ted.com/talks/ 
david_kelley_how_to_build_your_creative_confidence.h 
tml 
12.Tina Seelig talk http://ecorner.stanford.edu/ 
authorMaterialInfo.html?mid=2266 
13.Toyota the Global Story https://www.youtube.com/ 
watch?v=T5zcCk-uF3g 
14.Planeta Zara https://www.youtube.com/watch? 
v=ALPpvzgFElg 
15.Cool down #1 Design & Thinking movie. This un flashy 
movie features interviews with Tim Brown and others in 
their own offices. http://designthinkingmovie.com/ 
16.Cool down #2 Innovation by Design video. The Aspen 
I d e a s F e s t i v a l . 2 0 1 3 ( i Tu n e s U) h t t p s : / / 
itunes.apple.com/us/itunes-u/innovation-by-design/ 
id775460758?mt=10 
Background Music for Workshops and sessions 
17.Gift workshop http://dschoolmixtapes.blogspot.com/ 
110 
Chapter 5 > To Learn More > References
18.Course closing remarks. You can get it if you really want 
by Desmond Drekker https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/ 
made-in-dagenham-music-from/id402892850# 
Journal and Book References 
1. Plattner, H., Meinel, C., & Leifer, L. (2014) Design 
Thinking Research. 
2. Liker, J. K. (2004). The Toyota Way. 
3. Elberse & Thomas Dye. (2012). Sir Alex Ferguson: 
Managing Manchester United. Harvard Business 
Publishing. 
4. Meyers-Levy, J., & Zhu, R. J. (2007). The influence of 
ceiling height: The effect of priming on the type of 
processing that people use. Journal of Consumer 
Research, 34(2), 174-186. 
5. Bowdon, T. B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. 
Nicholas Brealey Publishing. 
6. Magee, D. (2003). Turnaround: How Carlos Ghosn 
Rescued Nissan. HarperCollins. 
7. Kelley, T., & Littman, J. (2005). The ten faces of 
innovation: IDEO’s Strategies for Defeating the Devil’s 
Advocate and Driving Creativity Throughout your 
Organization. New York: Double Day. 
8. Brown, T., & Katz, B. (2011). Change by design. 
Journal of Product Innovation Management, 28(3), 
381-383. 
9. Berengueres, J., Alsuwairi, F., Zaki, N., & Ng, T. (2013, 
March). Gamification of a recycle bin with emoticons. 
In Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE international 
conference on Human-robot interaction (pp. 83-84). 
IEEE Press. 
10. Berengueres, J. (2007). The Toyota production system 
re-contextualized. Lulu Enterprises UK Limited. 
11. Berengueres, J., Urago, M., Saito, S., Tadakuma, K., & 
Meguro, H. (2006, December). Gecko inspired 
electrostatic chuck. In Robotics and Biomimetics, 
2006. ROBIO'06. IEEE International Conference on 
(pp. 1018-1023). IEEE. 
12. Autumn, K., Sitti, M., Liang, Y. A., Peattie, A. M., 
Hansen, W. R., Sponberg, S., ... & Full, R. J. (2002). 
Evidence for van der Waals adhesion in gecko 
setae.Proceedings of the National Academy of 
Sciences, 99(19), 12252-12256. 
13. Blanco, X. R., & Salgado, J. (2004). Amancio Ortega, 
de cero a Zara: el primer libro de investigación sobre 
el imperio Inditex. La esfera de los libros. 
14. Esslinger, H. (2009). A fine line: How design strategies 
are shaping the future of business. John Wiley & Sons. 
15. Tadao, A. (1995). Tadao Ando: Complete Works. 
16. Hsieh, T. (2010). Delivering happiness: A path to 
profits, passion, and purpose. Hachette Digital, Inc.. 
111
Acknowledgments 
This book would have not been possible without: 
Kenji Kurihara of Denso /Kentuky, who invited me to midnight undercover factory tours in Denso Kariya in 2007. 
Kunio Takahashi, Tokyo Institute of Technology, who invited me to visit Toyota factories with Toyohashi University. 
Ferran Pujol of McKinsey & Co. Chile, for awesome discussions about best lean practices. 
Antoni Elias Fuster, who organized the first Creativity and Innovation class at UPC Barcelona in 1999. 
Julie Grahame who provided artworks. 
Hasso Plattner, who provided reprints. 
Students of Design Thinking IBLC 124, whose experiences and enthusiasm are part of this book. 
Timothy Gus Hegstrom, dean of UAE University College, who supported this book. 
Tina Seelig, Executive Director Stanford Technology Ventures Program, who provided insightful comments. 
Hugo Tschirky, Professor Emeritus ETH Zurich, who taught me the Innovation Matrix method in Tokyo.
Dr. Jose Berengueres joined UAE University 
as Assistant Professor in 2011. He received 
MEE from Polytechnic University of 
Catalonia in 1999 and a PhD in bio-inspired 
robotics from Tokyo Institute of Technology 
in 2007. 
He has authored books on: 
The Toyota Production System 
Design Thinking 
Human Computer Interaction 
UX women designers 
Business Models Innovation 
He has given talks and workshops on Design 
Thinking & Business Models in Germany, 
Mexico, Dubai, and California.

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The Brown Book of Design Thinking

  • 1.
  • 2. The Brown Book of Design Thinking Editor Jose Berengueres The University College, UAE University, Al Ain, UAE. The College of Information Technology, UAE University, Al Ain, UAE. Edition First Edition. November 16, 2013. UAE University College, Al Ain. ISBN 978-1-63041-059-9 Version 27 of Oct 2014 “Nissan Edition” Cover Design by Eman Yaqoub Ahmad Rabiah Design Mariam Alfalasi, UAE University. Illustration Reem Alqamzi, UAE University. Copy-editing R. Susannah Behan. Text Copyright © Jose Berengueres 2013-2014. All Rights Reserved. © i
  • 3. Artwork Copyright Artwork appearing in this work is subject to their corresponding original Copyright or Creative Commons License. Except where otherwise noted a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License applies. Limit of Liability The editor makes no representations or warranties concerning the accuracy or exhaustivity of the contents and theories hereby presented and particularly disclaim any implied warranties regarding merchantability or fitness for a particular use including but not limited to educational, industrial and academic application. Neither the editor or the authors are liable for any loss or profit or any commercial damages including but not limited to incidental, consequential or other damages. Support This work was supported by: The University College, UAE University. The College of Information Technology, UAE University. Center of Excellence for English Teaching and Learning (CETL), UAE University. UAEU ii
  • 4. Chapter 1: Start This is a brown book on design thinking. Rather than case based, it is workshop based. It means that you learn by doing, not reading.
  • 5. Course Objectives In this course book we will practice two skills: 1. The workshop method propagated by the design firm ideo. 2. How solve problems faster by applying visualization techniques. What is design thinking? As a thinking tool, design thinking fosters the ability to combine: empathy for the context of a problem, creativity in the generation of insights and solutions, and the skill to materialize those solutions through iterative prototyping. Taught as a course at Stanford since 2004, and with a school funded by Hasso Plattner (see: http://www.hpi.uni-potsdam.de/ willkommen.html), today design thinking impacts processes not only in engineering practice, but in education and across disciplines. Its tools are used by product and industrial design firms to ideate products. It is also used to solve so called wicked problems – problems for which neither question nor answer is well-defined. Typical wicked problems for researchers are: How to win the next Nobel prize? How to decrease traffic accidents? How to fix global warming? Goals The goal of this course is very simple: to master design thinking skills. Rather than using the traditional MBA case study method, this is a workshop-based course where we learn by doing. In each session, a thinking tool will be introduced and practiced. Outcomes By the end of the course the student is expected to: 1. Have a sense of self-efficacy (creative confidence). 2. Manage a design thinking workshop: Layout, roles, times and process. 3. Effectively use of thinking tools: 1. A3 / PDCA 2. Root cause analysis 3. Kaizen / 5S 4. Waste identification 4. Know how to Apply design thinking tools to boost research output. 5. Diagnosis productive processes. How it is organized? We are now in the introduction. This chapter contains the crucial Marshmallow workshop, a great starting point for any design thinking course. The following three chapters are divided in sections. Each is to be “played” in a 1-2 hour session. We say play because the role of the teacher is 4 4
  • 6. intended as facilitator: steering the class rather than repeating content. At the end of each section sometimes you might find comments from our classes here at UAE University. They contain student reflections, post-workshop analysis and facilitator comments. Jose Berengueres Dubai, December 15, 2013 5 5
  • 7. Chapter 1 >Start >A Message from the Chairman 6 Here he is. The great Warren Buffett. The bubbles come from his talk at Terry College in 2004. Did you know that 20 year old Warren was terrified at speaking in public? Terrified. Seems hard to believe now. One day he took a Dale Carnegie course on a subject that changed his life: How to speak in Public. You as a young man, will earn considerable money in your life-span. Let’s play a game: ----- I offer to buy 10% of your potential future earnings. What price would you value your self? (Watch out... I might take the low ballers only!) Hint for discussion to Warren’s teaching: What price did you name? How much does a course on public speaking cost? How much does this course cost? Now suppose you took a course that improves yourself 10%. ----- Warren Buffet Warren Buffet © Estate of Yousuf Karsh
  • 8. Chapter 1 >Start >What is Design Thinking 7 Hi, I am Dr. J. and this book is about design thinking! ----- Ready? What is design thinking? Very simple. Let’s start with design. Some smarties think that it is how-to design ... well ... not exactly! Originally, it was way to organize a team of product designers so that they would come up with better product ideas. However, today it is applied to solve all kinds of conundrums. And thinking? Thinking refers to how-to organize your team. Think about it, this is not easy. In a team someone always wants to be the boss, big egos, shy people or just simply how to manage the information flow can be daunting. Design thinking is a set of rules and “tricks” that help you do all this well so you get the best out of your team. How? By influencing mindset: the way we think and work, hence thinking.
  • 9. Chapter 1 >Start >Why a New Book? 8 Design thinking books Books we love Why another book on design thinking? Less boring* than Change by Design by Tim Brown, €86.00 cheaper than Design Thinking Research by Plattner (2014) and considerably shorter than the wordy Toyota Way by Liker (2007). This is not the typical “reference” book. This is a book for cowboys. For parallel thinkers, who want to learn by doing. It is also a great book if you plan to teach a 101 course because it contains views from both the student and the facilitator. Toyota + Ideo Contrary to the Stanfordian view that we use d.thinking to “create” value (such as in radical innovation) and that on the other hand we can use Lean tools (such as kaizen) to “optimize” that value. In this book we will introduce a different point of view. By the end of the book you will realize that both Toyota way and the Ideo way of thinking draw on two common core principles: The power of visualization Practice makes perfect (kaizen) Toyota way in the lab Moreover, in chapter 4.2 we will show a case study of how we used the Toyota way of thinking not only to boost productivity but to do radical innovation in a lab setting. *Abridged from the Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. You are here
  • 10. Chapter 1 >Start >MindMap 9 Case Studies Armed with new knowledge you now should readily “see” why businesses rise and fall Toyota Way From Toyota we will learn tools to “see” better Ideo Way From ideo we will learn the workshop method
  • 11. Chapter 1 >Start >The Marshmallow Workshop 10 ►Workshop: This 18 minute workshop is a great start point for any design class because there is no better way to learn than by doing. Tom Wujec has organized this workshop over 50 times and he discovered amazing things about humans... For example, Did you know that 5 year old kids outperform MBA’s? After doing the workshop a universal principle, that at Toyota has been known for ages, should be clear: More Prototypes, More Quality Hi! I invented this workshop ----- Peter Skillman Yeah but who made it famous? ----- Tom Wujec Design Thinking IBLC124 room C60034 UAE Univeristy, Al Ain.
  • 12. Chapter 1 > Start >The Marshmallow Workshop 11 Recap I did this workshop for the undergrads of 2012 twice. The first time the average height was 17 inches. The second time I added one senior student to each undergrad group. What happened? The senior students overtook “leadership” of the process, the undergrads retrenched inwards (respect for authority). The average height went down to 5 inches. It was a sobering moment. Every one felt bad. At Zara (the fast fashion world) they know that: When interviewed by a Harvard team about their success a Zara director says: “The secret of our company success is just that, that a 22 year old employee can freely say how she sees things to the top manager, we do not have any other secret.” (Planeta Zara) What you need to know What happens when they add a material incentive to the workshop? Can you generalize? (Ariely, 2006) What does it mean to find the marshmallow in each project? (hidden assumptions). Do more prototypes really equal more quality? What is the risk of working for a long time without feedback? What are the three reasons kindergarten kids outperform MBAs? 11 What is the Y axis in your life? 0 1 2 3 Number of prototypes
  • 13. Chapter 1 > Start >The Marshmallow Workshop 12 The Three Man United Marshmallows (Abridged from Harvard Business Review, Elberse 2013) that helped man-u to win more matches than the rest: (1) Special purpose training to score in the last minutes of a match. (2) Visualize the team four years ahead in the future to manage player life-cycle and replacement. Player days Sir Alex Ferguson (1941) started his career as a striker in regional Scottish league. He never really managed to get a regular position in spite of scoring 20 goals. In fact, he fell out with his coach at St. Johnstone club where he was playing. In 1966, after having transferred several times between clubs he became the top scorer of the Scottish regional league. However, in 1974 he ended his player career with the bitter taste. Alex as a trainer The same year he quit playing, at age of 32 he signed up as part time coach of a club called East Stirlingshire where he gained a reputation of being a cold-hearted disciplinarian. A token: At the beginning, he would show up every day at the club at 7am. Finally, the rest of employees got the message. Under his leadership, he transformed the team in a positive way. The quality of the game improved. Later he would also transform Mirren and Aberdeen with the same results. In 1986, after 12 years of uninterrupted success, he was invited to join Man U as manager. Three Marshmallows 12 (3)Take a step back. ----- Alex Ferguson Photo by Austin Osuide.
  • 14. Chapter 1 > Start >The Marshmallow Workshop 13 Aha moment, a step back Ferguson was a micromanager. One day Alex Ferguson, who hardly ever delegated the training session command, was confronted by his number two in a cafe. Number 2 - “I don’t know why you brought me here. You don’t let me do anything.” Alex - “That is not true” (he protested) But deep down Alex knew that his number two was right. So he let him try. A few days later he fully delegated the training supervision to his number 2. He sat down in the bench and watched the training. To take a step back from the training allowed him to take an observer role. Then something amazing happened: He realized things that usually escaped him when he was absorbed in hands-on training: New subtle patterns on players appeared; he could see which player was injured even if the player thought he was fine, he could see changes in players moods and then he could talk to the player and find out if the cause was family problem or something else, he discovered a big marshmallow! Luck? No. Motivation? No. Training! Man U has overturned most games in the final minutes of a game than any other Premier League team. What is the real reason? Luck? Values? Motivation? No. Alex prepared the team for those special occasions when a team is losing the game and there are only few minutes left. He made the team do special purpose training for such situations. Visualizing life cycle of players Ferguson had discovered a third marshmallow. He was very good at visualizing how the team would be in 4 years time and he planned accordingly. He was very good at discarding players that would enter decline, but always kept a couple of old cats on payroll so the culture could be transferred from the old generation to the new one. 13 !
  • 15. 14 50 37.5 25 12.5 0 Life-cycle of a player Decline phase 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Performance Age Number of goals per year Buy low Sell high 70 52.5 35 17.5 0 Team performance projection (example) 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Perfromance Forecast Year Valencia Jones Lindegaard Gea Giggs
  • 16. 15 The power of step back. For more see back-up man in the next chapter. For a similar story of step-back technique in a soccer team check out page 135 of The Ten faces of Innovation by Kelley and Littman (2008). Just 3 Ferguson didn’t have to discover lots of marshmallows in his life span to be ultra-successful. Great minds think alike!
  • 17. Chapter 2: The Ideo Way Karen Endicott/Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth
  • 18. Connecting the dots - What is the function of the whiteboard? It is a shared memory space that facilitates connections between: gathered facts, ideas and cognitive processes. 17 Solution Photo by Karen Endicott/Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth
  • 19. 18
  • 20. Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >Ideo 19 This is the ideo office! ►Ideo. Founded 1977 Palo Alto, CA. Designed first Apple silicone wrapped ball mouse. ► Charlie Rose interviews David Kelly - father of design thinking. In his 20s David had invented “toilet occupied” sign for passenger planes while working at Boeing. However, he was not quite satisfied with life. One day he enrolled a design class at Stanford. He loved the fact that they combined art + technology. Later his pal, Steve Jobs would ask him to design the first Apple mouse, and so ideo was born. In the interview Kelly is to blame for a $17 mouse, a vertical Colgate tube and Pringles. The key points are: 1. Diverse people building on others ideas (Cross, 2012). 2. It is hard to find people from different culture backgrounds that can do (1) well. 3. Understand users through observing them: first hand empathic observation. 4. A follow up interview by BloombergTV is here. D. Kelley / Ideo In my 20s I was an unwed, frustrated engineer. One day I took a design class at Stanford and it changed my life. ---- D. Kelley
  • 21. Chapter 2 > The Ideo Way >Ideo 20 Behaviorism in historical perspective The CBS interview reveals a simple truth, that design thinking is about designing taking into account human behavior. Today, this seems so natural. But was it in 1977? For reference Psychology as a field was only invented in 1879, brainstorming in 1941, and B.F. Skinner ideas on behavior were not disseminated before 1968, and then only until 1978 the Behaviorism field had a journal of its own. Skinner influence on Kelley Before Skinner it was accepted that the emotions, behavior and actions of a man came from his inside from his inner thought processes, inner attitudes, “His nature” and so on. After all, where else could they come from? However, Skinner did not think that was very scientific thinking. He conceded that one’s state of mind was the cause of behavior, but what drives the mind? According to Skinner humans believe that we act autonomously but in reality the environment is what shapes our behavior. Skinner proposed that the environment had a much greater effect on the individual than previously thought. In particular, he proposed that to improve human race we need focus on creating better environments, rather than better people. Because good environments will conduce to good people. How does this connect to design thinking? Very simple. If you want your designers to produce better solutions give them a better thinking environment! 20 Skinner’s idea was considered ‘radical’ at the time. Who you are is defined by your behavior. So let’s make environments that are conducive to greatness. ------ BF Skinner Aha! moment
  • 22. Chapter 2 > The Ideo Way >Ideo 21 To learn more For a deeper discussion refer to Chapter 47 of 50 Psychology Classics by Tom Buttler-Bowdown and Beyond freedom and dignity by B.F. Skinner, published in 1971. Additionally, Skinner had some “radical” views on education. As a token: in 1968, The Technology of Teaching, BF Skinner has a chapter on why teachers fail (p. 93–113): he says that teachers have not been given an in-depth understanding of teaching and learning. Rings a bell? Note of 2014.3.25 “Fail faster to succeed sooner” -relate to students delaying putting the marshmallow on top because of fear it will crash the spaghetti tower. 21
  • 23. Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >The d.school Gift Workshop 22 A Workshop about Empathy ► A step forward from the marshmallow workshop, and an indispensable preparation before your next challenge, the goal here is to redesign the giving-a-gift experience. This workshop works on your empathy skills that you will use to understand users’ needs while you reconnect with your creative self. The secret to a productive workshop is to step out of the comfort zone by pairing with someone outside your circle of friends. In the video the course is facilitated by George Kembel and Jeremy Utley of the d.school. Materials available at the course site. ►d.school at Stanford University, CA. is the brainchild of David Kelley and was funded thanks to $5M from Mr. Plattner. d.School Stanford University
  • 24. Gift experience workshop review. Student prototypes Sept 23 2013 @ UAEU 23 Sketch phase. Try to generate as many crazy radical ideas as possible.
  • 25. 24 Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >The Shopping Cart Workshop This 1999 ABC video features how ideo redesigns the shopping cart in two weeks. It is a great way to learn how to do a workshop. Lets take notes on the 5 “steps” they mention. Then pay close attention to the layout. In the room nothing is casual: the cramped table, Peter standing, Kelley in the corner leaning back and quiet, the wall behind. Steps (1) Gather facts & knowledge (2) Share facts with team (define) (3) Brainstorm (4) Build-on others ideas (5) Prototype & iterate Workspace influence on thinking behavior Layout shapes thinking Did you know that how you set up a room, colors, illumination, background music and other “details” can greatly affect how your brain thinks? (Meyers-Levy, 2007) Chairs with wheels Table The Toolkit In 2012 Ideo released a pdf called toolkit for educators. It is a step by step rationalized guide to their “workshop” method. It contains tips, checklists, how to organize a fact gathering field-trip, etc. Wall The Backup man The Expert The Facilitator
  • 26. Chapter 2 > The Ideo Way > The Shopping Cart Workshop 25 The Author explains the role of the facilitator. Oct 15th 2014. 25
  • 27. Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >Examples of How Workspace Shapes Behaviour 26 I changed peoples lives through spaces Rosemary Martinez. ENFP. Textile and Interior design. Mexico. “Design for impact” AR218 Hotel Rooftop, Mexico DF, in August 20th, 2014 Listen to the Interview Recorded at AR218 Hotel Rooftop, Mexico DF, in August 17th, 2014 Early life “My Grand-Dad was a telegraphist. After the Spanish Civil War ended, the fascists put seven death sentences on its head - Mostly for being a free thinker. His son - my dad - had no future in Spain, being the son of who he was, so emigrated to the UK. He found a job at Marconi where he even filled several patents. We landed in Mexico in July 20th 1969 - the same day man was landing on the Moon, so no one came to receive us at the airport.” When I ask students what influences their behavior the most: their inner self or the environment, most say the inner self. Then I show them Rosemary
  • 28. Chapter 2 > The Ideo Way > Examples of How Workspace Shapes Behaviour 27 27 Listen to the Teenager Room Project Recorded at AR218 Hotel Rooftop, Mexico DF, in August 17th, 2014 “How could he study in such chaos?” ---- RM Teenager Room Project Space shapes behavior Case #1
  • 29. 28 Marie’s Room Marie’s Room Recorded at AR218 Hotel Rooftop, Mexico DF, in August 17th, 2014 Listen to the Maid Story Recorded at AR218 Hotel Rooftop, Mexico DF, in August 17th, 2014 Marie was shy and had mediocre grades. We re decorated her room. A few months later he had become the social center of her class. ------ Rosemary M. Space shapes behavior Case #2
  • 30. Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >The Why Boring Classes Workshop 29 Workshop time Now it is time to do your own workshop. Pick a topic that motivates students such as... Why are classes so boring? Why people do not recycle? Assign expert roles to each student on relevant topics such as: 1. How do they do it in other countries 2. Interview end users on the topic 3. Interview policy makers on the topic ... Then give students one week to go on a first hand fact finding and data gathering mission. One week later: Divide students in groups of 9 max, assign one student as a facilitator to each group. Make sure to follow exactly the ideo shopping cart table layout. The teacher will act as backup man and advices the facilitator if they naturally drift off course. The background music of the gift workshop is great to help shy students talk. At the end demand a one powerpoint solution proposal to the problem and tell your students that it will be sent to the provost! We did this Photos of the “Why boring classes” workshop, 25 Sep’13 @UAEU workshop and after 90 minutes some groups had reached the flow state of intellectual exhilaration. After time was up, some didn’t want to leave the room and continued discussing. That is a good sign.
  • 31. Chapter 2 > The Ideo Way >The Why Boring Classes Workshop 30 The Student’s Reflection (unabridged) By Naama Alshamshi It was fun working in a real workshop. When you actually do something it gives you a deeper understanding than if you read hundreds of books about it. While working in this workshop, I personally realized how little things you might not notice can affect the production of the workshop things like the seats arrangements and the work table. Because if the table was huge and seating were far from each other the expert won’t be able to communicate in the way they should. Aisha Alshamshi says: I learnt the importance of doing the homework and coming prepared, because it gives you a good understanding the problem you want to solve, it also makes you see the problem from several angles, which helps find the best solution. Aisha also said that working in a diverse group of people was a good experience; it allows you to see how different people think, and different thoughts help to solve the problem. Mouza Almuhairi agrees with Aisha and says that she realized how working with a team can be more productive, because you see the same problem but from different angles. She also says that this workshop helped her develop my teamwork skills, because you learn to respect people’s ideas and opinion without criticizing. Being the facilitator is fun, but hard at the same time, because you should keep the group working according to the time schedule. Even though we went over time in our workshop but the facilitator can’t allow that in big workshops because in the business world time is money. #1 Learn by Doing On that topic Ohoud Alkaabi listed controlling time as one of the things she learned in this workshop, alongside sharing ideas and group work. She also said that she learned how to use the design process to dive into real life problems. Like the problem we discussed in our workshop which was the problem of “boring classes” in the university. Yassmin Albraiki said that she learned that there are many ways to solve this problem, like adding activity-based classes will help break the routine which is the main reason for boring classes. She said that she is now confident that we can solve any problem when u analyze it with a group and share your ideas and opinion. Another student agrees with that: Islam Abuwatfa said that sharing the ideas and working together produce better work, she also learned that team work is much better than #5 Preparation is Everything 30 #3 Deadlines kill procrastination #4 More is More #2 Space shapes behavior
  • 32. Chapter 2 > The Ideo Way >The Why Boring Classes Workshop 31 individual work, as a team or a group we were able to come up with more ideas, and better ones. And I am sure we will use these tips we learned in future workshop either in the university or in the work fields. Group A facilitator, Naama Al Shamshi ----- Comments from the backup-man (Dr. J.) There are 4 ways to express an idea: Speech Writing Sketching (2D Prototyping) A 3D Prototype Each one has its advantages and activates different brain areas that can help you “see” things that other mediums of expression cannot convey. As Tim Brown says in his book Change by Design, there are stories you can only explain by drawing. So lets use it more! (Brown, 2012) 31 #6 Check the next page for self-efficacy 90 minute workshop results “Activity based classes” and “Color Therapy” were two of the best ideas proposed to combat boredom in the class Note to self Send to the students a copy of Guy Kawasaki’s 10-20-30 rule video on how to do great slides Note Majors from Engineering have a harder time exercising “empathy”
  • 33. Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >Self-efficacy 32 ►In this deep talk, Kelley cites a colleague from Stanford, the professor Albert Bandura and the concept of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is the belief that you can change the World by doing that what you are “set” to do in it. In other words, a “sense” that you are on Earth to accomplish a mission and the confidence that you can do it. People that discover self-efficacy usually quit their jobs and do what they believe they have to do (helping the poor in Africa, building an iPhone, making a 3D movie). While not all of them become rich or famous here are some examples: Mother Theresa, Steve Jobs, Albert Edison, Elon Musk, Warren Buffet, George Soros, Viktor Frankl, Lennon, to them life was meaningless if they cannot accomplish their mission. For example, Elon Musk’s mission is to go to Mars. Did you find ► Albert Bandura. Worked in Alaska. Now professor at Stanford. Formalized the idea of self-efficacy. When I was young I was very poor, so in summer I took a tough job in the Alaskan tundra. This changed my life. Observing my peers’ drink & gamble subculture opened my mind. Now I am the fourth most famous psychologist. ----- A. Bandura Photo by Pajares, F. Albert Bandura your mission yet?
  • 34. 33 This is Alex Bogusky. He is a high-profile example of self-efficacy. Alex has won every award you can win in advertising. One day he quit everything to help a small impoverished community. ----- http://thenakedbrand.com BloombergTV Fast Company cover of June 2010
  • 35. 10/26/13 Ideo's David Kelley: How Did I Get Here? - Businessweek 34 http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-10-24/ideos-david-kelley-how-did-i-get-here www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-10-24/ideos-david-kelley-how-did-i-get-here 10/12 Everyone should get a terminal disease once. It helps find your self-efficacy. I found mine: to help others find their creative confidence. ----- David Kelley, cancer survivor. Charlie Rose interview I grew up in a DIY culture.
  • 36. Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >The Recycle Workshop 35 01►After the Why Boring 90 minute workshop now you are ready for a full 1 week/2 sessions workshop. In spite of not yet having power tools such as Toyota’s 5 Whys or A3/PDCA, this is a great workshop to engage in preparation and facilitation. So. Why do people not recycle? Collect data ► Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE. Founded 1971. GDP per capita: $29,877. HDI: Very high. (2011) 03►Debriefing - Share collected data. An outcome of the session should be what additional data is needed or missing at the current stage and what action steps will be taken to get it. Prototype Day 1 Day 2 Collect data Start Pitch time! 02►Briefing - In UAE on only 10% of pet bottles are being recycled and only 12% of the parents advise their kids to recycle. In Japan? 70% of PET bottles are recycled. In USA? 30% (Berengueres, 2012)
  • 37. 36 Debriefing session: post-it wall evolution Debriefing session, minute 5
  • 38. 37 Evolution of the post-it wall during session 1 Wall of post-it
  • 39. Chapter 2 >The Ideo Way >The Obesity Workshop 38 UAE Univeristy, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE. Workshop of 2014. Overweight rate:60% Obesity Workshop We did this workshop in Oct. 2014. We had to restart it 3 times because the students failed to gather relevant data for the brainstorming session. So I decided to show them photos of the previous recycle workshops so they could see the kind of data they are expected to bring. We also screened the movie “Fed Up!” - Which breaks away the pre conception that obesity is related to calorie intake. No good data no good brainstorming.
  • 40. 39 Evolution of the post-it wall during session 1 Final prototype group A minute 75 session 3
  • 41. Chapter 3: The Toyota Way ` The Toyota Way - Tools to “see” Did you know that many of the core design thinking principles were being used by the Japanese in the 1970s? Visualization, time management, Genchi-Gembutsu and iterative prototyping. From Toyota we will learn not only about the respect for the individual but thinking tools that make you smarter. Many of ideo’s methods such as empowering a team by controlling criticism, had been practiced by the Japanese since 1970 Both ideo and Toyota use time and deadlines to keep teams motivated. (Note: FANUC x10 speed clock story)
  • 42. Recap of the Chapter: The Ideo Way https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kWPKV7Lmb8A&list=UURW9hIrr6kHOj5zkp1Udo_g Why we learn from Toyota in DesignThinking class... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TdwqQ0CnHlM&list=UURW9hIrr6kHOj5zkp1Udo_g#t=184 41 41
  • 43. Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >Brief History of Toyota 42 ►This is a documentary clip by Toyota. It is presented by Alec Murdoch - who was a speaker for Toyota USA. The full online version is here. The point of the video is the stellar moment where: “A son decides to invent an automatic loom to free her mum from tedious weaving work” This scene synthesizes the Toyota ethos: Why it exists and its purpose in life. Replacing a boring job with automation (aka autonomation) was just one step. However, they did not stop there. In their drive to improve they stumbled upon some awesomely productive principles and tools that later became what is known as the Toyota Production System (TPS). ► Toyota. Founded 1918 by Sakichi Toyoda. Location: Global. A Toyota Kyushu factory tour organized by tikitabi.com
  • 44. When did Toyota become famous? The 1973 oil-shock What the video omits is that no one was paying attention to Toyota until the second oil shock came. “The first time that TPS gets public awareness is during the fall of 1973 right after the first oil shock. From that time are the mythical pictures of Japanese homemaker’s scrambling in supermarkets for a WC paper roll. Due to the shock, WC-paper became scarce in Japan. The scenes are depicted in some films of the era. That year many companies logged red numbers in their Profit/Loss statements, but not Toyota. In fact, that year Toyota boasts yet again record profits. It is then that many companies realize that there might be something to be learned about Toyota’s TPS. Many consider the possibility of copying Toyota. The first TPS consultants are born. Management consultants at Chubu Seisanrenmei create TPS kenkyukai (study group) where even Taiichi Ohno himself would give some talks. It is in the second half of the 70s when the perception that the idea that Toyota’s production technique multi-product mini-batch is efficient diffuses through the Japanese industrial tissue.” (p 27, Berengueres, 2007) Toxic environments* for innovation - Toyota Today However, the reader should not be fooled into thinking that nowadays Toyota is a great place for inventive people. It is not. Today’s Toyota is as a toxic environment for creativity as GM, or Samsung. 43 43 Notwithstanding the video, at the end the NUMMI factory was an economic failure and closed. It its now owned by Tesla Motors - where the electric car revolution is happening *Toxic environments for innovation (Esslinger, 2009) Toyota USA assembly line. Photo by carenthusiast.com
  • 45. Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >Waste 44 Waste 無駄 The seven kinds
  • 46. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >Waste 45 Seven kinds of waste found in the workplace 1. Overproduction This is the number one source of waste. It is the waste that stems from believing that producing in big batches is more efficient than producing in small batches. Huge costs are incurred in unsold items. 2. Waste due to Superfluous Waste due to the existence of unnecessary things: such as personnel, machines, and inadequate machines. Little savings add up over time. 3. No flow It is the waste due to the lack of flow. Stop and go in production and/or suboptimal line layout, lack of synchronization, changeover times. 4. Operational Waste of doing unnecessary work. Due to ignorance, lack o f t r a i n i n g , l a c k o f technological expertise, lack of planning and/or automation. 5. Waste of Movement These comprise a l l the movements done during a work shift that do not add value: Ex. a bolt picked up from an unnecessarily low 45 What is the true cost of storing? How much did we save here? Lack of training is a big source of mistakes. Photo: The Simpsons (c) News Corp. Spaghetti diagrams. Same machines, two layouts. Where would you rather work?
  • 47. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >Waste 46 recipient, transportation. Compared to a straight line production layout, a u-cell layout reduces the time spent by workers on walking anywhere from 2xL to 1xL, this can add up to 4 to 6 km per day in a typical factory. This Kitchen Kaizen video by Gemba Academy illustrates how to measure improvements in movement economy. 6. Defect Production It is the waste due to production of defects caused by: lack of training, not enough poka-yoke, quality controls, and poor and inadequate maintenance of machinery. In 2010 Toyota recalled more cars than it had produced. The cost of the recalls is not disclosed. 7. Overstock It is the waste related to the cost of maintaining oversized ! warehouses that act as a buffer between poorly communicated processes. Additionally, one pernicious effect of overstock is that it hides problems. 46 A Toyota recall according to The Guardian How overstock hides problems. (Berengueres, 2007) !
  • 48. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >Waste 47 Added Value versus non-value-added Activity A typical breakdown of how time is spent to make a product: Time can be spent doing things that add value or that do not add value: When optimizing operations, most of the time managers focus on the green part. For example, buying a faster machine. However, the big savings opportunity is reducing resources spent in the non-value-added activity because it is simply put: larger. 47 Time Non Value Added activities Value Added Non Value Added activities Value Added Value Added Non Value Added Savings of 30% 30% sav ings Value Added Non Value Added savings Photo by Steve Jurvenston
  • 49. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >Waste 48 The Nissan turnaround case When Beirut-born Carlos Ghosn arrived at Nissan circa 1999, Nissan was losing money. What had been one of the flagships of Japanese car-making knew how to make cars but could not manage to make a profit anymore. It did not take long for the triple digit IQ CEO to figure out was wrong. For one he was appalled that a plant manager proudly reported that he had raised the productivity to a new record, while he did not know what the costs his efforts to the company as a whole were (cost of storage, cost of raw materials, labour). This was a sign of clear dysfunction: engineers, purchase managers, designers, and sales people were not working with the same goal. Carlos had to cut costs and cut them fast. To solve this he forced various types of employees to work together in cross-functional teams. For example in a meeting when designing a new door for a car, there would be various employees from different parts of the organization so all costs could be represented/optimized. This means not only purchasing costs, but assembly costs, 48 Genchi Genbutsu? Carlos Ghosn at Nissan’s Honmoku Wharf, a logistics hub about 10 km southeast of Nissan’s global headquarters in Yokohama, July 16, 2011. Picture by Bertel Schmitt. Ghosn stars in the movie The revenge of the electric car by Paine (2011). #2 Don’t waste time being diplomatic, there is no time! #1 Cross-functional teams
  • 50. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >Waste 49 warranty costs, customer points of view, etc. He also forced the Japanese managers to use English to communicate. This is what happened: while a manger in speaking in Japanese would talk very politely and say his opinion very diplomatically in long sentences, when forced to use English he would be ruthless, direct and clear (time saving). Five years later, from near bankruptcy, Nissan improved its operating profit (EBIT, or earnings before interest and taxes) from negative to 9% (Magee, 2003). Even if your workplace is not a factory, and you do not produce cars, Can you tell where is the most waste in your surroundings? Carlos interview where he explains cross functional: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yChtop17sd8 49 is my goal at NISSAN? I am having fun! Carlos Ghosn WBS TVTokyo 2013 What ---- 2007 Carlos G. Nissan ceo pay in Millions 0 2.25 4.5 6.75 9 Cross-functional teams? Of course! Isn’t that common sense?
  • 51. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way > Waste 50 50
  • 52. Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >The Five Whys 51 なぜなぜ5回 The Five Whys Method
  • 53. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >The Five Whys 52 Itsutsu no Naze means in Japanese The Five Why’s. It is an expression born in Toyota that has been popularized recently by popular magazines such as R25. It is a technique based on searching relentlessly for the root cause of problems (it requires stepping out of the comfort zone). It also means that if we want to solve a problem properly in a permanent manner it is necessary to focus on the root cause not in its sprawling branches. Example problem:  Boy, I have a headache... ❓Why does it ache? Because I have a cold. ❌ Solution: Take an Aspirin. Wrong! Meanwhile at Toyota’s...  I have a headache... $ Why? Because I have a cold. % Why did you catch a cold? Because yesterday I spent time in the cold. & Why? Because I didn’t take my coat. ' Why? Because I didn’t think that it would be so cold outside. ( Why? Because in the morning I don’t check the weather forecast. (✅ ) Solution: Install a thermometer in the balcony and watch it before going out. The intake of an aspirin is just a superficial countermeasure. The thermometer, on the other hand, would solve the problem permanently. However, it requires two things: The creation of a rule (watch the thermometer before going out) and discipline. As in real factories, success depends on how motivated and disciplined the workforce is. Why five and not another number? It is curious but at Toyota they wonder the same. It turns out that if one asks repeatedly five seems to be the magic number of steps. Itsutsu no naze is a powerful tool that can help to solve problems for a long term. 52
  • 54. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >The Five Whys 53 Why do we catch colds? The body is continuously generating antibodies that must be replaced continuously in its war against microbes. The microbes try continuously to invade our warm body. When it is cold, the body stops manufacturing antibodies as an energy saving measure. If the cold period is long, the defense level drops and the risk of infection rises. 53
  • 55. Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >A3 / PDCA 54 A3 / PDCA
  • 56. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >A3 / PDCA 55 P.D.C.A stands for Plan-Do-Check-Act. It is also known as the Deming circle. The virtue of P.D.C.A is not in the Planning, Doing, Checking or Acting but in the separation of Planning from Doing, Doing from Checking and Checking from Acting. It is a methodology that ensures that a change to a process such as one improvement is isolated from the following change. If you change a process very often, as in kaizen/continuous improvement, the hygiene of your process might suffer. If changes are applied randomly or not managed properly it can be hard to track which of them improved the process and which didn't. PDCA solves this by: 1. Plan = Think of one potential improvement 2. Do = Try it 3. Check = Measure the “effects” 4. Act = Adjust. Evaluate. Fully implement the proposed change OR discard change. 5. Go to step 1 and repeat cycle. The A3 restriction Tracking a PDCA initiative can be done by using the A3 method. A3 method is very simple: you need to be able to display all the information regarding your project in one single A3 size paper. This space restriction will help you focus on the essential information only. The A3 method can be seen as a reporting method. The idea is to access all the essential information regarding a project with a single look. A3 reporting is commonplace in Toyota and at many other Japanese corporations. Note: Since the Japanese language is twice as dense as English you might need to use smaller 8-point size typeface to be on an equal density footing. Summarizing: A3/PDCA is about quantifying the effects of change and the time-evolution 55 PDCA according to Johannes Vietze.
  • 57. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >A3 / PDCA 56 of the change process itself. The ultimate goal is to have total control over the change process so it leads to steady and reliable improvements. This cannot be insured if one change is not separated from the other changes. The following figure is an example of a famous PDCA example by Staffan Nottaberg. How–to A3 Report and Value Stream Mapping A3 Report is a way to implement Deming’s PDCA (Plan-Do- Check-Act). Toyota uses it in meetings for problem solving and to restrict information overload. Here goes the example: Briefing: We have a family that gets stressed during the morning, there are three daughters. Here is how a Toyota man would solve and organize the information using A3/PDCA: In Theme section write: Stress free morning procedures. In Background whatever info you collected, for example: School starts at 8.20. The children need to sleep for as long as possible. They must leave home at 7.45 to catch the school bus. In Current Condition: Lack of time almost every morning. Stress creates bad atmosphere in family. The so-called Value stream map of the morning activities might help you visualize the problems. It indicates that value adding processes only are 17 out of 45 minutes, the rest seems wasted time. Goal: Ready to leave for the bus within 45 minutes without stress. 56 Value stream map according to Staffan Nottaberg.
  • 58. 57 The A3 method according to Staffan Nottaberg.
  • 59. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >A3 / PDCA 58 Let’s assume that the father investigates why T2, for instance, is so long and finds out... Root Cause Analysis (using Five Why’s) Why stress? Because a considerable amount of time is spent on T2. Why is so much time spent on T2? Because Samantha (one of the daughters) has to wait for the hairbrush. Why does she have to wait? Because her sisters use the hairbrush. Countermeasures (Try to define who is responsible for what action) 1. Mother buys two more hairbrushes. Due Friday. 2. Father reserves space for new hairbrushes, when they are not used. Due Saturday. 3. Father will measure if T2 decreases after (1) and (2) is done. Effect Confirmation (try to be visual, charts): Try to measure the effect of the countermeasures... Does the stress decrease over a week or not? Find and use a key performance indicator. For example: dBA noise levels, how many minutes late they are, or survey of the daughters’ happiness. Follow-up Actions: Did the countermeasure work? If yes, adopt it. Mother will buy another two hairbrushes. It’s a backup in case of one ordinary is lost. Due Tuesday. As always for every task define clear responsibility of who when what. More A3 Samples 58 A Microsoft Excel based A3 PDCA.
  • 60. 59 A3 from 2012 class - How to prevent car accidents.
  • 61. 60 2013 Fall A3 / PDCA How to discipline children?
  • 62. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >A3 / PDCA 61 The Student’s Reflection (unabridged) Ohoud Alkaabi I think that A3/PDCA helps me to solve complex problems in an easy way. However, I can solve the problem by following (Plan, Do, Check, Act) and in only one paper. It has developed my thinking to find the best solutions, and imp r o v eme n t s wi t h safe-to-fail experimentation (methodology), so it's really awesome. #1 A3 Less is more Aisha Al Shamshi The A3/PDCA helped me to solve problems in a really fun and interesting way and how we wrote the tiny steps to get to the main idea and write down the best solution of the problems, and the most important thing about the A3/ PDCA is that it helps us in solving the problems of the layout. So by the A3/PDCA which has all of these details. #4 Seek the Root cause Naama Al Shamshi I believe that the A3/PDCA is very helpful, not only that it helps you summarize and display the problem and the solution in a fun, interesting way, but what is more important it helps you identify the problem first, by using the 5 whys for example, you may found out that a simple problem is bigger and deeper than you think. It helps you get to the root of the problem, because cutting the branches won’t kill the problem, but finding out the real cause will. The A3/PDCA also helps you solve your problems by easy steps, it allows you to classify what you know, what you need to know and the goal you want to reach. By doing that you can view the problem in hand as small pieces rather than a huge one so it get easier to find a solution to it. Plus when doing the counter measure and the effect you can see which solutions work and which don’t, or which solutions could cause other problems. 61 #2 Fail safe #3 Step by step solves easier #5 Check what works and what does not
  • 63. Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >The Five S / 5S 62 The Five S / 5S (ごエス、ごーエス)
  • 64. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >The Five S / 5S 63 Historical Origins of 5S 5S is a “slogan” used in kaizen initiatives of the workplace in service and industry sectors to increase efficiency. 5S is named after 整理(せいり、Seiri) Throw away superfluous things (put down seldom used ones,...) 整頓(せいとん、Seiton) Every tool must have its designed place and be returned to that place after use. 清掃(せいそう、Seisou) Clean, clean and clean. 清潔(せいけつ、Seiketsu) If you make any change in the workplace, make sure it is easy to follow by making a standard, or rule. 躾(しつけ、Shitsuke) Build a culture of rule obedience. 5S in the class Now you are ready to do 5S. A class is a perfect place. Seiri: Let the students clear the desks of superfluous objects, purses, wallets... Seiton: Are the mobiles, papers and pens on the desk aligned or placed at random orientations? Let the students align all the objects on the desk. Do they look smarter? Seiso: Can we clean any dirt in the room? Seiketsu: If the previous three initiatives are liked by the students why not make them a rule? Shitsuke: Lets think about how to enforce the rule so it is effective. We can also do 5S by organizing a 5S-kaizen drive: Organize a kaizen drive There are three golden rules on how to successfully carry out a kaizen-5S drive: When there is a 5S activity (such as a meeting) all the employees from the boss to the newest employees are engaged and on an equal footing. Things are decided by consensus. Consensus rules. 63
  • 65. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >The Five S / 5S 64 Desk before and after seiton. Desk before and after seiton part II. The directives of Kaizen committees’ actions must be followed up by controls and inspections. 64 Someone left Doritos on my desk. What is a long term solution? Standardizing solutions. How to make people follow the standards? Same table, smarter looks!
  • 66. 65 5S map by u-note.me (in Japanese) http://u-note.me/note/47485926
  • 67. 66 5S map according to Strategos Inc. Consultants.
  • 68. Chapter 3 > The Toyota Way >The Five S / 5S 67 5S in more detail Seiri. Seiri should be the first S. If you cannot do Seiri you won’t succeed with any of he other S’s. Seiri is related to the concept of muda. Definition – Seiri is about discriminating the superfluous things from the strictly necessary things needed to perform a task, job or project. In this way the work environment is simplified, things are found faster, it is harder to make mistakes and productivity increases. Seiri = using the trash bin. Seiton. Seiton is the second S. It means to align things. Definition – Seiton means to have the work environment ordered and tidy (everything labelled...) so that anybody that needs something (for example, a tool) does not waste time looking for it. Seiton means providing a place for things to be stored. In the previous photo a small pot for pencils is added to keep a pencil/s in place. Seiso. Seiso (to clean). It comprises those measures to prevent and avoid dirtying. The aim of seiso is to kill the generation of dirt at source. Example: someone left Doritos on the table. A brilliant seiso measure is to attach a vacuum cleaner to an electric saw or grinding machine so that waste is collected instantly. Killing the source of dirt. Seiketsu. It means Standardize. It is the fourth S. It means to try to make the improvements of the preceding S’s permanent and sustainable. Establishing rules is a great way to encourage good habits. Works better if the employees are involved as stakeholders. A poster can serve as a reminder that no Doritos are allowed, that the pen should be returned to a pot and that a clip should bound loose cards. Shitsuke. The rules that the own employees have decided should be respected and obeyed without exceptions. Shitsuke is about the battle for the minds and hearts of the employees. Displaying a poster with the new rules is a great way to encourage good habits every day. 67
  • 69. Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >Comparison of Ideo versus Toyota 68 Core Principle TOYOTA IDEO Started 1918 ( with Pokayoke) 1977 (with the Apple mouse) Less is more (time) Instill “sense of urgency” to battle complacency Skillful use of deadlines Human centered Ergonomy respect Empathy for user Empowerment Any worker can stop the line Hire people good at building on others ideas Visualization solves most problems Kanban, A3, tackt time displays, Visual Management, Andon Post-it everywhere, the whiteboard as a communication medium Standardize Standardization of tasks,5S, Kanban, rule obedience The “standard” toolkit Practice makes perfect Kaizen, PDCA, humility in prototyping Iterative prototyping
  • 70. Chapter 3 >The Toyota Way >On the Importance of Seeing 69 What did this two high-achievers have in common? Larry Bird - three times NBA Most Valuable Player. Three times NBA winner. Barcelona’92 Dream team member. Photo by Steve Lipofsky. Manfred von Richthofen - WWI respected flying ace. He defeated more than 100 enemy planes in battle. When he died Allied squadrons stationed nearby presented memorial wreaths, one of which was inscribed with the words, "To Our Gallant and Worthy Foe".
  • 71. 70 Visual Acuity Larry’s visual acuity was tested once by NASA. He scored one of the highest scores ever. (BloombergTV - Game Changers) Why did von Richthofen defeat so many enemy planes even though he was flying a red plane? He could spot enemy planes before they spotted him, and then adopt a winning tactic. Tools such as Genchi-Genbutsu and Five Why’s can help you to “see” better
  • 72. Chapter 4: Case Studies Eri Nobeashi / Comptoir Des Cotonniers Japan Key point To test skills in real world
  • 73. Chapter 4 >Case Studies >The Five Dollar Workshop 72 ►Tina Seelig, Executive director of the Stanford Technology Ventures Program. Did you know that humor is always based on reframing a situation? You can be more creative by reframing a problem. ------- Tina Seelig ►In this video you can see what Tina’s students do as part of her workshop courses at Stanford. I like this video because it does not explain how to be entrepreneurial, it shows how her students became so. The talk is based on her 2009 book, What I Wish I Knew When I Was 20. Love Tina? Her lectures are online at the Stanford e-corner & her iTunesU channel. Hey! Briefing - Each group is handed an envelope with 5 dollars, or with 10 clips or with a pack of Didn’t I say that post it notes. Your mission: you have five days in 1968!? to create as much value as possible from this ------- initial seed capital / investment. Now you have Edward de Bono the tools such as the ideo toolkit to organize knowledge and have the know-how to organize workshops. After five days Stanford students came back with an average of 400 dollars, others come back with something much more TEDx Stanford. Photo by Tamer Shabani important: a newfound self-efficacy.
  • 74. Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Five Dollar Workshop 73 What you need to know 1. No Problem, no opportunity, no business, no fun. 2. Something leads to something, nothing leads to nothing (Danny Choo). 3. Make your own luck. An example of make your own luck Zappos objective is to hire positive people because positive people are better at customer service. Interview: The applicant is given a task, to find the mistakes and typos in a (fake) newspaper. The newspaper contains a headline that reads: “I you read this stop the exercise and claim $400 from the interviewer.” People who consider themselves lucky usually find the headline and get $400. (Hsieh, 2010) Workshop time In contrast to Tina, we did not hand out clips or post-it packs. We gave each group two fridge magnets from Daiso store. We told them that they had four hours to start a business to make as much money as they could. Two days later the students presented their experiences in a three minute pitch. I was blown away. Group A Group A collected $236 by going to the UAE Maqam campus university canteen and challenging students to beat them to a mind game based on a National Geographic TV episode. 73 Group A earned $236 in 4 hours by means of a mind game. They iterated three business ideas and settings.
  • 75. Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Five Dollar Workshop 74 Group B Group B audaciously refused the magnets and demanded real money in seed investment (as they had seen in Tina’s first workshop). So we lent them AED 50 ($10). Group B invested money in raw materials and came back with AED 840.00 ($228). They decided to manufacture and sell their own bracelet designs and they repaid the loan! The Student’s Reflection (unabridged) By Naama Al Shamshi Making our own luck, and turning a nothing into a something are things we heard from Professor Tina Seelig, but we didn’t know how to actually translate it into our lives, into our own luck. On Monday we were given a challenge by Mr. Jose, he gave each group a pair of magnets and we were asked to make money out of it. This might sounds crazy, believe me it was. We had no clue how to start, or where to start, one thing we did know was that the magnets were the limit and we can’t go over it. We tried brain storming while playing with the magnets in our hands, and I remembered a trick I saw on TV once, and it’s a trick related to a condition called “overconfident brain”, it’s a game where you place an object on the table and two people place their hands a little bit above the object and one of the hands higher than the other, 74 Group B decided to market handmade bracelets. One of the team members skipped the lecture: She was in the canteen selling the merchandise!
  • 76. Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Five Dollar Workshop 75 both player race to catch the object, the higher one should give the sign to start because he is a bit far from the object. We knew that we can use that trick for our advantage, because due to that condition in the brain the first player, which will always be one of us, always wins. We spent 2 hours experimenting different prototypes of how to start, at first we would walk up to the girls and offer to draw some picture for them for free if they won the game and they will have to pay for the picture if they lost, it worked; but drawing took much time and effort so we kept changing and improving the idea. After the 2 hours we realized that what we really can offer to the girls is “knowledge” instead of just playing the trick we would ask the girl “Do you think you are smart of stupid?” most of the girls answered smart, then we said that we have an experiment that can prove that you are not as smart as you think you are, but this information isn’t free unless you win in the next game, after losing of course we explained to the girls that the reason they lost was the overconfident brain, and we gave them different examples of this condition, after the mini lecture we would ask the girls to play for us, but we didn’t set a fixed price, we asked them to pay whatever they want, one girl paid Dhs 80 because she loved the information so much, that’s around 21.78 US dollars. We spent 3 hours working in the canteen in 2 groups of 3, and we collected a total of Dhs 867.75 that’s about 236.20 US dollars, which is pretty amazing! We walked out of this challenge as winners, not only that we collected more money than any other group in the class, but more or less we learnt valuable things from experiencing this ourselves. We gained confidence, walking up to total strangers and asking for money in this weird way we needed courage and confidence, we leant what kind of girls were willing to pay more and which type wouldn’t pay anything at all, it was hard at first but after a few rejections you know if you should talk to the next girl or you should pass and move to the next one. Furthermore, while experimenting different prototypes we knew that if we had one table or a stand and waited for girls to come over, no one will, every girl is like a potato sack of money waiting for us, so we have to go and get it. Aisha A. Ahmed Alshamshi said about her experience: “I leant that there is an opportunity to start a business from zero, nothing is impossible, and I learnt that there is no limit for creativity, no limit for innovation and of course no limit for MONEY. I also gained confidence by talking and explaining to stranger girls in a friendly way. Finding the best way to start a conversation with different type of girls was the toughest part. I think that we won because we tried several 75 Never limit your max revenue. GroupA collected $236 Stanford’s average is $200.
  • 77. Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Five Dollar Workshop Patie n 7c6e , prototypes, worked hard, we were a very fun and awesome team, and we used unusual idea which kept the girls interested.” Ohoud Al Kaabi also learnt a lot from working in this challenge: “I have learned that to be successful you need basic skills Such as patience, communication, thinking, and analysis. Firstly, I find difficult to communicate with people and failure, but failure is an important part because it's helps me to learning from life. And I have learned from my mistakes through the many opportunities that I faced it and taking risks. As I have become more successful at the end. I thought I won because I learned how to manage my work and how to earn the money easily. So, just think and think then improve it in your life, it was really an amazing and awesome experience :).” When expressing what she has learnt Awatef Obaid Alketbi said: “I learnt how to earn a lot of money easily and tricky by basic resource. We have many opportunities that allow us to be successful and we have to study our environment to identify these opportunities. Working with others to increase our opportunity for success and I think this is the reason why we won.” It’s been a wonderful experience, we learnt so much about how to think and work fast and effective, but I think the most important things we learnt were about ourselves, and the things we are capable of, we found out some hidden talents and gained more confidence, now we know how to measure our success by more than just the amount of money we earned. 76 communication, thinking, and analysis. Sell something that has low cost like knowledge. The magnets and the arbitrary four hour time limit was just a mental excuse to help you step out of you comfort zone.
  • 78. Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Five Dollar Workshop 77 Reflection At the beginning I was very weary of throwing the students into the challenge of this workshop. However, given the outcome, I am glad we did. Tina’s workshop is a great complement to a design thinking course because it offers the opportunity for students gain confidence quickly. After the workshop finished, one student confessed to me that she could not sleep for one night because he was trying to brain-storm a good business idea in time for the looming deadline. Nevertheless, Tina’s workshop role-model influence on students has been very easy to assess. After we conducted her workshop here at UAEU I noticed that students not officially enrolled were attending the lecture. Then I spotted one of them reading an ebook with a familiar title... What I Wish I Knew When I Was 20. 77 Tina’s Five Dollar workshop is probably one of the major contributions to the field of creative self-confidence. ------ The author. Note: Tina Seelig’s works about entrepreneurship were developed independently of Ideo and Toyota.
  • 79. 78 Your Failings 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Your Life in years 2013 2014 No risk, no fun? ? Failings No failings Make a Fail Resume Make a resume that highlights your failings rather than your successes. This exercise, proposed by Tina Seelig, is a great tool to help you asses wether you are failing in to a comfort zone “black-hole-of-death” or not. “I did not realize I had not been doing things I love for a few years now” - said Naama Al Shamsi. “Before I used to draw manga, and do lots of other things but when I wrote the resume I realized I had stopped.” Naama’s fail resume highlight was during her childhood. She and a friend drew some manga books by themselves and they started a sort of manga-kisa: They put the manga on display in their house garden and invited other neighborhood kids to read them for 1 Dhs (20 USD cents) per session. They collected about 5 Dhs before the books were stolen. Black hole illustration: Wired.com
  • 80. Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Five Dollar Workshop 79 Reflection Students love to make video resumes rather than writing one. Setting up a 60 second limit will help standardize.Exchange Exchange Student at The Bielefeld Summer Block course Student - I don’t like Computer Science... :( Author - So, what are you going to do about it? S - I will finish the last one year and then figure out what to do with my life... ... A - You will never be a high paid CS engineer if you don’t like to program at least 12 hours a day. S - I don’t know what to do. My eyes are getting bad of looking at screen. I just try to do the minimum effort to pass the course. A - Well you know that you don’t like: CS. Now step out of your comfort zone and start looking for what you want to do in life. S - But I don’t know A - Do u do any part-time? Maybe your destiny is to be a super star barman!! S - I don’r know. A - How do you know if you are not genchi gembutsu? Ok. I want you to go this sushi restaurant manager and ask him if you can work as a waiter. Now! ... S - They asked me if I speak German. A - And. S - I didn’t learn German yet. A - You have been 2 years here and you do not speak German yet? I want you to start learning German language next week. 79
  • 81. Chapter 4 >Case Studies >The Fast Fashion World: Zara 80 Inditex is an example of a laser focused company. It is based in the Celtic Northwestern rural region of Spain where time is slow and there is little industry. Some argue that its success is due to the informal network of homemakers that provided a highly skilled workforce of competitive tailoresses. More conventionally, at HBR they decided that the secret should be in the management of the company. One thing that will shock you about Zara is how they decide what fashion to produce. Zara employees are always on the look out for new trends. They constantly “observe” the customers that visit Zara shops. Then they inform the HQ in Arteixo what fashion they think will sell (empowerment). Inditex is so focused they do not waste time talking to journalists. This is the only documentary on Inditex from within. Produced by Canal+ in 2002, by Josep Serra Mateu and Maria Ruiz Calzado. ► Inditex. Founded 1975. Arteixo, Galicia. Success formula: give the customer what they wear & want. 45 27 Outlier designer team: Socorro, Loreto, María y María Jesús, and the model Tere. El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU. More photos.
  • 82. 81 High fashion Basics 50% 50% El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU External garment shops such as this one, must comply with an ethical code of no exploitation. Sometimes they skip it, as it was recently discovered in a fire in Bangladesh. Inditex product mix is 50% high added value garments 50% basics.
  • 83. 82 These cabins are used to negotiate and meet with suppliers. This is the same system used at Wall-Mart. Inditex’s lobby. Baggage full of sample garments. Supplier. El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU
  • 84. 83 An employee choosing what models will be used for the coming online shop. El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU
  • 85. 84 A logistic store in Arteixo. Here they prepare orders; from conception to hanger it takes three weeks. Every shop in 86 countries receives garments twice a week. El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU Munich Tokyo Melbourne Barcelona Mountain View Shanghai
  • 86. 85 A 'call center' for online shopping. Zara was criticized for its tardiness to offer online shopping. The Zara iPhone App was designed by @AdriaMontiel. Clear wall. El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU
  • 87. 86 Eight out of ten employees are women. They stitch the prototypes El Pais / CATERINA BARJAU for each design. High skill labour
  • 88. 87 Inditex precuts all the garments and then sends it to 700 nearby companies that do the assembly of skirts, shirts and other models. Fill factor of PC: 70%. Human 88%. Difference human-PC = +12%. How much do we save with her Tetris skills? Fill factor PC Her 0 0.225 0.45 0.675 0.9 PC Her used area wasted 0 250 500 750 1000 Salary: € 35,000/year. Her job: Fit the patterns in the roll of garment; optimize wasted garment between patterns. Fill factor: PC: 70%, her: 88%. Wasted gap. Garment cutter robot. Salary (€) -35,000 Social security -25,000 Savings 12% on 108,000,000 900Mill Net savings 107,040,000 Leg of a pant. Think time! Lets calculate how much € we save. Assume Inditex purchases €900 Mil. of garment rolls per year. Planeta Zara
  • 89. 88 Designer Junior Designer Designer Designer Model At Zara designers never work alone. In the next table sales representatives from shops of France, Middle East, Australia and USA are waiting to review their prototypes and give immediate feedback. No prototype will go into production without the approval of those who know the customer. Even when designers meet with providers to purchase garments someone from the shop will be present to provide firsthand input from the shop. The idea of cross-functional teams must have come naturally to Amancio Ortega: since the start of his career in a little shop, he worked as a tailor and sales clerk. Sales Sales Sales Sales Sales
  • 90. Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Fast Fashion World: Zara 89 Floor design comparison (a Just-in-Time example at Zara) Shop A A big storage room lets you ship less often. However, how much added value does the storage area generate? None. Shop B A smaller storage room means that shippings must be twice more frequent. Shipping cost x2. 89 Shopping area Storage area Shopping area Strge. area Cost of shipping Cost of storage area rent 50 37.5 25 12.5 0 Total costs 0.5 4 16 Number of shippings to store each month Shop A Shop B Cost leader
  • 91. Chapter 4 >Case Studies >The Microwave Workshop 90 ►Hugo’s facilitated this m i c r o w a v e o v e n workshop in Tokyo Institute of Technology around 2006. Workshop: You have been hired by a microwave oven brand. Recently, due to Chinese competition, the oven margins are paper thin so the survival of the company might very well depend on you coming up with a new oven design for which customers want to pay more. Innovation Matrix (IM). In this workshop we practice a mapping-tool called innovation matrix (IM). The IM helps to formalize and organize functional relations between: market needs technology product features This way to display information will help you to: perform a functional analysis of the product discover unmet customer needs inspire new features ►Zurich. Hugo Tschirky is Professor Emeritus of Business Management at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH). The Innovation Matrix is a knowledge discovery tool. ------- Hugo Tschirsky Microwave Illustration by Scientific American.
  • 92. Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Microwave Workshop 91 Warming-up If you developed empathy skill in during the gift workshop you will see that a microwave is not one oven. It is multiple ovens, depending on who uses it. To a Geek’s an microwave oven looks like this: To an Statistician it looks like this: This is what a Parent-with-kids primary brain sees when u show him a microwave oven: The Cleaner’s oven: 91
  • 93. Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Microwave Workshop 92 A microwave from a Systems point of view: A microwave oven from a sales man point of view: The microwave oven was introduced to the American public in 1967: http://www.smecc.org/microwave_oven.htm Innovation Matrix How-to 1. Draw a matrix format by rows 1. Write the market needs (Why people buy ovens) 2. Product functions (heat, boil...) 3. Technologies behind those functions (Magnetron, LCD...) 4. Basic Science field supporting those technologies. (RF, IC) 2. Link concepts 1. Clarify 2. Seek deep truths 3. Use 5 Whys if needed Once your product is clear and mapped out... 3. Innovate Now that you have a clear picture of relationships between value, customer needs, costs and technology. You are in a better position to innovate either by: 1. Brainstorming 2. Planning an ideo style shopping cart workshop 3. Edward deBono creativity tools 92
  • 94. 93 Need hot-milk ready for breakfast Need to bake a birthday cake Innovation Matrix Example Appliances that make you feel better Melting Defrost Alert FastHeating Magnetron Human need for feedback IC / Timer Antenna Radio Frequency basic tech Timer Need to save time Metal Bell IC Sound Engineering LCD need for mobility Market Needs Wants - - - Product function - - - Technology - - - Field ? Faraday Cage Healthy diet Abridged from Hugo’s workshop 2006
  • 95. Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Microwave Workshop 94 94 Team A Matrix day one
  • 96. 95 Team A Matrix day two (some reordering, new relations)
  • 97. Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Microwave Workshop 96 96 Light and oven window seem two unrelated technologies in an oven. However, they serve a common need: The need to check for mistakes! Aha! Functional Innovation example Cost of (Window +Light) > Cost of (X)? Consider the cost of a window + light. Their sole purpose is now clear. Can X do their function better, cheaper? Lets find X!
  • 98. 97 IM can help clarify why people buy your product Team B Matrix day one
  • 99. 98 Team B Matrix day two, (Now on a more practical horizontal position)
  • 100. 99 Key point IM can help you clarify relationships between your product and your customers. “Why they buy.” < Aha Did you know some people buy microwaves because they don’t have space for an oven?
  • 101. 100 ? now 1967 1923 Wa l k m a n / i Po d t h i n k i ng
  • 102. Chapter 4 > Case Studies > The Microwave Workshop 101 Prototypes Back-up man Reflection 160 minutes of IM activity helped clarify what the product is about. However, when it came to propose new designs doing actual prototyping job gave students a renewed energy. They prototyped ideas that could / had not imagined at all while doing brainstorming in step 3 IM. (But, we knew that from Tim Brown’s book, there are some things that can only be explained by doing a physical prototype) Students’s Reflection Comparing IM to the ideo method, they both do the same “work”. Obviously, IM is systematic and more rational. Ideo does what IM does without realizing that what they do is a mapping. On the other side, IM does not take into account team work dynamics, layout or process. Combining both seems to be promising. Innovation Matrix + Ideo Workshop method ___________________ Rational & creative product design process 101
  • 103. 102 What functional is all about Outdated GUI Heating box Externalized GUI
  • 104. 103 ppl buy microwaves to save time. Does this GUI really help you save time? Some ppl buy microwaves to save space. But only 1% of dishes are square!? ppl buy microwaves to heat something, not to heat something during-a-certain- amount-of-time. more functional thinking examples Wasted footprint Mi crowave s have b e ll s to f u l f i l l a function, what is a more functional “bell”? ?
  • 105. Chapter 4 >Case Studies >Applying Five Whys to boost R&D 104 ►Tokyo Institute of Technology. Tokyo, Japan. Case: How we used Five Whys to solve a wicked problem and to boost R&D Wicked. Back in 2005 I was a PhD candidate at TokyoTech. One day in a meeting, my supervisor told me that Dr. Hirose (lab next door) had asked him if our lab could build a better climbing robot for the police. I said: “We can do it!” ----- (I had never climbed before and let alone no idea how to make a robot climb either)
  • 106. Chapter 4 > Case Studies >Applying Five Whys to boost R&D 105 A wicked problem In 2005, I was a PhD candidate at Tokyo Institute of Technology. I had just randomly read a famous article from Nature. The article had clarified for the first time how gecko’s can hang on walls. A guy in the USA had cut a gecko toe and had confirmed that gecko use a force of adhesion called Van Der Waals: a kind of micro level electrostatic force. (Autumm, 2002) Incredible but true: Until that year 2000 no one in the whole adhesive industry had cared to investigate that wonder of nature. So I printed the article. Incidentally, I had been reading about 5S and 5Whys. So I spent over a week with my colleague Mr. Obata asking Why Why Why those hairs are triangle base shaped. Why? To me it made no sense from a cost benefit analysis perspective unless, of course there was a good reason ... but the problem was that we could not guess what was the reason nor the function or purpose of such impossible shape. Using Five Why Anyway we decided to apply the Five Whys and after about two weeks and reading many papers we came across a paper that measured how much energy a gecko spent climbing. It turned out that geckos spend very little energy when climbing walls (according to R. Full lab at Stanford). Bang! Could it be that the triangle shape was related to energy expenditure? That was the number one suspect, but How? Well, the obvious course of action would be to make hairs of different shapes and see which one more efficient, but how to make them? Micro fabricating is expensive even if you are in Tokyo. Dead end. In another paper we read that when gecko walks they detach each foot by peeling. This made sense: peeling a scotch tape 105 Gecko foot close up. Autumn et al. PNAS. September 17, 2002, vol. 99 no. 19. 12255. Triangle shapes! Why?
  • 107. Chapter 4 > Case Studies >Applying Five Whys to boost R&D 106 from a wall is easier than detaching a strip all at once. So what we had according to the energy efficiency hypothesis is: △ hair + peeling motion ⇒ more efficient than other shapes such as ⃝ base. How to check if the triangle hairs are more efficient than circular ones? Since the assumptions so far were purely mechanical, (and we had no other means), we decided that this principle should hold true regardless of the attraction force type: magnetic, gravity, electrostatic... Since we didn’t have enough funds (only $6000 from Titech VBL) to build a Van der Waals based prototype we decided to go with magnetic force (Force substitution hypothesis). From basic mechanics we also knew that whatever principle was favoring a triangle shape it should scale with size too. From here we build magnetic prototypes of gecko foot with about 100 hairs. 106 Depiction of force Moments at play when detaching a gecko hair. (Berengueres, 2007). © IOP Publishing. Reproduced by permission of IOP Publishing. All rights reserved. Triangle shapes. Why? Why? Must be easier to detach by peeling motion (Energy efficiency hypothesis) Why? Footprint asymmetry decreases peak forces Aha! Energy efficiency in climbing systems is related to peak forces only! Wicked problem solved!
  • 108. Chapter 4 > Case Studies >Applying Five Whys to boost R&D 107 This was great because it was cheap and you could really see what was going on when it attaches and detaches from a wall. (iron only walls). We could see the mechanics, stresses, moments; we could feel the forces with our bare hands without using expensive machines. We tested the peeling motion, how it attaches and detaches and... The Aha! moment When the shape was triangular it turns out a hair is twice as easy to detach by peeling motion than if it is circular! As it turns out peak detachment force is a very good p r e d i c t o r o f c l imb i n g e n e r g y expenditure video. Reflection Thanks to 5Whys we produced about 7 papers, won a Materials Research Society prize, we were featured in Nature news and filed a patent. Using Analogy of cheap magnets instead of expensive Van Der Waals force is a typical creativity trick (analogy). If you are interested to be more creative Edward de Bono books explain the main creativity skills (lateral thinking, six thinking hats). However, 107 Comparison of two footprints by the minimum energy path. (Berengueres, 2007). © IOP Publishing. Reproduced by permission of IOP Publishing. All rights reserved. de Bono’s books pioneered thinking methods.
  • 109. Chapter 4 > Case Studies >Applying Five Whys to boost R&D 108 there is no substitute for persistence and serious work. A token: At the time I was sleeping in the lab 4 out of 7 days and showering in the university shower. A sign that you are on the right research track is when you find something that cannot be explained by common sense principles. Follow-up Soon after we decided to build Spiderman magnetic gloves. To do this we decided to use artificial deadlines to motivate us and add to the sense of crisis (Toyota). Deadlines worked very well for us. However, the best deadlines were the ones that are real, for example an IEEE IROS conference deadline. Another ideo/kaizen tool we heavily used was iterative prototyping. Even though it seems very wasteful to over prototype, rather than planning in big steps, we felt that it was the right way to do things, a little humble step every time. (See the fable of the Tortoise and the Hare.) Ken using gecko principles to climb as efficiently as possible. To date this is the most energy efficient, human-size climbing system ever developed. (Berengueres, 2006). © IEEE. 108
  • 110. Chapter 5: To Learn More Karen Endicott/Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth
  • 111. Links to Multimedia 1. Warm up #1 - Sir Ken Robinson on Creativity http:// w w w. t e d . c o m / t a l k s / ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity.html 2. Warm up #2 - Three ideo projects: Dilbert, Prada and Submarine by David Kelley: The future of design is human centered https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=eXndL3TNCmo 3. The Marshmallow challenge video h t t p : / / marshmallowchallenge.com/ 4. Charlie Rose interviews David Kelley for CBS 60 Minutes http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/? id=50138327n 5. Ideo Shopping cart project for ABC nightlife, www.youtube.com/embed/M66ZU2PCIcM 6. Charlie Rose/ BloombergTV follow up interview on ‘creative confidence’ book http://www.bloomberg.com/ video/-creative-confidence-charlie-rose-10-29- XkkPiqBVT16wi8VLB~EB3w.html 7. D. Kelley timeline by Bloomberg BusinessWeek, http:// www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-10-24/ideos-david- kelley-how-did-i-get-here 8. d.School 90 minute G i f t workshop, h t t p : / / dschool.stanford.edu/dgift/ 9. I d e o Wo r k s h o p To o l k i t p d f h t t p : / / designthinkingforeducators.com/ 10.How to interview http://dschool.stanford.edu/dgift/chart-a- new-course/ 11.Bandura Talk by Kelley http://www.ted.com/talks/ david_kelley_how_to_build_your_creative_confidence.h tml 12.Tina Seelig talk http://ecorner.stanford.edu/ authorMaterialInfo.html?mid=2266 13.Toyota the Global Story https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=T5zcCk-uF3g 14.Planeta Zara https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=ALPpvzgFElg 15.Cool down #1 Design & Thinking movie. This un flashy movie features interviews with Tim Brown and others in their own offices. http://designthinkingmovie.com/ 16.Cool down #2 Innovation by Design video. The Aspen I d e a s F e s t i v a l . 2 0 1 3 ( i Tu n e s U) h t t p s : / / itunes.apple.com/us/itunes-u/innovation-by-design/ id775460758?mt=10 Background Music for Workshops and sessions 17.Gift workshop http://dschoolmixtapes.blogspot.com/ 110 Chapter 5 > To Learn More > References
  • 112. 18.Course closing remarks. You can get it if you really want by Desmond Drekker https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/ made-in-dagenham-music-from/id402892850# Journal and Book References 1. Plattner, H., Meinel, C., & Leifer, L. (2014) Design Thinking Research. 2. Liker, J. K. (2004). The Toyota Way. 3. Elberse & Thomas Dye. (2012). Sir Alex Ferguson: Managing Manchester United. Harvard Business Publishing. 4. Meyers-Levy, J., & Zhu, R. J. (2007). The influence of ceiling height: The effect of priming on the type of processing that people use. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(2), 174-186. 5. Bowdon, T. B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing. 6. Magee, D. (2003). Turnaround: How Carlos Ghosn Rescued Nissan. HarperCollins. 7. Kelley, T., & Littman, J. (2005). The ten faces of innovation: IDEO’s Strategies for Defeating the Devil’s Advocate and Driving Creativity Throughout your Organization. New York: Double Day. 8. Brown, T., & Katz, B. (2011). Change by design. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 28(3), 381-383. 9. Berengueres, J., Alsuwairi, F., Zaki, N., & Ng, T. (2013, March). Gamification of a recycle bin with emoticons. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction (pp. 83-84). IEEE Press. 10. Berengueres, J. (2007). The Toyota production system re-contextualized. Lulu Enterprises UK Limited. 11. Berengueres, J., Urago, M., Saito, S., Tadakuma, K., & Meguro, H. (2006, December). Gecko inspired electrostatic chuck. In Robotics and Biomimetics, 2006. ROBIO'06. IEEE International Conference on (pp. 1018-1023). IEEE. 12. Autumn, K., Sitti, M., Liang, Y. A., Peattie, A. M., Hansen, W. R., Sponberg, S., ... & Full, R. J. (2002). Evidence for van der Waals adhesion in gecko setae.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(19), 12252-12256. 13. Blanco, X. R., & Salgado, J. (2004). Amancio Ortega, de cero a Zara: el primer libro de investigación sobre el imperio Inditex. La esfera de los libros. 14. Esslinger, H. (2009). A fine line: How design strategies are shaping the future of business. John Wiley & Sons. 15. Tadao, A. (1995). Tadao Ando: Complete Works. 16. Hsieh, T. (2010). Delivering happiness: A path to profits, passion, and purpose. Hachette Digital, Inc.. 111
  • 113. Acknowledgments This book would have not been possible without: Kenji Kurihara of Denso /Kentuky, who invited me to midnight undercover factory tours in Denso Kariya in 2007. Kunio Takahashi, Tokyo Institute of Technology, who invited me to visit Toyota factories with Toyohashi University. Ferran Pujol of McKinsey & Co. Chile, for awesome discussions about best lean practices. Antoni Elias Fuster, who organized the first Creativity and Innovation class at UPC Barcelona in 1999. Julie Grahame who provided artworks. Hasso Plattner, who provided reprints. Students of Design Thinking IBLC 124, whose experiences and enthusiasm are part of this book. Timothy Gus Hegstrom, dean of UAE University College, who supported this book. Tina Seelig, Executive Director Stanford Technology Ventures Program, who provided insightful comments. Hugo Tschirky, Professor Emeritus ETH Zurich, who taught me the Innovation Matrix method in Tokyo.
  • 114. Dr. Jose Berengueres joined UAE University as Assistant Professor in 2011. He received MEE from Polytechnic University of Catalonia in 1999 and a PhD in bio-inspired robotics from Tokyo Institute of Technology in 2007. He has authored books on: The Toyota Production System Design Thinking Human Computer Interaction UX women designers Business Models Innovation He has given talks and workshops on Design Thinking & Business Models in Germany, Mexico, Dubai, and California.